Sample Anthropology Essay Paper on Evolutionary History and Adaptation of the Mammalian Ear

            Early Amniotes among them the mammals did not have the eardrum, the eardrum therefore evolved through three to six times to achieve the current form. The synapsids (early mammals) the stape bone evolved to a massive structure that also supports the brain therefore preventing the brain from being part of the hearing organ. With continued evolution, the mammals developed an eardrum that connected the inner ear and the stape bone, this happened during the Permian evolution period. The stape evolved and met quadrate but they continued to function as an auditory organ rather than a brain support. Further, evolution modified the trerapsides, quadrate, and hudadial to function as part of the jaw and as part of the ear.

            The ear is divided into three parts; the outer ear, the middle ear and the inner ear. The outer ear comprises of pinna and auditory canal. The pinne is an aurticullar cartilage that is cone shape so that it can collect so much any sound waves and vibrations and transmit it through the auditory canal to the middle ear. It also has hair the helps in the trapping of dust and other small materials therefore preventing them from reaching the middle ear.

Fig 1. Buss

Evolution of the Human Vision System

The human vision organ is the eye. Through time, the eye has evolved to become adaptive to the changing environment. The early human eye had its predecessors made of eyeshots  photoreceptors, these are protein that are sensitive to light, therefore the early man could sense light and darkness.The eye distinguished color by the help of opsin surrounding the chromophore, which is a pigment that distinguishes color. The current human eye has evolved and the current structure is built upside down and in the backward direction. Therefore, for images to be formed, light has to pass through the cornea to the light sensitive rods which transforms the light intoimpulses. The impulses are sent to the back of the brain to be interpreted into understandable patterns. Trichromatic vision in human evolved when the early man changed from diurnal feeding (daytime) and begun feeding on leaver and other plant parts therefore requiring more precise vision.

Modern Human Brain

The human brain has evolved since the start of time. Like other organs, the brain had to evolve to adapt to the changing environment. The brain by the early man was relatively small, with time the brain has evolved to become a big structure with complex modifications (Buss 22). Migration and competition for resources made the size of the human brain to increase in size and increased in the ability to tackle issues that are more serious however, to be able to tackle this, the diet human had to change. The evolution enabled human to transform from the primitive primate animals into a civilized form with a definite communication language and culture.

Evolution of the Human Hand

The human arm has evolved through time, initially it was used as limbs but due to evolution several changes have occurred. The thumb has become longer, fingers and the palm have become shorter and the fingers too have straightened due to reduced grasping of objects (Buss 78).

 Human locomotors Adaptation

The use of legs for long distance movement has reduced. Limb muscle has reduced and the size of the legs has reduced. The speed of each limb has also significantly reduced and the walking style has changed to adapt to the modern time (Buss 45).

Ways Human Adjust Personal Behavior Pattern and Lifeway’s to Put Body and Mind in Better Accord

Human life has evolved, not only in biological aspect but also in other aspects of life. This changes ranges from what we eat, our lifestyle, the games we play, how we work and most specifically how we spent our leisure time. All this behavioral patterns have a great influence in our life in terms of how we think and in our body. As human beings, we need to change our behavioral aspects and lifestyle to adaptive ways in order to put our body and minds in better accord with what evolutionary anthropologist have discovered. The following are the ways we can adjust our behavioral patterns and life ways;

Get enough sleep at least 7 hours

Getting enough sleep of at least 7 hours each night is vital for our health (Moos 67). Many metabolic functions in our bodies take place when we are asleep. It is also the very important time for our body to get rest, cooldown,and recharge. During this time of sleep is also when our unconscious body and mind are actively working. Failure to get enough sleep we suffer from sleep deficiency, which as effect on mental well-being, mood, and health. Various studies have shown that not only sleep improves memory it also increases awareness and boosts creativity.

Good Habit Increases the Quality of Life

To improve the quality of life this is by adopting the good habits. This only happens when you eliminate the bad habits and device the good habits. The formed good habits will boost the level of our happiness, health, vitality, and leisure. For example, you can employ to smile when stressed. Studies have shown that people who smile when stressed have lower heart rates after. The act of spreading and connecting love has an overall booster to our level of happiness. Taking a phone call and telling someone how much you appreciate him or simply listening to what he has to say and extending a word of gratitude to someone. You will be surprised what this habits will have an impact in your overall happiness and leave a much better life.

Health habits

These are vital daily habits, which needs critical attention to improve our daily health as opposed to long-termhealth habits. For instance, taking breakfaster is very important for our health. Studies have shown that women who skip breakfast once a week stand a greater risk of suffering Diabetes Type II (Moos 43). Also by taking breakfast, studies have shown that men stand at a lower risk of suffering heart diseases. Therefore, taking breakfast is very important. Exercising every single day improves our daily health habit. Studies have shown that exercising not only improves weight loss but also minimizes the chances of suffering from heart attack and diabetes. Water is also very vital for efficient metabolic body functioning. An average of 60% of the Human body constitutes water where 73% of water is composed in brain and mind. People often do not take enough water. Generally, people tend to get water from sugary sodas, juice, coffee, and other un-healthy drinks. For good health habits, men should take approximately 3 Liters of water and women 2 Liters (Moos 17).

Eating balanced diet is very important for our body functioning and mind. Getting proper minerals and vitamins in our meals improves our health status. Ensure every day to take a supplement that will provide the sufficient vitamins and minerals for our body.

Works Cited

Buss, David M. The evolution of desire: Strategies of human mating. New York: Basic Books, 2003.

Moos, Rudolf H. Human adaptation: Coping with life crises. ‎Lexington, MA: Heath, 1976.