Research Paper Writing Help on Engineering of Polymers

Engineering of Polymers

Introduction

A chemical reaction called polymerization is the basis of polymer production. The word polymer finds its origin from Greek, where “poly” means many and “mer” means part. Therefore, this can be literary used to mean many different parts combined to form a single unit. Polymer is formed through combination of many small molecules referred to as monomers. The chemical process that is involved in formation of polymer involves repetitive chemical bonding of single monomers to form a large molecule, which is referred to as a polymer. Most polymers have largely linear chains that are entangled and randomly coiled with other neighboring chains. However, functional polymers have reactive functional groups that are capable of participating in other chemical processes without destroying the original polymeric unit. Star-like and highly branched polymers are associated with significantly lower melt viscosities than linear polymers with the same molecular weight (Bubnova et al 9).

Development in Polymer Manufacturing

There is great development in the manufacture of polymeric materials, which includes polystyrene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polyethylene, and thermoplastic polyester. These polymers are used for different functions, which include making packaging materials, building and construction materials, furniture and furnishing materials, electrical equipments, consumer and institutional products, and transport equipments.

Polymers, which are highly branched with branch points at every sub unit, are referred to as dendrimers. They are normally synthesized through controlled and convergent growth to form a compact, spherical, and well-defined shape. There are exiting new applications for the dendrites, which include use as nanoscale reactors, polymetric catalyst particle, molecular mimics of micelles, and delivery agents for magnetic resonance imaging components, gene therapy, and immune-diagnostics. Particle shape and size control is an important aspect in handling properties and solids flow, which are important aspect in polymer processing. Polymer technology has great focus on how to manipulate certain elements within the polymers to come up with better products. Composite materials or adhesives are made using intermolecular coupling rather than using covalent bonds. Non-covalent bonding which is used to link polymeric materials has become necessary manufacturing process used to create different adhesive product that are used in automobile, and building and construction industry. The processes involved in the creation of these noncovalent materials include intermolecular interactions, such as hydrophobic interaction, hydrogen bonding, and electrostatic interaction.

The current advancement includes controlled molecular processes, which involves, control of molecular architecture, and increase in catalysis activity and appropriate weight distribution to improve the polymer properties (Bubnova et al 10). Production of polyethylene majorly involves control of numbers, length, and placement of branches in the recurring methylene unit structure. Formation of Polypropylene involves managing crystallizable, isotactic placement of the unit propylene. Through manipulation of the sub units and monomers forming the polymers, manufacturers come up with polymer products of different qualities, which can be hard, light, heavy, flexible, and with special optical, thermal, and electrical characteristics. In order to produce polymers that has improved melt flow characteristic, the following process can be considered. Mix an aromatic monomer that has fluorphthalimed reactive group (ABn) and silylated phenols in high boiling, polar, aprotic solvent with a catalytic amount of cesium fluoride to produce a high molecular weight polymer. Further modifications can be done to produce a polymer that has physical characteristics dominated by endgroup functionalities.

The demand for quality polymeric product has pushed the polymer engineers to seek better alternative methods of coming up with high quality synthetic products that can be used for various engineering purposes. Static mixing technology is one of the methods that is currently used to manufacture strong polymeric products in the industries. Static mixers help in homogenization process in order to ensure uniform distribution of properties within the products. If substances are not appropriately mixed, the properties of the product will vary and affect the entire quality of the product. Strength of material is a key concern in making engineering product and therefore appropriate mixing of materials cannot be overlooked.

One of the greatest challenges in the construction of polymeric materials is the production of uniform sub units. Historically, the synthesis of hyper-branched monomers has been difficult with high costs involved. However, new technology has seen the production of hyper-branched monomers that are able to withstand severe thermal, mechanical, and chemical conditions like oxidation. In order to come up with one molecular unit having desirable properties, the subunit must be made in with high level of precision in controlled processes. Perfect uniformity is always desirable in engineering applications.

Conclusion

Polymers have become vital material in the modern engineering, in many different applications, which includes; building and construction, electrical equipments, packaging materials, furniture and furnishing materials, automobile industry, electrical equipments, consumer and institutional products, and transport equipments. The basic technology, which is used in the architecture of polymers, involves controlled processes, involving manipulation of monomers in particular manner and sizes to create certain characteristics. Particle shape and size are manipulated to come up with products that can serve different purposes. Polymer engineer are seeking more techniques that can alter the production of polymers to ensure better products. There are great developments in the modern science that has lead to desirable products from polymerization.

Work Cited

Bubnova, S. V., et al. “The Polymerisation of Isoprene with Catalysts Based on Neodymium 2-Ethylhexyl Phosphate.” International Polymer Science and Technology 41.9 (2014): T9-T12. ProQuest. Web. 7 Apr. 2015.