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Gene technology and Stem cell Review

In 1859, Charles Darwin published a book on the origin of species, in which he proposed the continual evolution of species. It was later in 1869 that the first DNA was segregated by Miescher Friedrich. Mitosis was later observed by Walter Flemming in 1895, one of the earliest cytologists to point out how chromosomes shift during mitosis. He coined the terminologies used in the progression of cell division. In the 1900s, the chromosome theory of heredity was observed in cell division through a process called meiosis. The theory was coined by Walter Sutton, augmenting to Mendel’s law of heredity. It was not until 1909 that the word “Gene” was coined by botanist Wilheim Johannsen.  Mutation in enzymes was discovered by George Beadle who discovered that genes mutate when exposed to x-rays in 1941, confirming the “one gene, one enzyme” theory. In 1943, X-ray diffractions revealed the atomic structure of DNA as regular and periodic like a pile of “pennies”. In the 1950s, the DNA double Helix structure was discovered, alongside the 46 human chromosomes and chromosome abnormalities were identified (Genome.gov, 2015).   

Genetic Code was cracked in the 60s and in the 70s, DNA sequencing was discovered with the first Animal gene cloned in 1973. The first genetic engineering company was formed in 1976 and Introns discovered. The first human genetic map was created in the 80’s, and the first GenBank database formed. The second human genetic map was created in 1992. In 1996, Human DNA sequence began and in the twentieth century, Rat, chicken and chimpanzee genomes were sequenced (Genome.gov, 2015). The future of human genome project’s future is dazzling because it will aid develop comprehensible catalogue of the components in the human genome. The project will also help determine how the genome-embedded components are integrated to perform organismal and cellular functions. The project will also help identify the roles of genes in disease and health, determining how they interrelate with environmental factors.

References

Genome.gov. (2015). National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) – Homepage. Web. 18 Feb 2015. Retrieved from http://www.genome.gov/