Psychology Sample Essay on Theories of Personality

Theories of Personality

In this project, a Type A vs. type B personality questionnaire was developed with 8 questions that were answered and analyzed. Developed by Ray Rosenman and Meyer Friedman, Type A and Type B personality theory plays a significant role in establishing the personality type can lead to heart disease and stress by evaluating different daily activities that reflect individual personality traits. The answers to each of the questions were rated in a scale of 1 to 5. Type A is usually linked with a high score whereas Type B is linked with a low score. In this case, a score below 20 would classify the subject as one with Type B, whilst from 20 to 40; the subject would have Type A personality. 

 The questions in the questionnaire were:

  1. How organized are you?
  2. How stressful is your life?
  3. How impatient are you when waiting in line?
  4. How easy going are you?
  5. Do you stress over deadlines?
  6. How competitive are you?
  7. How often do you procrastinate?
  8. Do you achieve the goals you set for yourself?

Inter-rater reliability was assessed by having 4 people who responded to my questionnaire. The four were randomly selected from a list of individuals close to me. Hence I used a convenience sample. That is, the participants who could be assessed using the time, resources and supported accorded to me during the time of the research. The people were Sarah (my best friend), Hassan (a close friend), Lulu (an acquaintance), and Bilal (my brother).  Given that inter-rater reliability is realized when the same answer is achieved from different persons when using the same assessment, it is imperative to note that inter-rater reliability was achieved. For example, Hassan (23352323) and Lulu (33133334) scored the same (23) meaning that the questionnaire had a high inter-rater reliability.

The respective results of the 8 questions were also presented. On the other hand, I filled out my questionnaire for at least 2 time points to assess test-retest reliability.  For example, I took the test when I had a lot of work (34233223) and when I had less work (34132223). Based on the findings, the cumulative scores were different for each of the two occasions which is an indication of low test-retest reliability.

Regarding the validity of the questionnaire, the questions used were well-formulated and defined addressing the major personality behaviors and personality developed by Ray Rosenman and Meyer Friedman. Validity is also realized when a questionnaire accurately measures what is supposed to measure. For instance, in this case, the questionnaire was designed to accurately measure personality traits would be used to analyze type A and type B behavior. Reliability was further enhanced by the sampling method of choice: random sampling from a list of identified individuals.

Summary of the Findings

            The findings of the assessment where  Sarah (my best friend): 24242214 (25),  Hassan (a close friend):23352323 (23),  Lulu (an acquaintance):33133334 (23), Bilal (my brother):44344223  (26), Me (when I had a lot of work):34233223 (22), and Me (when I had a less work):34132223 (20).  Although the findings have different cumulative sums, the results are all 20 and above. Based on the findings, all the sums were between 20 and 40, which implied that I have Type A personality.  Under type A personality, the individual is usually preoccupied with accomplishments in life, social status, and self-esteem. It also implies that I’m not only domineering, but also prone to quick anger and impatient.  It also means that I have the ability to multi-task perform duties and perform beyond par. The results have also indicated that I am on constant race to achieve set goals, which means that I cannot rest before the set goals are achieved. Thus, when I have the goals, I feel inspired by life. From a personal perspective, I usually find it hard to admit failure and where other people fail, I do not. I work hard to achieve my personal goals and for this time, taking time to relax is very difficult.

            In terms of competitiveness, I am competitive and I rarely procrastinate and tress to achieve set deadlines. Being a person with a Type A personality I often experience a constant sense of urgency. When waiting in line, it tent to be less impatient, which means that to some extent, I am always in a continuous tussle against the clock. Also, as Type A personality assessment, I become impatient with unproductive time and delays. However, I manage my time very well and in a systematic time. Generally, being a Type A personality, the behaviors exposed me to makes me more susceptible to stress-related illness, including raised blood pressure and fatigue.

A Brief Summary of Conclusions

The data collection process was a success and data was collected using a Type A vs. type B personality questionnaire. The questionnaire has 8 questions that revolved around a Type A vs. type B personality traits. In addition, the questionnaire was reliable and valid as explained in terms of inter-rater reliability whereby inter-rater reliability was realized by having same results. Regarding test-retest reliability, the study had low test-retest reliability, because of different cumulative scores

The questionnaire’s primary strength was the ability to obtain rich quantitative data that was helpful in providing an analysis on the findings of the study. In addition, the questionnaire provided reliable and valid results because it was designed to measure what it was designed to measure, which was Personality A and Personality B. The questions were designed based on the parameters provided by Ray Rosenman and Meyer Friedman. Given that the questionnaire had only 8 questions, it implies that it was easy for the participants to complete and answer the questions on time. In addition, it was not time consuming to analyze the data and I took less time in collecting and analyzing the data. The questionnaire other than being simple, it created room for expressing my personal feelings, hence the results provided.

The limitation of the questionnaire was that it had only eight questions which was the minimum number of questions required. For a future questionnaire, a minimum of 15 questions would be listed to provide a bigger a spectrum for the analysis. This is because more than 8 questions would allow me to optimize on the personality-related aspects.

The results were

On a scale of 1 to 5 How organized are you?

How stressful is your life?

How impatient are you when waiting in line?

How easy going are you?

 Do you stress over deadlines?

How competitive are you?

How often do you procrastinate?

Do you achieve the goals you set for yourself?