Borderline Personality Disorder
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) denotes a psychological problem that may occur in adolescents or young adults. Borderline personality disorder affects about six percent of the entire population each year (Choi-Kain, Albert, & Gunderson, 2016). The American Psychiatric Association attributes the cause of the disorder to three major factors, which include environmental, serotonin, and hereditary abnormalities. Research on the relationship between twins and borderline personality disorder implies that there is an excellent probability that it is genetic. Personality attributes, for instance, impulsivity and hostility, witnessed in the disorder amid other problems might as well be genetic. Moreover, being raised in an unstable or negligent setting might lead to or be an aspect in the development of the disorder. Irregularities in serotonin, a mood regulating hormone, generation might make a person vulnerable to the development of borderline personality disorder. BPD is depicted by incidences of mental unsteadiness, impulsive conduct, fuzzy self-imaging, and unsound associations.
Diagnosis and Characteristics
Borderline personality disorder was first diagnosed in 1980. From that time, the disorder group has been employed so broadly that 10% to 20% of patients with psychiatric problems are provided with the diagnosis though it is approximated to occur in 6% of the population. Approximately 60% of the patients with the disorder are females (Biskin & Paris, 2012). A mixed group of people that obtain the diagnosis are found to share some traits such as unstable personal connections, risks of self-destructive conduct, impulsivity, a chronic scope of cognitive distortions, and dread of desertion. Strong clinging dependence, as well as manipulation, typifies the interpersonal dealings of the people with the disorder, which makes interrelations extremely hard. Such individuals appear to desire dependent and select affiliations with others.
The inclination for dependence is evident to individuals who perceive but are intensely denied by the person with BPD. As an element of the intense denial, such people undervalue or dishonor the importance and personal worth of others (Choi-Kain et al., 2016). This could at times take the nature of excessive anger when the other individual, interacting with the person who has borderline personality disorder, sets restrictions on the association or the moment they are just about to part. The people with the disorder employ manipulative conducts to sway the interrelations, for example, complaining regarding physical indications and making or issuing suicidal threats.
Effects of the Disorder
BPD represents a psychological problem that has the impact of developing considerable mental unsteadiness. This may result in a range of other stressful emotional and behavioral disorders. Having the disorder makes it likely to have a significantly faulty, unclear self-image and sentiments or worthlessness. Impulsivity, fury, and mood instabilities may push other people away, despite their desire for a long and friendly relationship (Biskin, 2013). BPD may influence the manner in which the individual feels about himself/herself and others over and above the way they interact with other people and their conduct. Nevertheless, if an individual is diagnosed with the disorder, he/she is not supposed to feel hopeless since there is a possibility of getting better after treatment and the person can lead a fulfilling life.
Self-destructive conducts are evident in people with borderline personality disorder and are often referred to as “the behavior specialty.” Drug overdose, self-mutilation, and suicidal ideations are frequent in people with BPD. Research has established that in a period of close to 30 years, about 10% of individuals with the disorder commit suicide and approximately 8% die in other ways (Choi-Kain et al., 2016). Currently, bulimia has turned out to be a widespread suicidal approach. Such conducts demand a saving reaction from other individuals. People with the disorder have also been established to pose a burden on law enforcement officers and health professionals. The self-destructive actions mainly witnessed in such patients are an unintentional overdose, substance abuse, promiscuity, suicidal ideations, and self-mutilation. They may as well suffer chronic sentiment of worthlessness. Other indications of the disorder include impulsive/risky conduct, unprotected sex, careless driving, gambling tendencies, and use of illicit drugs.
Self-destruction amid people with borderline personality disorder acts as an attribute which results in great discomfort in individuals who attempt to assist them. Therapists’ endeavors of helping such an endangered life are at times supported, only for the person with the disorder to dash the attempts with vicious actions of self-destruction. Sometimes therapists face excessive sentiments of responsibility for patients with the disorder (Biskin & Paris, 2012). Their efforts of offering support when the person attempts self-destruction might result in accountability for the life of the patient and contributions outside remedial sessions. Except when the controlling form of the reaction by the patient is disrupted in treatment provision, the circumstance might turn out to be impracticable. There is a need to make the patient aware that therapy cannot be changed by suicidal ideations and that he/she has to make efforts to comprehend the self-destruction urges. When the attempts fail, the threats of suicide recur, and the danger to the patient augments with the failure of therapy to respond at an opportune time.
Patients with borderline personality disorder have a powerful urge for interactions, and this makes them develop a chronic and long-term dread that the individuals to whom they are reliant will leave them. Such emotions are associated with their feelings of excessive terror the moment they are alone (Biskin, 2013). Patients with BPD tend to be obsessively social as a resistance approach against fear. Regardless of their inclination to social interrelations, most of their conducts drive others away, for example, their great resentment and demands, shiftiness, and impulsiveness to mention a few. People with BPD tend to address their stress through sexual promiscuity, involvement in aggression, and binge eating and chucking. Such patients express instability with rapid shifts to dejection and restlessness, which might last for just a short time. They may also demonstrate disturbance in their perceptions of individuality as they are dubious of their self-image, gender distinctiveness, ideals, objectives, and devotion. Sometimes BPD patients might have lasting sentiments of worthlessness or boredom and might be incapable of putting up with being away from other people.
Borderline personality disorder originally represented a marginal kind of schizophrenia. Studies affirm that people with the disorder account for the limit that borders mood and personality disorders. In most instances, BPD patients are found to have a family background of schizophrenia and mood disorders. Nevertheless, schizophrenic symptoms vary considerably from attributes of borderline personality disorders (Choi-Kain et al., 2016). Whereas the schizophrenic group comprises of symptoms such as superstition and illusions of possession of magical powers, the BPD class shows psychological signs that encompass emptiness, violence, and mental unsteadiness. Moreover, while schizophrenic patients prefer social seclusion, the ones with borderline personality disorder do not like being secluded. The value of diagnosis with borderline personality disorder in children is uncertain though severely disturbed kids usually satisfy its criteria. A high level of commonality has been found in people diagnosed with BPD, behavioral disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other personality disorders. BPD in children has been established to be heavily delinquent, unreceptive, assaultive, demanding, and petulant with the most discriminating aspect being incidents of psychotic thinking.
Biologically oriented medical professionals use a range of medications in treating people with borderline personality disorder. They encompass antidepressants, antianxiety drugs, and mood regulating medicines. Nonetheless, it has been found that medicine alone is faintly successful with patients seeking to improve from severely to a slightly impaired condition. Improvement after the application of medicine might occur in the nature of a decrease in unsteady moods and impulsive conduct. Combining numerous remedial practices might prove to be successful (Biskin & Paris, 2012). Having medication in conjunction with psychotherapy and the support of family members may be helpful in tackling the multiple problems of a person with borderline personality disorder.
BPD affects approximately 6% of the global population. The cause of the disorder has been attributed to three main factors, which encompass serotonin, environmental, and heritable abnormalities. Approximately sixty percent of the people with BPD are females. Rage and mood instabilities in people with the disorder push other people away, regardless of such patients’ desire for a long and sociable relationship. Self-destructive conducts, impulsivity, self-mutilation, emotional unsteadiness, drug overdose, and suicidal ideations are apparent in people with borderline personality disorder. Health professionals use a range of medications such as antidepressants, antianxiety drugs, and mood regulating medicines to treat borderline personality disorder. Combining several remedial practices such as medication, psychotherapy, and family backing have been found to be valuable in tackling the various problems in patients with borderline personality disorder.
Biskin, R. S. (2013). Treatment of borderline personality disorder in youth. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 22(3), 230. Retrieved from http://www.cacap-acpea.org/uploads/documents/Treatment_of_BPD_Biskin.pdf
Biskin, R. S., & Paris, J. (2012). Evaluating treatments of borderline personality disorder. Clinical Practice, 9(4), 425-437. Retrieved from http://www.openaccessjournals.com/articles/evaluating-treatments-of-borderline-personality-disorder.pdf
Choi-Kain, L. W., Albert, E. B., & Gunderson, J. G. (2016). Evidence-based treatments for borderline personality disorder: Implementation, integration, and stepped care. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 24(5), 342-356. Retrieved from http://www.sebastienbouchard.ca/pdf/Evidence_Based_Treatments_for_Borderline%20(APA,%202016).pdf