Philosophy Essay Paper on Inference and Assumption

Inference and Assumption

An inference is an act by a person where he or she concludes that a certain situation is true by comparing it to other situations that are known to be true. This is an indirect comparison that aims at establishing a harmonized situation by comparing two scenarios. On the other hand, an assumption is an act of taking things for granted. Something is considered an assumption in the event a conclusion is reached at with regards to previous experiences or knowledge that is unquestionable (Foundation for Critical Thinking, 2015)).

Difference between Inference and Assumption

There are several differences between an assumption and an inference. First, an inference is in most cases unequal simulation because it depends on comparison between two events while an assumption depends on previous observations that took place. The second difference is that an inference involves two occasions that are linked to one another by observation. An assumption is made depending on the current situation that reflects historical evidence on the same subject (Kohlas & Monney, 2012). For example, certain places may be demarcated because of their characteristics, such as theft, sorcery, and cruelty (Kohlas & Monney, 2012). If a person was to visit these areas, he or she is likely to encounter robbery cases or be robbed in the process. Lastly, an assumption is deliberate in the sense that it does not require critical thinking in determining the results of an incidence while inference requires the application of abstract thinking in an attempt of linking an activity to similar occurrences in the surrounding. 

I have made several inferences.  First, I started a charcoal business in a local market and inferred that it will materialize. Second, I also wrote a book about sinful acts inferring that readers would understand the message. Third, I received a strange phone call and inferred the person was a stalker, and forth, I entered into a business contract with a stranger inferring he will deliver up to the standards. The first inference I made about the charcoal business assumed that business undertakings would operate smoothly without any interruptions from the outside environment. On the second inference, the associated assumption was that the readers would relate the reading to their daily lives for better understanding of the incidences in the book (Kohlas & Monney, 2012). On the third event, the assumption was that stalkers use strange numbers to call people. Lastly, new contractors often work diligently, hence my assumption of entering into a binding agreement for supplies.

These inferences are divided into two sections that are proper and improper inferences. This is because some of them proved to be true while others did not see the light of the day. Proper inferences incorporate the flourishing of charcoal business and contracting with a new supplier. These two incidences proved to work as I intended in the inception stage. Thus, the assumption was true. On the contrary to the original ideas, the intended purpose of writing a book and receiving a call did not materialize, and turned out to be completely out of context; thus improper inferences. The reason behind this is that readers could not relate the writings to their own experiences and the call was from my uncle who bought a new line respectively.  This shows that an inference may not always result in a good assumption about a situation or an event.


Foundation for Critical Thinking. (2015, March 11). Distinguishing Between Inferences and Assumptions. Retrieved from

Kohlas, J., & Monney, P. (2012). Statistical Information: Assumption Based Statistical Inference. Lemgo: Heldermann.