Reliability and Validity of Data Collection Tool
Researchers require some fundamental basics when they are conducting their studies and researches. Quantitative researches deal with factual figures that provide empirical evidences via compiled mathematical data and statistics (Joppe, 2000). They provide experiential evaluation that presents numeric figures to proof a certain aspect or observation and test any hypothetical generalization. In light of this, the researcher should collect data that stipulates the instrument that is on focus. Therefore, reliability and validity of the data collected is very instrumental in conducting any quantitative research. Validity simply refers to the aspect of setting a tool to measure exactly what it is meant to measure and not to generalize facts. For example, in nursing a pain assessment tool to valid it should measure the pain intensity and not the patient’s anxiety. Joppe (2000) classify validity into content validity, criterion validity, and construct validity. In general, validity measures the overall aspects surrounding the data being analyzed linking the observations with the existing theory.
Reliability is the event where a study explains clearly the details that would seem enigmatic. In qualitative research, the observations are generalized unlike in the quantitative research where statistical evidence is given. Reliability also gives understanding of the data collected to avoid confusion. The fundamental purpose of a quantitative research is to evaluate a certain aspect clearing doubts of the information elicited (Joppe, 2000). The data collection tool should posses the features of reliability and validity to convince the reader that the research has empirical evidence. In most cases, quantitative research does not take side but elicit positivist towards one side by presenting an analytical criteria that has actual, objective, and resonate results. Therefore, reliability and validity are integral in data collection tools.
Joppe, M. (2000). The Research Process. Retrieved from: http://www.ryerson.ca/~mjoppe/rp.htm