- AMA survey on downsizing and assistance to displaced workers. New York: American Management Association, 1995. Print.
The survey aimed at investigating the trends of downsizing for the American Management Association members since 1990. It is observed that since the 1990 recession, firms have been restructuring at a steady rate and the change is not driven by the market demand but internal institutional demands.
- Ahmidjian, Christina L., and Partricia Robinson. “Downsizing and the de-institutionalization of permanent employment in Japan.” (2001): 1-58, Web.
This is a study that looks into the process of de-institutionalizing the Japanese permanent employment system and how it was replaced by downsizing the public listed companies. This study was done for the years 1990 to 1997 in Japan. It was found that downsizing was triggered by economic pressures and the process shaped by the social pressures and institutional pressures.
- Bruton, Garry D., J. Kay Keels, and Chris L. Shook. “Downsizing the firm: Answering the strategic questions..” Academy of Management Executive 10.2 (1996): 38-45. Print.
The journal has placed critical emphasis on analysis of the important aspects of downsizing and focuses on both its advantages and disadvantages. The authors acknowledge if it is done in the right manner and strategically it will benefit the firm.
- Cameron, Kim S. “Strategies for Successful Organizational Downsizing.” Human resource management 33.2 (1994): 189-211. Web.
This article studies and reports the results of the best practices adopted by thirty organizations that were engaged in downsizing at one time or another over a period of four years between 1987 to 1990. It also includes the effects, both positive and negative, of downsizing. From the study it was clear that one of the critical success factors for effective downsizing is an effective human resource management system.
- Cappelli, Peter. Change at work. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. Print.
Analyses recent research done on restructuring and changes at work in companies such as IBM and presents the effect that restructuring has on the organization. The book analyses how the employers and employees need to adapt to the changes and the important policy issues that need to be considered.
- Cascio, Wayne F.. “Downsizing: What do we know? What have we learned?.” Executive 7.1 (1993): 95-104. Print.
The journal explores the various mistakes that the management makes while downsizing and are therefore not able to accomplish the goals the downsizing was meant to achieve such as reduction of costs and increase in profits for the firm.
- Collins, Alan, and Richard I. Harris. “Downsizing and productivity: The case of UK motor vehicle manufacturing 1974-1994.” Managerial and Decision Economics 64 (1999): 32-38. Print.
The relationship of downsizing and productivity is investigated in relation to five motor vehicle manufacturing companies based in the United Kingdom between 1974 and 1994. It is established that downsizing negatively affects the existing employees and the management should assure them of their job security.
- Feldman, Daniel C.. “Managing careers in downsizing firms.” Human Resource Management 35.2 (1996): 145-161. Print.
It provides advice to managers on how to carry out best management practices during tough times such as while downsizing. The journal advises managers to consider several aspects, both within and outside the working environment.
- Feldman, Daniel C.. “Better practices in managing layoffs.” Human Resource Management 33.2 (1994): 239-260. Print.
The issue draws on eight case studies so as to come up with effective ways to lay off workers. This provides clear guidelines on the dos and don’ts while carrying out downsizing in any organization so as to avoid losing competent employees to rival firms.
- Alberts, David S.. “Rethinking Organizational Design for Complex Endeavors.” Journal of Organization Design 1.1 (2012): 14-17. Print.
The journal gives a different approach regarding restructuring. The focus is shifted to the employees. The article advises that any structuring should focus on the benefit that will accrue to the employees as a result of restructuring rather than to the shareholders and consumers as it has always been.
- “Healing the wounds: Overcoming the trauma of layoffs and revitalizing downsized organizations.” Long Range Planning 27.5 (1994): 161. Print.
Case studies on various companies are analyzed on how downsizing impacts on the employees. The study offers opinions on how to energize the company after downsizing as the employees who are left in the company usually feel insecure of their jobs.
- Milojević, Radenko, and Biljana Đorđević. “The stages of downsizing project.” Economics and Organization 2.1 (2003): 65-72. Web.
This paper explores the major stages that should be followed during a downsizing project in order to achieve the maximum possible benefits. It is concluded that downsizing has both positive and negative effects so other possible alternatives should be evaluated before deciding to downsize. However, if downsizing is very necessary, it should be well managed in order to yield the maximum possible benefit.
- O’neill, Hugh M., and D. Jeffrey Lenn. “Voices of survivors: Words that downsizing CEOs should hear..” Academy of Management Executive 9.4 (1995): 23-33. Print.
The existing employees, after any downsizing, are usually left with scars and left at the mercy of the managers as they believe that they will also be laid off and also face victimization from the managers. The journal advices the managers to make the existing employees feel comfortable with the working environment as it will give them the necessary confidence to work and also increase their productivity.
- Oliver Wyman Delta. “Managing the Organization Dynamics of Downsizing.” 1-10. Web.
This article is about the management of the dynamics of downsizing in order to yield the most significant economic benefits for the organization. A study of 288 companies that were downsizing found that more than half did not meet their cost reduction goals. Therefore, in order to mitigate the risks that come with downsizing, there is the need for effective management especially for the future effects.
- Schmitt, Achim, Stefano Borzillo, and Gilbert Probst. “Don’t let knowledge walk away: Knowledge retention during employee downsizing.” Management Learning 43.1 (2011): 53-74. Web.
This article evaluates the relationship that exists between downsizing of employees and the retention of knowledge. It provided a comprehensive framework that can be used to study this relationship and therefore resolved that it is important for the management to consider the risk of possible knowledge loss during downsizing.
- Simpson, Deborah, and Martyn Lowe. “How to Achieve Successful Downsizing: Human Resource Strategies to Prevent Organisational Disruption and Resistance to Change.” International Journal of Applied HRM 2.1 (n.d.): 1-9. Web.
This is a study on how change and specifically downsizing can be effectively done in order not to face any resistance to the change. It was found out that the damage caused by downsizing could be reduced by using the right human resource strategies that also touch on the psychology of the employees. This is by developing effective psychological contracts.
- Stahlman, E. J., R. E. Lewis, and T. L. Ross. “Workforce planning for reconfiguration and downsizing.” 17 (1993): 27. Print.
The book shifts the focus on the human management section of the organization. The book advises the human resource manager that they should be able adequately plan for the amount of labor force required rather employing at random then again shifting the focus in reducing the number through layoffs.
- TMS Consulting Pty Ltd. “WORKFORCE PLANNING WHEN DOWNSIZING.” 1-5. Web.
Workforce planning is frequently forgotten during downsizing, despite its importance. This paper examines the importances of workforce planning and how it helps to ensure that there is alignment of the downsizing strategies and the goals of the business. It was recommended that companies should employ workforce planning during downsizing in order to mitigate some of the risks experienced during the process.
- Tsai, Cheng-Fei, and Yu-Fang Yen. “A model to explore the mystery between organizations’ downsizing strategies and firm performance.” Journal of Organizational Change 21.3 (2008): 367-380. Web.
This paper has applied the Strategy Capabilities Concept to evaluate the effects of downsizing on the organizational performance. This conceptual paper was able to explain the relationship between certain variables. However, the relationship that exists between the performance of the firm and the strategies employed during downsizing was still not clearly found out.
- UCI Office of Human Resources. “Best Practices for Managing Layoffs.” (2004): 1-13. Web.
This article provides useful information to managers and supervisors that they can use to better lay off an employee. This is in an attempt to make the laying off process more humane. These practices touch on the initial communication, preparing for the meeting and any follow up needed both for the employee being laid off and the ones remaining.