Homework Writing Help on Krenskel Syndrome

Krenskel Syndrome

Part A

A new disease is currently on the rise across the globe and the person behind its discovery and identification is Irene Krenskel, a French physiology Professor. Krenskel identified the disease in a family pedigree during her work in a remote community in Indochina. The disease has ever since adopted the name ‘Krenskel’s Syndrome’. The syndrome is as a result of an inherited genetic mutation that leads to the walls of capillaries throughout the body becoming more permeable with increase in age. Apparently, the permeability of the walls of capillaries is low among young people and high among old people. The human body’s functionality is aided by the circulatory system, and one of the major elements in the system is capillaries. Capillaries are small such that it is impossible to see them without the use of a microscope (Porth, & Hannon, 2009). In contrast to other elements such as arteries and veins, that can be seen easily; capillaries have walls that are one to two cells thick. Owing to this fact, capillaries are so narrow that blood cells are forced to squeeze their way through during transportation of oxygen and nutrients around the human body. Normally, capillaries play an integral role of delivering oxygen and other nutrients in the blood to the body tissues (Porth, & Hannon, 2009). Apparently, Krenkel’s Syndrome has been found to result in some symptoms among human beings. The symptoms that are a result of the syndrome are haemoptysis, peripheral edema, and proteinuria. However, research shows that there are other symptoms such as esophagitis that could be as a result of Krenkel’s Syndrome.

We have to understand how Krenskel’s Syndrome leads to various symptoms in order to counteract its spread across the global population. Owing to the fact that Krenskel’s Syndrome was discovered recently, several individuals are unable to explain its effects on the human body. The syndrome only attacks capillaries and as stated earlier, these are sites through which oxygen and other nutrients carried by the blood are delivered to body tissues. They are spread throughout the body in the various body organs. For example, the kidney is a body organ with capillaries that facilitate the process of excretion. The property of the capillaries found in the kidney is that they have microscopic holes that enhance the passage of substances through their walls (Porth, & Hannon, 2009). The liver is the other body organ with capillaries that are coiled and this property facilitates the filtration of harmful or toxic materials from the blood. The brain also has capillaries though they do not have any holes because the functionality of the brain does not encourage the in and out movement of nutrients or oxygen. Other body organs that have capillaries include hands, lungs, and legs among others.

However, we should not forget that the structure of capillaries varies from one organ to another. The structure of the capillaries in the lungs is very different from the structure of the capillaries found in the kidney. The capillaries are structured in a way that they only allow the movement of nutrients and oxygen into the body tissues. If the permeability of capillaries increases, other substances other than oxygen and nutrients may move into and out of the capillaries. For example, an increase in permeability would allow the in and out movement of water particles and this would cause serious damages or complications. There is also a possibility that an increase in permeability would allow the movement of food particles into and out of the capillaries, and this would result in complications (Porth, & Hannon, 2009). Bearing this in mind, diagnosis of symptoms such as proteinuria, haemotypsis and peripheral edema should involve scrutiny and examination of capillaries of the organ involved.

Listed as one of the symptoms that may result from Krenskel’s Syndrome, haemotypsis is an unusual act where a person coughs up blood or mucus that is stained with blood (Parker & Sharma, 2008). How does Krenskel’s Syndrome lead to haemotypsis? Essentially, the organs involved in this case are the lungs. Lungs play an integral role in the breathing and respiration system. They are a pair of organs found in the human body that are elastic and spongy. Unless an individual’s body has deformed, the lungs are found in the chest cavity, and they are located on either side of the heart. During respiration, we inhale oxygen, which travels to the lungs. The lungs have thin-walled sacs known as alveoli that are surrounded by capillaries. The oxygen in the alveoli penetrated into the walls of the capillaries and is then transported to the heart which then pumps it to other parts of the body. When the permeability of the walls of the capillaries in the lungs increases, other elements such as blood will move out of the walls of the capillaries into the lungs. Due to the liquid nature of blood, an individual will be forced to cough up blood, and this symptom is known as haemoptysis. Therefore, during diagnosis of haemoptysis, physicians should carefully study the permeability of the capillary walls in the lungs.

Physiologists argue that peripheral edema is the other symptom that could result from Krenskel’s Syndrome. The symptom involves the swelling of tissues and this occurs especially in the lower limbs (legs). It is argued that the swelling is as a result of the accumulation of fluids in the lower limbs and this brings about complications in individuals (Lippincott & Wilkins, 2007). Long term effects include inability of an individual to walk. How does Krenskel’s syndrome lead to peripheral edema? The organs involved in this case are the lower limbs. They play an integral role in standing, walking, kicking, jumping, running, and other activities similar to those mentioned. Like other organs of the body, the functionalism of the lower limb requires nutrients and oxygen. Besides, materials resulting from respiration such as carbon dioxide need to be withdrawn from the limb. To enable the functionalism, the lower limb has blood capillaries that facilitate the movement of oxygen and nutrients into the tissues of the lower limbs. Carbon dioxide in the tissues of the lower limbs also penetrates into the capillaries and is transported to the lungs where it is released out of the body. If the permeability of the walls of the capillaries found in the lower limbs increases, there is a possibility that materials other than nutrients, oxygen and carbon dioxide may find their way into and out of the capillaries. For instance, an increase in permeability could result in water particles contained in the blood moving out of the capillaries into the body tissues found in the lower limbs. Continuous penetration of water particles out of the capillaries cause an accumulation of the particles in the body tissues in the lower limbs and this leads to the swelling of the tissues, a symptom known as peripheral edema.

Arguably, Krenskel’s Syndrome could also result in a symptom known as proteinuria, which is the availability or presence of serum proteins in excess in an individual’s urine (Schrier, 2010). The organ involved in this situation is the kidney. Physiologists argue that every human being, who functions normally, has two kidneys. They also describe the kidney as an organ that is key in the process of regulation as it removes excess organic molecules from the blood (Schrier, 2010). The kidney is essential in the urinary system and also in the process of homeostasis as it maintains acid-base balance, besides regulating blood pressure. They also play an integral role in blood filtration through the removal of wastes that dissolve in water and which may be diverted to the bladder causing complications. Like other organs, the kidney has blood capillaries that facilitate its functionalism. The soluble waste materials contained in the blood penetrate into the capillaries and are transported to the bladder in order to be stored waiting for release from the body. However, if the permeability of the walls of the capillaries found in the kidney increases, there is a possibility that other waste materials other than the soluble materials will penetrate into the capillaries. For example, the increased permeability may allow the penetration of protein particles into the capillaries. The protein particles will then be transported to the bladder waiting for release from the body in form of urine. An individual will then release urine with excess proteins, a symptom known as proteinuria (Schrier, 2010). Bearing this in mind, physicians should take into consideration Krenkel’s Syndrome when diagnosing individuals with the symptom of proteinuria.

Part B

Physiologists argue that apart from the symptoms discussed such as proteinuria, haemoptysis and peripheral edema, there are other several symptoms that result from Krenskel’s Syndrome. Esophagitis is the other symptom caused by Krenskel’s Syndrome. The major organ involved in this case is the esophagus. Esophagitis is a symptom that involves the inflammation of the esophagus because of continuous accumulation of fluids (Carr & Watson, 2011). How does Krenskel’s Syndrome cause esophagitis? The esophagus is a body organ that plays an integral role in the digestive system of carrying food, liquids, and saliva from the mouth to the stomach (Carr & Watson, 2011). The esophagus has capillaries which extract nutrients from the blood into its tissues in order to facilitate growth. An interference with the capillaries, whereby there is increase in permeability would result in complications. If the permeability of the capillaries in the esophagus increases, it is highly likely that other materials other than nutrients, such as fluids contained in the blood will move out of the capillaries and accumulate in the esophagus. Continuous accumulation of fluids will result in the inflammation of the esophagus, a symptom known as esophagitis (Carr & Watson, 2011). Research shows that esophagitis makes it hard for people to swallow food particles, saliva, and fluids. In addressing esophagitis, physicians should carefully examine the permeability of the capillaries found at the wall of the esophagus.

References

Carr, S., & Watson, W. (2011). Eosinophilic esophagitis. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol, 7(Suppl 1), S8.

Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2007). Assessment. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Parker, R., & Sharma, A. (2008). General medicine. Edinburgh: Mosby.

Porth, C., & Hannon, R. A. (2009). Porth pathophysiology: Concepts of altered health states. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Schrier, R. W. (2010). Renal and electrolyte disorders. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.