History Essay Paper on American Horizons

American Horizons

This paper will apply the knowledge from two books; American Horizons and Reading American Horizons to answer two questions.

  1.  How and why did the introduction of European trade and religious practices change North America and Native American societies in the period from 1492 to 1640?

In order to comprehend how the introduction of the European trade and religious practices transformed the American societies, it is important to note that in the list of the most Native American lifestyle that conquistadors explained, successive types of economic and social organizations were the cornerstone of civilization as pointed out by anthropologists. To comprehend why the introduction of the European trade and religious practices transformed the American societies, it is paramount to know how America was colonized by its natives and secondly the Europeans arrival (AH, 1). Historians and ethnographers have analyzed that varied traditions were interfered with after 1492. Prehistory further explains the Americans disastrous perceptivity to the contemporary arrivals. By broad generalization, some philosophical principles may denote a quality portion of the native culture.

In relation to European religion, most American Indian religions preached that human beings are encompassed in a multi-dimensional cycle. A single clue to comprehend this belief is to remark that their gods had and still have several aspects of the integrated world. As expected and widely believed, prayer calls for proper adjustment or harmony; qualities that are valued all the same in social life. However, this does not indicate that amity was or is still vindicated; but rather, the physical and moral ecological dichotomy is less highlighted than in European culture. On the other hand, just a few Native Americans, by contrast, are very concerned with the individuated person. Both communal and personal life is frequently viewed as an expedition along which the human race increasingly articulates, but possibly adrift from one another. Therefore, the primary goal, as we learn, is to compensate by acknowledging the physical and social dependence from which we originated (AH, 2).

Moreover, the history of Native America since 1492 is characterized by the contention of civil and human rights, rebellion, revivalism, and rejection (AH, 2). On their way to Indian villages, tourists were at times shocked to find barriers across their path, resulting from the belief that voluntary apartheid was a pro-longed strategy in most communities. Calls for revival began since time in memorial. For example, the Peru ailing dance prophesied God’s rejection and Spain by the small ‘gods’ in 1560s. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the North American prophets promised the whites would vanish if only they adhered to revive their traditions (AH, 7). However, these movements were not effective enough when contrasted to the measures and movement campaigned by the Europeans, through the adoption of European political and legal methods to support economic, personal, and communal rights. For instance, the western Bolivia has witnessed litigation for quite some centuries, and there are battles in courts over land claims in both the North and Western America; all being attributed to issues on religion. The European action also portrays a thin tradition; for instance, embark on some of the earliest figures, such as churchmen, Rodger Williams, and Quiroga.

In relation to European trade, agriculture is a prominent factor, since it interferes with the environment occupied by society through species selection within its vanity. Agrarian communities should, therefore, be conscious about enemy jealousy and drought; that are in most cases acute for less specialized life (AH, 8). The American farming prehistory provides an insight of intrusive difference for the old world normal account. Crop cultivation commenced roughly around 700 BC. However, small scale garden slowly improved to agricultural landscape. Owing to these facts, at least three technical reasoning is arrived at. The first reason would be that the earliest garden in America did not exclusively major on staple foods. Some the crops they cultivated were among them chilli, which they planted as a condiment and guards, which was planted as vessels.

The second reason would be that some essential plants, such as maize had to pass through several anatomic changes before they were regarded to be productive. Thirdly, apart from the Andean camelids, Americans lacked animals that were suitable for the purposes of haulage and herding. Moreover, three sets of agricultural complexes were observed by the Europeans in America with maize being the most diffused, squash, and beans (AH, 10). However, farming was not the only condition for chiefdoms. In South America, fishing was the primary trading activity and the main source of nutrition for the huge families of the North West Coast. Groups with high social ranks and huge sedentary systematically lived by hunting, fishing, and gathering. However, unlike other groups, which the Europeans encountered, this community was not completely sedentary.

  • How and why was the period from1640 to 1730 a time of conflict in North America?

In North America, 1640 was marked by beaver/Iroquois wars. This war was characterized by several conflicts. The Iroquois were prompted and furnished by their business partners, English and Dutch, to increase their land region and engross the fur trade between the Western tribe lakes region and the European markets. The confederation nations of Iroquois were ruled by Mohawk, but were spared from the war against the Algonquian tribes from the Great lakes region (RAH, 3).

These wars were immensely severe and were regarded the worst conflict episodes in the North America’s history. The Iroquois succeeded in the battle, expanded their territory, and realigned the geographical tribal of North America after destroying most enormous confederacies, such as the Shawnee, Huron, Erie and Neutral just to list a few (RAH, 5). Additionally, the successors also relocated some Eastern tribes to Southern Carolina or to the West of Mississippi River. These two communities that engaged in this battle were greatly affected. The war lessened Iroquois lost their Dutch partners in New Netherland colony.

The Great Awakening was yet another period of war that took place in 1730. It was a renewal and biblical movement, which resulted in high deaths to most American colonies, British America, and the Protestant Europe. This war culminated from robust ministration, which equipped believers with a deep individualistic revelation about their Savior. This war had a permanent scar on the American Protestantism. This evangelical movement was an event of social monument in New England (RAH, 7). This was a challenging factor to the established authority and provoked division and acrimony amongst the revivalists and the traditionalist Protestants. Traditionalist Protestants insisted on the progressive implication of dogma and ritual, while revivalists on the other hand encouraged the evolvement of emotions. This war had a significant impact, in that they reshaped the current church denominations.

Works Cited

Bolton, Herbert Eugene. Wider American horizons. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 19671939. Print.

Schaller, Michael. Reading American horizons: primary sources for U.S. history in a global context. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. Print.