Effectiveness and Safety of Intensive Blood Pressure-Lowering Strategies
The two-sample t-test statistical analyses were used in the study; these are shown in the comparison of the two study groups regarding the primary traits and critical safety results. The analysis of primary and secondary results was performed using time-to-event approaches according to the intention to treat principle. Here, death rates are stated as a percentage of events per follow-up year, considering the censoring of monitoring data. The outcomes of primary and secondary data occurrences of the two study groups were compared with the use of ninety-five percentage confidence interval and the hazard ratio (ACCORD Study Group, p 17).
The ordinal level of the data analyzed was used in this study. About this level of measurement, there is a consideration of the mean systolic blood pressure after one year which was, 119.3 mm Hg in the group of intensive therapy and the standard therapy group the mean was 133.5 mm Hg. The primary outcome annual rate recorded in the intensive-therapy group was 1.87 and 2.09 percentage in the standard therapy group. Hence the hazard ratio to intensive-therapy, was 0.88; 95%, determination interval 0.73 to 1.06; P= 0.20.
The researcher is interested in difference; this is noted when the researcher discusses the outcome of intensive antihypertensive therapy in the BP trial which did not reduce the primary cardiovascular result of the death rate or from any cause. There being the fact that there was a sustainable and significant difference between standard therapy group and the intensive therapy group in the mean systolic blood pressure (ACCORD Study Group, 17).
The two groups that are involved in the study are the standard therapy group and the intensive therapy group. The non-blinded BP trial was an assignment in which the participants were randomly allocated to intensive therapy that marked systolic blood pressure that was less than 120mm Hg or the standard therapy that targeted less than 140 mm Hg systolic pressure.
The t-test justifies that the groups are dependent. In the study there is a consistent comparison of the two groups, this sends a signals that these groups depend on each other. When one event happens to one of the group in any occurrence, it has an impact on the other. For example, dependence is shown in this study when there were some harmful signals associated with intensive blood pressure control (ACCORD Study Group, 17).
Article 1: APA citation
Cutler, D. M., Chernew, M., & Keenan, P. S. (2005). Increasing health insurance expenses and the decline in insurance coverage. Health services research, 40(4), 1021-1039.
Probit regression and instrumental Research Design.
This design is appropriate to answer the researcher’s question because he is trying to estimate the association by comparing the rising health local insurable costs and the decreasing propensity for one to have any insurable health cover. These aims at controlling for a rich array of demographic, economic, and policy coverages. The design is appropriate for probit regression and instrumental variable techniques where the experienced rates in coverage were more than half over the 1990s. These led to the increase in health premiums by 2.0 percentage points of the 3.1 declined percentage points. Expansions of medical services attributed to 1 percentage point coverage increase.
Article 2: APA citation
ACCORD Study Group. (2010). Effects of intensive blood pressure control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The New England journal of medicine, 362(17), 1575.
Diabetes mellitus increases cardiovascular disease risk by a two to three factor in every systolic pressure level. This study was aimed at defining the correlation between systolic blood pressure over time and microvascular or macrovascular risk complications in patients that are suffering from the type 2 diabetes mellitus. The yearly rate of death from any cause was 1.28 and 1.19 percentage respectively in the two groups. The Strokes’ annual rate, were 0.32 and 0.53 percentage in the two respective groups. Therefore, this signals the researcher’s BP trial failure to minimize the key cardiovascular results or the death rate from any cause significantly, despite the fact that there was a difference between the two groups.
ACCORD Study Group. “Effects of intensive blood-pressure control in type 2 diabetes mellitus.” The New England journal of medicine 362.17 (2010): 1575.
Group, The ACCORD Study. “Effects of combination lipid therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus.” The New England journal of medicine 362.17 (2010): 1563.