Health Care Essay Paper on Long Term Care Services for Patients in Health Care

Long Term Care Services for Patients in Health Care

Abstract

Health care delivery involves essential clinical handover processes occurring in many levels of inpatient care. Effective health care ought to achieve the following aspects. Foremost, effective and efficient communications among patients and health care givers to ensure needs, wants, expectations, and desires are addressed. It is crucial to reduce the amount of time lost before health care services are transmitted. More importantly, lowering health care costs is vital to ensure more patients are able to access and afford health care services. Thus, handover processes have been at the heart of an effective health care system. The capability to ensure safe, efficient, and effective handover processes are delivered to patients ought to combine and coordinate multiple care providers. Different and diverse health care providers ought to work together in order to deliver high quality health care services to patients in efficient manners. This is vital in achieving major effects on the patient care. It can also prevent potential loss of information and/or contribute towards adverse events.

Long Term Care Services for Patients in Health Care

Introduction

Health care services and modes of delivery have evolved over the years. As a result, they are more patient-centered especially handover processes in delivering long-term care. The delivery of long term health care requires high levels of communication. Support systems are also vital in order to enable the provision of supportive and effective communications. However, there has been a lack of satisfactory research in this area due to the verity of care providers and patients’ needs. This thesis therefore aims to explore the clinical handover processes of the patient movement from the cardiology units to home and community care settings. It will examine and analyze what the handover processes entail based on the various degrees of communication (JC, 2007).

This research will rely on both literature review and case studies. This is aimed at identifying and elaborating the major factors influencing this type of handover processes in order to formulate suggestions on applicable ways to improve and enhance them. In addition, the thesis will analyze the handover processing scenarios before they are modeled using Business Process Management (BPM) tools and techniques to extract the problems and introduce viable solutions.

Types of Long Term Health Care Services

Long term health care services are different and diverse based on the range and level of medical, personal, and supportive services provided. Long term health care is provided among patients suffering from injuries, chronic illnesses, cognitive, mental, and physical disabilities among others. Activities of Daily Livings (ADLs) are long term care service provided by caregivers within nursing homes. ADLs is provided to patients in form of physical and medical therapy to assist them in undertaking daily chores, such as feeding, dressing, and bathing. ADLs is mainly provided for patients with impairments, elderly persons, and within the pediatric department (Ellen & Martin, 2008).

Second, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) long term care involves managing the patients’ medication procedures and housework. It is a physical and drug therapy long term care provided at nursing homes. Physical therapy is provided for patients with temporary or permanent disabilities. Elderly persons and patients with disabilities need assistance while feeding, dressing, and partaking physical movements. Care givers are also tasked in ensuring the patients consume their medication on time. In-home respite care coupled with Personal Emergency Response Systems provided by home care givers allows patients to access emergency services in a response center through fitted electronic devices (Carol, Linda, Margaret & Kristine, 2010).

Home and Community Based Services (HCBS) long term care is mainly provided to elderly and impaired patients desiring to be independent. Federal Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services approve this long term care across States. It allows disabled and aging members of the community to access HCBS long term. Lastly, nursing homes provide long term care to patients suffering from chronic diseases and injuries. The illnesses often limit patients to meet personal needs due to inhibited independency. The patients are therefore admitted in a nursing home and a twenty four hour trained and experienced care giver hired (THCA, 2014).

Overview of (CCAC) Champlain Community Access Center Organization

Three strategic directions were developed to guide the Champlain organization deliver safe and high quality long term care. They include Person Driven Care, Engaged and Proactive People, and Sustainable Health Care long term cares. They were developed to enhance collaborations among long term care givers and partners. Rapid Response Nursing Program (RRNP) is developed to assist and reduce re-admission of patients due to miscommunications during handovers. Thus, RRNP aims to reduce avoidable emergencies across Champlain. Patients suffering from complex medical needs as well as elderly, seniors and children frail and disabled person benefit from RRNP. Champlain Community Care Access Centre (CCAC) ensures Client and Caregiver Advisory Council regulates caregivers’ roles and responsibilities. Regular visits across home based and nursing facilities identify healthcare needs among the patients. Consequently, care givers are guided in providing long term to the patients to enhance their physical, mental and functional capabilities (Nadine, 2013).

Handover Processes to Long Term Health Care Services

This process involves a care giver passing on crucial information to another in various ways to ensure and support the patient lead a safe, high quality and comfortable life. However, the handover process is often marred with communication breakdowns leading to sentinel events. Such events were reported between 1995 and 2006 to the Joint Commission asserting effective communication between caregivers is vital in ensuring patients are safe. To reduce communication issues among long term health care providers, the following measures should be adopted (Michael & Tina, 2012).

Foremost, the handover process should not be marred with interruptions and distractions. It should be patient oriented. Thus, it should clearly define the patient’s health care expectations. Care givers should create shared mental models inclusive of the patient’s medical conditions, issues, knowledge on solving them, and common perceptions on how the clinical status can be improved. Consequently, the care givers should develop and identify a common aspect they can rely on in understanding the patient’s health care needs and wants. The mental model should be a foundation in developing and implementing clinical measures that can be adopted to improve the patient’s medical conditions. Thus, the care givers should accept the sole responsibility in ensuring the handover process is clear, effective and efficient towards maintaining and sustaining the patient’s safety. The time taken to conduct a handover process should avoid pressure to facilitate caregivers review if it was satisfactorily undertaken (Tanja & Simon, 2011).

Ways of Solving the Handover Issues

Health care should be affordable, accessible, standardized, and of high quality. However, patients may lack physical and mental strength to ensure that these requirements are effectively and efficiently met and fulfilled. Caregivers are hired to provide long term care among patients either residing at home or a nursing facility. However, patients can be transferred across nursing homes. More so, they can be transferred from a nursing facility to a home-based program. These transfers require the patient to receive long term care services from different caregivers (Carol, Linda, Margaret & Kristine, 2010).

Caregivers should therefore develop models and techniques to guarantee that patients are attended to safely. They should also ensure that patients’ medical needs are clearly communicated among other care givers attending to the patient. This can prevent and eliminate caregivers making medical assumptions about a patient’s medical needs. Consequently, it can prevent care givers from making wrong and misinformed medical practices that can cause more harm and enhance the adverse medical issues a patient is facing. Ultimately, this would enhance patient care and health care service delivery. Thus, clear, effective and efficient communications are vital in ensuring care givers are eloquent, articulate, and lucid in providing long term health care (Carol, Linda, Margaret & Kristine, 2010).

The model of the as-is process using Business Process Management (BPM) was created and analyzed. The findings identified several challenges and issues in the communication tool with potentially adverse effects. These effects were mainly aligned towards causing delays and loss of information. Business Process Management (BPM) applied these issues to formulate the following solutions (Tanja & Simon, 2011).

Foremost, it is importance for health care givers to collaborate. The Business Process Management (BPM) methodology is a choreographed model applied to present various ways care providers can collaborate to improve the handover process and reduce the adverse effects associated with miscommunications. The model revealed consistent collaborations during the exchange of information can increase the effectiveness of communication. As a result, it can reduce the probability of adverse events affecting patients. Care givers should therefore conduct direct interviews to understand the patient’s medical needs and wants (Morad, Craig, Amir & Ali, 2011).

The collaborating interviews should also be conducted to implement the Standardized Patient Handoff Program (SPHP). This is because Standardized Patient Handoff Program (SPHP) has reduced the miscommunications associated with ineffective and inefficient handover processes. Standardized Patient Handoff Program (SPHP) has reduced adverse issues associated with miscommunications with at least seventy percent. Therefore, care givers striving to ensure they provide high quality long term medical services without communication challenges during handover processes should adopt Standardized Patient Handoff Program (SPHP) (Harris-Kojetin, Sengupta, Park-Lee & Valverde, 2013).

Business Process Management (BPM) also asserted that, cultural changes could hinder care givers from achieving and sustaining effective and standardized handoffs. This is mainly due to differing methodologies and languages applied in delivering long term care. As such, both human and business interactions between care givers and patients should aim to achieve the following. Foremost, increase of productivity among care givers in order to reduce medical operational costs. To achieve this, care givers should apply high-level graphical modeling languages in order to build and update levels of trust with the patients. Thus, care givers should choreograph their message sequences by linking handover sub-processes to business procedures. This can be undertaken through the Situation Background Assessment and Recommendation (SBAR) technique to eliminate cultural shocks associated with differing modes of communication (Julie, Vineet, Emile & Paul, 2011).

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References

Carol, H. E., Linda, S., Margaret, J. C., & Kristine, A. (2010). Chapter 13. Patient Safety and Quality in Home Health Care, An Evidence-Based Handbook for Nurses.

Ellen, N., & Martin, M. (2008). Caring for People with Chronic Conditions:A health System Perspective, The European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies.

Harris-Kojetin, L., Sengupta, M., Park-Lee, E., & Valverde, R. (2013). Long-term Care Services in the United States: 2013 Overview, National Center for Health Statistics.

Joint Commission (JC). (2007). Communication during Patient Handovers, Patient Safety Solutions Review, 1(3): 1-4.

Julie, K. J., Vineet, M. A., Emile, A. B., & Paul, R. B. (2011). Improving Communication and Reliability of Patient Handovers in Pediatric Cardiac Care, Progress in Pediatric Cardiology Journal, 32(1): 135-139.

Michael, T. B., & Tina, L. (2012). A Collaborative Approach to Improving Patient Handoffs, Joint Commission Center for Transforming Healthcare.

Morad, B., Craig, K., Amir, A., & Ali, E. (2011). Modeling Healthcare Processes as Service Orchestrations and Choreographies, Business Process Management Journal, 17(4): 568-597.

Nadine, H. (2013). Rapid Response Nurses Keeping Patients Home after Hospital, Champlain Community Access Center Organization.

Tanja, M., & Simon, F. (2011). Effective Handover Communication: An Overview of Research and Improvement Efforts, Best Practice & Research Clinical Anesthesiology Journal, 25(1): 181–191.

Tennessee Health Care Association (THCA). (2014). Types of Long Term Care, Tennessee Health Care Guide.