Geology Sample Essay on ATTN: Overfishing

A Letter to State and Federal Representatives

November 13, 2014

Honorable Governors and Senators

State and Federal Representatives

Office Address

United States

ATTN: Overfishing

Dear Sirs/Madams,

This letter aims to address social, economic, and environmental issues facing the country due to overfishing. A recent report from Global International Water Assessment has revealed water resources, including oceans are at risk. Aquatic ecosystems are facing extinction dangers due to overfishing coupled with unsustainable uses of water resources and pollution. Addressing these issues can protect and conserve aquatic ecosystems. However, human beings ought to understand sustainable developments across oceans can preserve aquatic ecosystems. The United Nations Environment Program has also addressed the issue of overfishing. It has asserted overfishing has led to shortage of aquatic lives among freshwaters resources. Consequently, high levels of pollution among water resources have killed multiple fishes by modifying aquatic habitations. Thus, overfishing, pollution, social, economic, and environmental issues among marine areas across United States ought to be addressed (EC 1).

Understanding Marine Ecosystems

Marine fishes including Bluefin Tuna and Thunnus Thynnus are the main aquatic lives across various oceans and water resources in the United States. They are located in freshwater resources in either shallow or deeper cool waters. Fishes are able to tolerate cold water resources and tropical habitats. They undertake seasonal migration over long distances across diverse water temperatures in search of food. The migration patterns also allow continuous reproductive cycles among aquatic lives. However, they require high levels of oxygen. Along coastal regions, modern equipments are utilized in fishing. Fishery management measures are tasked with ensuring the equipments neither kill nor overfish the aquatic lives (Robert 57).

Since 1982, restrictive measures to curb overfishing were implemented in the country. They were also tasked with reducing illegal acts of fishing through unreported and unregulated overharvesting and over exploitation of fisheries. During 1980s, fishing capacities increased and expanded due to the regulating measures. For example, the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas ascertained that fishery of Tuna fishes was regulated. Thus, the expensive Tuna fishes were highly demanded, as fish industry was able to acquire quality products (Maria, Govindran, Jose, Julian and Miguel 3).

Tuna fishes are utilized in making of various dishes including sashimi. They are acquired for domestic and international uses as they are transported across various nations in Asia and Europe. The main area to undertake fishing activities is located across the Mediterranean Sea. Fishing techniques including longlines, purse seines, bait boats, sport fishing, and traps as well as handlines are applied to capture the aquatic lives. However, recent reports indicate aquatic species are being overexploited and overharvested. Thus, they risk extinction and/or depletion (Christopher 8).

High capacities of fisheries are being overharvested through overfishing exploiting and risking the sustainable resources. Overfishing is also attributed to inadequate control measures to regulate fishing efforts, practices, capacities, and the species to harvest. For example, fishing of Tuna species has increased due to high demands. This has led to overharvesting of Tuna fishes in order to increase profit margins. The expansion of fishing practices has therefore deteriorated and degraded the marine species, stocks, and capacities. More so, fish species residing in high seas and international waters are regarded as public aquatic resources. Thus, no one takes responsibility to protect and preserve such aquatic ecosystems. This has led to overfishing of such species leading to pollution and modification of the habitats. As a result, members of the public risk losing valuable sources of dietary, economic, environmental, and social resources due to overfishing (Robert 59).

Social Impacts of Overfishing

According to United Nations Environmental Program, fishing activities in the Mediterranean have been occurring for centuries. They first fishing activity was witnessed in the seventh century. Thus, millions of people across the world have impacted fishing activities in the region. These include fishermen, boat manufacturers, and technological experts as well as cannery operators. Fish processing industries, distribution firms and sushi restaurants as well as staffs and consumers rely on fishing activities to earn a living and supplement their dietary needs. Thus, social activities across the world are often impacted by fishing activities across various water resources (Maria, Govindran, Jose, Julian and Miguel 4).

Through fishing, people are able to earn a living. Fishing is a sustainable form of employment providing fishers, industries, restaurants, staffs, and boat manufacturers an opportunity to earn income. In order to sustain these employment opportunities, fishers ought to utilize protract methods of fishing such as trapping. In United States, more than five hundred households mainly on coastal regions rely on fish trapping as employment opportunities. However, overfishing over the last five years has reduced the number of persons earning income from this employment opportunity. Overfishing has reduced the number of aquatic lives available in water resources. Consequently, the numbers of persons relying on fishing such as processing firms, restaurants, and employees have suffered economic losses (Maria, Govindran, Jose, Julian and Miguel 4).

Overfishing can be attributed to use of large fishing boats and unsystematic modern equipments depriving marine lives nutrients. Large fishing boats capture juvenile and adult fish species interfering with sustainable reproductive cycles. The modern technological fishing equipment on the other hand modify marine habitat while overharvesting fisheries. Adversely modified habitats deprive fisheries nutrients and oxygen. This can also be caused by high levels of pollution. Traditional fishing methods are regarded incompetent in comparison to modern and sophisticated tracking devices. However, their long term effects are less harmful as they neither harvest immature fish nor interfere with aquatic ecosystems. Thus, fishers should utilize traditional methods to avoid modifying fish habitats, overharvesting, and exploiting marine ecosystems (Maria, Govindran, Jose, Julian and Miguel 5).

Overharvesting and exploitation of fisheries has also attributed to high levels of pollution while interfering with marine ecosystems. Modern fishing practices have failed to ensure juvenile fisheries are preserved to sustain aquatic ecosystem. As a result, fisheries have reduced. Consequently, people have lost their employment opportunities. Equally, amounts of income earned from fishing have reduced. More so, industrial companies involved in processing and exporting fisheries have reduced the number of staffs employed leading to increased rates of layoffs (Maria, Govindran, Jose, Julian and Miguel 5).

Economical Impacts of Overfishing

Coastal fishing communities rely on aquatic ecosystems to provide and sustain sources of income. Conversely, the country relies on fishing activities to establish and maintain trading activities through export of fisheries. Japan and Southeast Asian nations are huge consumers of fish. They rely on fish exports harvested across global nations including United States to feed consumers. However, unsustainable harvesting of fisheries is risking fishery depletion and extinction in United States. Export and fish processing organizations aim at earning revenues to expand profit margins. Thus, they demand fisheries to earn more revenue without considering the economic effects of overfishing. More so, they fail to cooperate with fishers facing legal restrains to curb overfishing. Thus, fishers result in violation of legal enforcements. This further attributes to various negative economic actions (Maria, Govindran, Jose, Julian and Miguel 6).

Foremost, it is irresponsible to undertake unsustainable fishing activities. This is because unscrupulous fishing practices have led to high record breaking fish harvests. The overharvesting lowers populations of fisheries. However, the low populations can also be caused lack of freshwater resources to rare fish. Major water resources are highly polluted due to the expanding industrial activities disposing chemicals and emitting harmful gases. These forms of pollution deprive fisheries oxygen required for survival and reproduction. As a result, global industrial firms relying on fish for economic uses have resulted in overharvesting of fisheries. They spend billions of dollars to import fish from United States encouraging overfishing in the country. The country on the other hand has failed to address the adverse effects of overfishing. It has failed to acknowledge overfishing lowers fish populations. It also expands industrial activities increasing levels of pollution. Ultimately, these practices risk fish depletion and extinction. The country should therefore acknowledge overfishing is fueled by unscrupulous profit-oriented and economically vested parties (Maria, Govindran, Jose, Julian and Miguel 6).

Environmental Impacts of Overfishing

Climatic variability across upwelling large marine ecosystems and high latitude rely on fish biomass. Scientific studies conducted by Marine researchers affirmed that, fisheries, climatic modes, and climate maintain a dynamic relationship. For example, the El Nino Southern Oscillation controls annual climatic variability patterns in Southern Pacific Ocean. This further influences global climatic conditions while interfering with ecosystem responses towards the changes. Thus, modification of fisheries habitats affects climatic modes adversely (UNEP 55).

Consequently, fisheries are also negatively affected by the adverse climatic changes. For example, they can suffer from nutrient and oxygen depletion. Fisheries require rich nutrients and oxygen for primary survival and reproduction. Thus, adverse climatic changes can result to the subsiding fisheries. Climatic changes can also encourage various fish species to migrate to inshore water resources. However, inshore areas are highly populated with fish predators. Thus, overharvesting fisheries can interfere with the climate modes. Consequently, fisheries can either collapse or migrate to predatory areas. As a result, fish stocks can reduce encouraging the collapse of fish industries. Hence, areas relying on fisheries such as coastal regions can suffer from hunger, malnutrition, and poverty due to deprived means of living (UNEP 57).

Freshwater systems are habitats hosting diverse species of fish. The water resources are able to supply fish species with adequate nutrients such as proteins. This encourages rapid increase of fish populations. However, poor and lack of management of fishing practices has resulted to overharvesting of fisheries. The destructive fishing practices can lead to collapse of industrial fishing fleets. Consequently, a large scale unemployment pattern can be witnessed. Thus, various measures should be implemented to curb overharvesting and overexploitation of fisheries through overfishing (UNEP 58).

Measures to Curb Overfishing

It is evident global fishing industries are facing issues associated with overfishing. Low commercial fish stocks in United States are due to overharvesting of fisheries. Stakeholders across the fish industry rely on revenue margins acquired from fish trading in order to earn a living. As a result, they encourage overfishing to increase the profit revenues. However, the society has to address the issue of overfishing. Future generations are at risk of facing derisory social, economic, and environmental benefits associated with fisheries. The country has a strong economic foundation. Thus, it should recognize that overfishing for economic gains is a crisis encouraging fish depletion and extinction risking the collapse of fish industries. Domestic and international nations should therefore be involved in efforts to curb overfishing. Legal enforcements should be formulated and implemented to prevent and stop overfishing. The legal enforcements should ensure international nations relying on overfishing activities comply with the directives (Maria, Govindran, Jose, Julian and Miguel 11).

The European Union proposed implementation of tracking and documentation systems to align fish quotas and actual harvests. Establishing similar systems can ensure persons guilty of overfishing are identified. Thus, the systems can motivate unscrupulous economic parties relying on overfishing to comply with the legal enforcements against overharvesting fisheries. The systems should also introduce modes of punishment to reprimand parties found guilty of overfishing. Thus, tracking and documentation systems can save fish species at risk of depletion and extinction. They can also ban international trade member states found guilty of supporting and encouraging overfishing. They ought to be banned from engaging in international trade activities with United States. More so, they should be listed as restricted and banned parties guilty of practicing fishing activities without upholding legal guidelines (EC 1).

Due to overfishing, highly evolved fish species mainly found in high tropic water source levels are at risk of depletion. These species have large impacts on the aquatic ecosystem. Thus, depletion and extinction can result to apparition of opportunistic fish species such as jelly fish. Predatory species such as halibut, cod, and grouper feeding on other aquatic organisms can lead to collapse of fish industry. They reduce the food web at tropic levels leading to decreased fish stocks. Without overfishing practices, unemployment levels in the country are bound to increase. Consequently, malevolence vices associated with unemployment such as high rates of crime can be witnessed (UNEP 56).

Scientific marine and aquatic researchers should therefore conduct experiments to identify measures to change social, economic, and environmental factors encouraging overfishing. The experiments should be aligned towards identifying and achieving sustainable fishing practices. Researchers should create mechanisms encouraging and promoting small scale fishing. The mechanisms aimed at regulating and protecting marine lives should however maintain economic, environmental, and social benefits. Local fisheries across oceans, seas, coastal areas, and other wetlands should therefore avoid exploiting and depleting the marine resources and fisheries. They should identify sanctioned regimes with sustainable fishing practices protecting vulnerable fish species at risk of extinction and depletion. Consequently, the practices can guarantee stakeholders within the fish industry continue to earn a living from fishing without over harvesting and overexploiting the fish species (Robert 57).

The Millennium Development Goals in eradicating hunger can also be implemented to prevent overfishing. The International Community with regards to Millennium Development Goals asserts that, improving management of fisheries can lead to eradication of global hunger issues. It estimated that, by 2020 several global regions would suffer from hunger due to continuous overfishing. United States, Pacific Islands, Asian nations and other global regions should therefore advocate for sustainable fishing practices. Fish species and other marine resources ought to be protected and preserved to prevent complex causes of hunger, poverty, and insufficient economic, social, and environmental resources. Large marine ecosystems as well as lakes and rivers sustaining fish species should be protected from pollution, exploitation, and diseases. Diverse biological and genetic impacts of overfishing and depletion of aquatic ecosystems should be adopted to manage sustainable fishing practices (UNEP 57).

Ultimately, State and federal funds should be allocated to prevent overfishing. Appropriation of such funds should involve legislature functions. Bills should be passed to authorize governmental units to spend the funds. They should be utilized to preserve and protect aquatic or marine ecosystems for social, economic, and environmental benefits. State and federal legislators with a common interest to stop overfishing should be developed. Both Republican and Democratic Caucus from various States in the country should hold close meetings with group of persons interested in protecting and preserving fisheries. Executive, legislative, and judicial branches on federal, State, and local levels should identify administrative agencies tasked in addressing issues associated with overfishing. The agencies should therefore formulate and implement laws and regulations controlling fisheries in the country (Christopher 10).

I have written this letter based on actual, reliable, and relevant discoveries on the effects of overfishing in the country. I therefore look forward to hearing from you on this issue.

Respectfully yours,

Dr./Mr./Mrs. _____________

Address

Phone Numbers

Works Cited

Christopher, Barclay. Overfishing and Fisheries Policy, European Union New Economics Foundation, 2010. Print.

European Commission (EC). Over-extraction and Overfishing: Major Threats to International Waters, Science for Environment Policy DG Environment News Alert Service, 2006. Print.

Maria, Penaloza., Govindran Jegatesen, Jose Llopis, Julian, Patron and Miguel Lozano. Analysis of the Overfishing and Marine Ecosystem Degradation of Bluefin Tuna in the North Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea, 3rd International Seminar on Sustainable Technology Development, Technical University of Catalunya, Barcelona, 2010. Print. 

Robert, Kearney. Australia’s Out-Dated Concern over Fishing Threatens Wise Marine Conservation and Ecologically Sustainable Seafood Supply, Open Journal of Marine Science, 3(1): 55-61, 2013. Print.

United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). Overfishing and Other Threats to Aquatic Living Resources, United Nations Environment Program Report, 2003. Print.