Concerns regarding studies that use human subjects range from subjects such as voluntary contribution with regard to fair impartiality and assortment (Gallagher, 2010). The following is a discussion of 2 ethical principles that are of great importance to research regarding human subjects.
- Informed Consent: It exists to ensure every study engaging human subjects allows voluntary contribution by the subjects and they understand what it involves. The subjects should have an understanding of what they are engaging in, not influenced or forced to make their contribution and to accept engagement in the exercise as a subject (Schenker, Fernandez, Sudore & Schillinger, 2011). The 1979 Belmont report delineates 3 conditions for informed consent with initial condition being that knowledge unveiled in the study of participants is supposed to encompass their rationales, progression, expected benefits and threats, optional practice as well as declaration giving the subject the opportunity to withdraw and inquire during the course of the study. The second condition demands researchers to increase knowledge to make it comprehensible while the third condition is voluntariness.
- Confidentiality: In nursing research secrecy is significant since individuals have the right to self-protection and awareness which is gathered in the course of study contribution as it could hurt the individual by infringing on their right to keep private information confidential. The awareness that is collected from individuals in biomedical research has the special likelihood to be harmful detrimental and thwarting. For example, genetic information can infringe on the rights of the individual to enjoy confidentiality if it not sufficiently protected. The reality that genetic information has knowledge concerning identity offers researchers special difficulty (Gallagher, 2010). Different kinds of genetic research might appear harmless. However, while gathering genetic information such as breast cancer, a researcher can inevitably gather other information connected to the participants.
Gallagher, A. (2010). Whistleblowing: what influences nurses’ decisions on whether to report poor practice. Nursing times, 106(4), 22-25.
Schenker, Y., Fernandez, A., Sudore, R., & Schillinger, D. (2011). Interventions to Improve Patient Comprehension in Informed Consent for Medical and Surgical Procedures A Systematic Review. Medical Decision Making, 31(1), 151-173.
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