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Human Resource Management

Human resource management plays a central role in the determination of the overall success of an organization. The concept of human resource deals with matter pertaining to employees and other stakeholders within an organization. A number of operations and aspects assumed within an entity directly affects personnel and will influence their overall performance level. Owing to the high levels of influence that employees have in the overall, performance of an entity, managers often assume certain operation that directly helps in positive influencing the behaviors of employees towards the achievement of the desired objectives of the firm (Kersten&Gimon, 2012). Initially, during recruitment activities, certain specific qualifications are often required among the recruits that will ensured the desired skills for completion of various tasks in the organization. In most cases, firms will conduct their recruitment procedures purely based on the levels of education qualification and the levels of experience. In addition to this, employees that fall below the demanded qualifications are in most instances taken through training programs that are aimed at equipping them with the desired operational skills. The aspect of human resource is management also encompasses the various remuneration plans adopted (Fay & Kline, 2012).Better remuneration plans will also encompass elements of human resource management. Through adoption of better remuneration plans, employees will be highly motivated hence their participation in their designed obligations will be improved. In the course of business operation, there is other an array of factors that the management needs to integrate in the operational procedures in order to aid in the realization of the overall effectiveness of the entity. In line with this, the paper will focus on the dynamics involved in the operations of Alcoa incorporation. Among the lines of operation that will be central in the discussion include, the compensation strategies, the procedures of hiring employees, various environments that impacts on the overall activities of the organization besides other discussion that will strive to explicate how the lines of operations assumed influences the performance of the entity (Shek& Sun, 2013).

                                 Overview of the company

Alcoa incorporation is an American based company with its headquarters in New York City. The organization mainly focuses in the production of various forms of aluminum metal. The nature of metal produced by the organization is often influenced by the existing market and the level of demand. The organization has a large employee base with production chains in a total of 31 countries across the globe. The organization is rated as one of the leading producers of aluminum. In the year 2011, the company was rated as the third best in aluminum production. In strive to increase its output; the company has considered various forms of amalgamation with a number of companies within the same line of production. In 2007, the company was involved I hostile takeover of a section of Alcan company. This highly boosted its operations though the move was later compromised by the move by a competing company, Rio Tinto to involve in friendly cooperation with Alcan in its operations.  Owing to large staff capacity, the organization has often adopted certain aspects within its procedures tailored towards improving the performance of each individual in order to gain competitive advantage within the industry.

 Management Strategies of the Company

A number of human resource strategies have been adopted by the entity in order to ensure high production among individual employees. The adoption of the mechanisms however has often varied depending on the nature of the intended objective besides other elements pertaining to the employees. Initially, the management of the company has been very keen on the type of leadership styles assumed over the years in various departments. This has seen the management of the entity involve in adoption of a number of leadership strategies that best fit the organization (Shek& Sun, 2013).

  1. Democratic leadership

 Democratic style has been witnessed in a number of operations of the company. Center in the use of this mechanism has been the need for the management to involve employees at various levels in pertinent managerial issues. Before adopting a number of plans for the organization, the leadership always involves employees and various stakeholders in critical analysis of the issue. This action of involvement has aided the organization in adopting operational measures that are in line with the needs of the organization. Mostly, in the investment plans of the company, integration of employees’ participation has been integral. Apart from ensuring effectiveness in the implementation procedures of these plans, involvement has help in curbing possible resistance that could be witnessed among employees (Shek& Sun, 2013).

In addition, through the use of democratic form of leadership, free top bottom, horizontal and diagonal forms of communication have been made possible in the organization. This has highly promoted efficiency in the coordination process in the course of key venture and general practices at large. The communication channels adopted have made it possible for employees of low levels to directly rely their concerns to top managers hence achieving high morale among employees as there are recognized in their operations.

  • Technological adoption

Through technologies adopted, the management of Alcoa incorporation has effectively succeeded in the management personnel of the entity. Firstly, owing to the nature of the entity that include, smelting, mining, refining, recycling besides other activities, the organization desires various forms of technologies that will result into efficiency in the course of operations. However, before adopting these technologies, the executive always consider effective analysis of the influence that the technologies have in the morale and the performance of employees(Shek& Sun, 2013). In these adoptions, high levels of technologies are always considered owing to the positive influence in the performance of the firm. Current and highly rated technologies often result into improved morale among employees that is vital towards the realization of the intended goals of the entity. These are contrary to the use of poor technologies that in most cases is labor intensive hence resulting into low working morale among employees.

Through the use of these technologies, the company has adopted effective communication channels that have also helped in improving the morale of employees at various levels. The use of computing devices by the organization became will adopted in July, 2010 that has seen that company assumes the use of internet and intranet in of its communication tendencies. Through the use of internet, employees have easily interacted with the management through the social platforms hence aiding in the realization of high morale. In addition, maintenance of employees’ data has been made possible through the use of these forms of high technologies (Kersten&Gimon, 2012).  Among the data pertaining to employees that are usually maintained within these systems include remuneration plans and performance levels that help in the adoption of most appropriate mechanisms for improvements.

  •   Leveraging of Human Capital

The aspect of leverage in terms of various resources has been central in the operations of the entity in order to meet the financial demands of the organization. In most instances, the aspect leverage has been assumed so as to avoid cases of financial distress among various departments of the organizations. In the adoption of the aspect of human capital leverage, the concept of value addition has been integral. These concerns with the various measures that can be assumed in order to allow for improvement in the quality, uniqueness, levels of innovation and the overall output related to employees (McGrath, 2013).  This has witnessed the adoption of key operational measures like training programs in order to influence personnel towards these desired lines. Through the use of various investment plans, the organization has endeavored over the years to fully improve the performance levels of personnel through a series of initiatives. Owing to the capital intensive nature of these plans, the use of various finance sources have been integrated in order to fully meet the demands of personnel programs. Most specifically, equity financing has been common in the operations of the firm. Through public issues, the necessary funds required in the provision of these human resource related programs have been fully achieved. In accordance with this, innovativeness coupled with high levels of creativity has been manifested over the years in the operations of the organization. This has can be attributed to the competitive advantage that the entity have witnessed over the years (Kersten&Gimon, 2012).

4 .Legal environment and Human capital

In the management of human capital, there are an array of legal measures that Alcoa corporation are required to adhere to depending on the scope of its operations. The existence of both local states and international laws relating to human resource management has highly influenced the courses of action assumed by entity regarding personnel management ((Shek& Sun, 2013).

Initially, there are a number of federal laws that have been initiated by various departments that controls the operation of the firm regarding hiring process to termination of employees. Most specifically, among the aspects relating to employees that have been defined by these federal regulations include employees’ wages, working hours, retirement plans, health covers amongst other broader facets (Kersten&Gimon, 2012). The firm has often strived to provide these specific defined standards through constant review of the adopted courses of action. In addition, owing to the democratic space existing in the country, America, matters pertaining to employees’ rights have been pertinent as the organization attempts to meet every right of employees through its various adoptions more so in the investment plans. The state common laws have also stipulated the security aspects relating to employees that employers must endeavor to provide at all levels. Within the international domain, various international laws relating to human resource management have highly shaped key facets of the organization. Matters pertaining to employees on travel and those of international assignments have been integral in the adherence to various legal states. The company through various legal officers in a number of countries has attempted to adhere to these defined regulations in order to ensure efficiency and coherence with various authorities. This has also been promoted by the adverse consequences of the law in the event of contrary courses of action (Elving, 2010).

Hiring and employee retention strategies

Hiring strategies

In order to influence the overall desired performance of the entity, Alcoa incorporation have incorporated an array of hiring strategies that are also tailored towards the realization of a competitive operation within the local and international domain. Initially, the recruitment plans of the organization have been based of the levels of educational qualification and the general levels of experience. This has often aided in the hiring of persons that are up to the tasks defined (McGrath, 2013).  The defined recruitment procedures have also been integral in the offering direction in the measures to be assumed hence curbing cases that could result into conflicts in the course of hiring and general ineffectiveness of the plans. The organization has also adopted the strategy of using both internal and external sources for hiring. The use of the sources has been mainly in order to curb cases of personnel deficit in the operations of the firm. Outsourcing of personnel has been integral in the success and the competitiveness of the firm in the international market. This has always been done in the light of organizations that are more competitive in nature that the entity. The use of better numeration has often been used as a key tool in outsourcing mechanisms (Kersten&Gimon, 2012).

The aspect of matching the skills of employees with the tasks to be performed by employees has also been central in the recruitment procedures. Employees are only tasked with activities there are trained. This has greatly helped in the elimination of job mistakes that could jeopardize the whole operational procedures. Matching tendencies in the organization highly depended on performance appraisal programs. Through constantly undertaking performance appraisal, the organization has achieved in identifying the existing actual skills among employees and there relation to desired operational levels within the organization. Performance appraisal activities have also aided in meeting the various existing gaps among in terms of skills among employees and the various tasks to be carried out (McGrath, 2013).

Retention strategies

A number of motivational strategies have been assumed in strive to ensure maintenance of employees in the organization. Firstly the use of remuneration plans has played a pivotal role in retaining employees to the organization. In adopting the salary plans to assume, critical analysis of the industry is initially undertaken so as to ascertain the remuneration strategies adopted by competing organizations. This has witnessed the adoption of wage rates that are more desirable to those assumed by other firms within the industry. Apart from the basic wage plans, the use of various financial incentives has also helped i retaining personnel. Job promotions are often integrated with increment in salary that helps in motivating persons in the execution of their defined roles. Through improvement of the working environment, the morale of employees has been highly boosted hence maintaining the urge by personnel to maintain the operations with the entity (McGrath, 2013).

Training and development programs

Effectiveness in the achievement of the desired goals of each individual personnel and those of the organization can be attained through adoption of specific training and development programs. The adoption of these plans will demand specific steps to be adhered to so as to realize the defined goals. A possible plan that can be initiated can be designed to involve the following steps:

  1. Definition and delegation of roles

This initial plan involves making employees to be well conversant with their tasks besides making them aware of the dynamics involved. It should therefore be followed by delegation of roles in which duties of each individual employee and department are made distinct in order to prevent cases of conflicting roles that could arise. The process of delegation of roles should be done in accordance of the acquired skills in order for maximum output.

  • Performance appraisal

This will be majorly aimed at identifying the existing needs among employees in relation to meeting the job demands. Critical analysis of every performance of employee will aid in attaining a performance rating for the organization(Shek& Sun, 2013).

  • Training programs

After identifying the various existing training needs, the training programs will be specifically is tailored towards meeting these identified needs among employees.

  • Reinforcements measures

This will involve adoption of certain mechanisms that are aimed at improving the individual performance of employees. This will involve both negative and positive mechanisms. Positive measures will involve the organization management offering organizational aspects that are centered towards motivation of persons. On the other hand, various forms of punishment such as retrenchment plans will be aimed at discouraging poor performance among employees.

Alcoa’s compensation strategy

The remuneration plans of the company has been based on tasked undertaken and the education qualifications of persons (McGrath, 2013). Employees will be compensated depending on the nature of the tasks. Persons involving in highly demanding tasks will be highly compensated in comparison to employees with less involving tasks. However, this will be done in close reference to the education qualifications of persons and the levels of experience. In the event of promotions resulting from proper completion of tasks, increment in levels of compensation is undertaken.

Strategies of competitive advantage

Diversity in a number of employee aspects will be keenly considered in order to influence competitive advantage of the firm. Employees will employed with diverse skills desired for achievement of specific goals in the organization. Through this diverse expertise, vital investment and operational activities of the organization has been made possible from diverse perspectives. In addition, diversity in human resource management has also been witnessed in terms of various cultural integrations. The company domain has witnessed inclusion of various cultures that had in designing aluminum metal and other products to meet the intended needs of various markets (United States, 2010).

Human capital strategy

Owing to the nature of the lines of operation that the organization indulges in, there is need adoption of annual recruitment tendencies in order to allow for effective completion of the defined tasks. This annual recruitment strategy will allow in the maintenance of stability in the operational lines of the organization. Proper financial planning and budgeting in relation to recruitment measures and subsequent retention of employees should also be undertaken in order to avoid cases of personnel insufficiency that could compromise the operations of the organization (Shek& Sun, 2013).

                                                 Conclusion

In line with the analysis presented of Alcoa incorporation, it therefore become evident that the aspect of human resource management ids vital in the realization of the desired levels of operation in any organization. In the light of these, there is need for managers to put into consideration key plans that will help in the provision of favorable organizational factors that encourages high performance among employees. In addition, the aspect of motivation is presented to be central in the realization of these desired performance levels among employees. Proper identification of mechanisms that could result into improvement of employees’ morale should be considered and integrated into organization practices (McGrath, 2013).

References

Elving, W. J. (2010). Trends and developments within corporate communication: an analysis of ten years of CCIJ. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 15(1), 5-8.

Fay, M. J., & Kline, S. L. (2012).The influence of informal communication on organizational identification and commitment in the context of high-intensity telecommuting.Southern Communication Journal, 77(1), 61-76.

Kersten, G., &Gimon, D. (2012).Concession-making in multi-bilateral negotiations and multi-attribute auctions.InformatykaEkonomiczna, (25), 61-83.

McGrath, R. G. (2013). The end of competitive advantage: How to keep your strategy moving as fast as your business. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business Review Press.

Shek, D. T. L., & Sun, R. C. F. (2013). Development and evaluation of positive adolescent training through holistic social programs (P.A.T.H.S.). Singapore: Springer.

United States. (2010). The world factbook 2010. Washington, D.C: Potomac.