Essay Writing Help on Arc Map Gis Surveying

Arc Map Gis Surveying

Acknowledgement

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Abstract

This essay will define and provide extra information on the following terms: UTM, map projection, difference between plane surveying and geodetic surveying, definition of symbology, zone 40, central meridian, UTM grid, WGS 1984, Geo- referencing, definition of a  point,. Examples line, point, and polygon features, definition of polyline, polygon, Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS), geographical coordinates, real world coordinates, a shapefile, differences between a radii and a vector data, global positioning system, geographic information system, and definition of a scale.

 Arc Map Gis Surveying

1.0 Unified Threat Management (UTM)

Unified Threat Management (UTM) is an approach to security management that enables an administrator to supervise and control various security-related applications and components of infrastructure using a single management console. UTMs, which are usually bought as network applications, offer several abilities, for instance, VPN in one package that can be simply reorganized. Unified Threat Management for enterprise clients may also comprise of advanced features like load balancing among others.

2.0 Map Projection

Map projection refers to the representation of a curved surface on a flat plane, for instance, a page in an atlas. The three methods of map projection that can be easily visualized include planar, conical, and cylindrical (Earth.rice.edu, 2014, p.1). There are various differences possible with these configurations, for instance, putting an imagined light source in a place that is not in the center of a wire-frame and skewing a cone or a cylinder. Map projections are significant when it comes to making maps (Earth.rice.edu, 2014, p.1).

3.0 Differences between planer surveying and Geodetic Surveying

Surveying refers to a technology used to make measurements in a scientific way below or above the surface of the earth so as to define points to create a map. In plane surveying, the earth surface is assumed to be two dimensional. Examples of plane surveys include property and engineering surveys. However, some of these surveys cover large distances (for instance railroads and highways). On the other hand, in geodetic surveying, the earth surface is said to be round for X and Y dimensions. Past geodetic surveys were very accurate and of high magnitude. Current surveys that use the global positioning system largely relies on the geometric shape of the earth. Furthermore, plane surveying is carried out locally by individual organizations while the concerned government or state government usually carries out geodetic surveying. There is a low level of correctness in plane surveying while geodetic surveying has high level of precision. Plane surveying does not put into consideration the earth curvature, while geodetic surveying puts it into consideration. Lastly, plane surveying is suitable with small areas while geodetic surveying is suitable with a big area.

4.0 Symbology

Symbology refers to the organization of spaces and bars to create an explicit type of bar code. Symbologies are mainly designed to encode distinctive characters, letters, and numbers. The two common categories of symbologies include continuous and discrete. In discrete symbology, the characters that are in a bar code can be interpreted separately without reference to the entire bar code. On the other hand, in continuous symbology, personal characters cannot be construed individually. One of the features of most of the bar code readers is auto-discrimination. This enables them to be configured to repeatedly recognize and read varied barcode symbologies, in a similar manner a human reader can interpret and read varied types of font.

5.0 Central Meridian

A central meridian refers to a line of longitude that describes the core and the x-origin of an estimated coordinate system. Coordinate systems of minimal level like state plane correspond with grid north at the central meridian.

6.0 Zone 40

Zone 40 refers to a zone that ranges between 400Fto 1350F. This is the range that enhances faster multiplication of pathogenic bacteria in food causing food borne diseases.

7.0 UTM Grid

A UTM grid is a coordinate system that relies on the transverse Mercator projection; it is applicable to maps of the earth’s surface that extend to 84 degrees North and South latitudes.

8.0 WGS 1984

WGS 1984 also referred to as World Geodetic System 84 is an earth-centered and terrestrial reference system. It depends on a reliable group of constant and model parameters that give a description of the size of the earth, gravity, shape, and geomagnetic fields. It is the standard United States Department of Defense Definition of an international reference system for geospatial and Global Positioning System (GPS) use it as its reference system.

9.0 Geo-referencing

Geo referencing refers to defining a place in physical space and it is critical to ensuring that satellite and aerial imagery vital for mapping. Geo-referencing provides an explanation of how position data, for instance, locations of Global Positioning System interrelate to imagery and to a physical place. Varied maps may use diverse projection systems. Geo-referencing tools have methods used to merge and superimpose these maps with lowest distortion. Through the use of geo-referencing, information collected from observation may have a point of reference from initially availed topographical maps.

10.0 A point

A point refers to a real place on a flat surface. It is very important to know that a point is a place. The location of a point is indicated by putting a dot using a pencil. A point lacks dimensions because it is a place and not a thing. Points are typically named using a capital single letter, for instance, P, Q, and R.

12.0 Examples of Point Features

Point features has various examples and they include the following; a weather station, and a gas activity location.

13.0 A Polyline

A polyline is an object in AutoCAD that comprise of either one or more arc. A rectangle is the best example of a polyne. Polylines are usually developed using the POLYLINE command, by simply typing letter PL at the line of command. This command line enables individuals to draw polylines. Exceptional qualities of polylines that make them important include the following: they can have varying or constant width, they comprise of lines and arcs, they can be combined, and they can be edited.

14.0 Examples of Line Features

Examples of lines features include splitting of polygons.

15.0 Polygon

A polygon is any two –dimensional shape that is created using straight lines. Examples of polygons include hexagons, pentagons, triangles, and quadrilaterals. For instance, a triangle and a quadrilateral have 3 and 4 sides respectively. This implies that whichever shape can be drawn using three straight lines is a triangle. On the other hand, any shape that can be drawn using 4 straight lines is a quadrilateral.

16.0 Examples of Polygon Features

Examples of polygon features include building a footprint that has one section. Another example includes data models for instance, a country or a district on a world and city map respectively.

17.0 Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS)

Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) is an approach of giving differential corrections to a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver so as to advance the correctness of the navigation solution. DGPS connections initiate from a reference station at a recognized place. The receivers in these reference stations are most likely to detect errors in the global positioning system because they understand their position. Consequently, application of DGPS results in an improvement in the horizontal accuracy of the system from 100m to better than 10m. More significantly, the reference stations offer integrity supervising, cautioning users to ignore a satellite that runs outside of specification.

18.0 Geographical Coordinates

Geographical coordinates is a system that allows each place on the planet to have a group of numbers. The coordinates are often selected in a manner that one of the numbers represents vertical position and the rest (2 or more) of the numbers represent a horizontal position. The popular choice of coordinates includes latitudes and longitudes. The geographic latitude of a point on the earth surface is the position between the equatorial plane and the line that goes through that location. Lines that join places of similar latitude on the earth surface are referred to as parallels. This is based on the fact that they are parallel to the equator and to one another. Longitudes refer to lines that run East and West parallel of the prime meridian. The western hemisphere is represented with negative numbers while the eastern hemisphere is represented by positive numbers. The prime meridian represents 0 degrees longitude. Longitudes and latitudes units in geographical coordinates are represented in the form of minutes, seconds, and degrees, where 1 degree = 60 nautical miles, I minute = 1 nautical mile, and 1 second equals 100.8 feet.

19.0 Real World Coordinates

Real world coordinates refer to the position of any point in the world that can be defined using a simple coordinate system. For instance, one may describe the position of a computer in his house as being two feet across the door, three feet from the window, or five feet from the bedroom door. In a coordinate system, the three numbers that are used to provide a description of the location of the object corresponds to a point axis. The point where the zero values along every axis convene is referred to as the origin.

20.0 A Shapefile

A shape file refers to a non-topological format used for keeping the geometric location and quality information of geographic features. The features in a shape file may be represented in form of lines, polygons, and points. A shape file does not store topological geometry and quality information for the spatial features in a set of data. The geometry for an object is stored a shape that has a group of vector points. The Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) regulates it. The various types of files include the following; points, polygons, and lines. The workspace that has shapefiles may also have dBASE tables that can keep extra characteristics that can be combined to a shapefile’s characteristics.

The illustration below shows how shape files can appear in ArcCatalog.

View of shapefiles in ArcCatalog

21. 0 Differences between a radii and Vector Data

A radii refers to a straight line from the middle of sphere to any location to the outer edge. On the other hand, vector data is represented in a type of lines and points that have a mathematical and geometrical relationship. For instance, a two-dimensional point is stored using coordinates (x, y). Lines are stored as a set of point pairs, where every pair is a representation of a straight line segment, for instance, (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) showing a line from ( x1, y1) to (x2, y2). Polygons are used to show areas, for instance, forest boundary or a lake. Polygon features are usually two-dimensional and as a result, they can be used to find out the perimeter and area of a geographic feature. Polygon features are popularly differentiated using symbology, thematic mapping, or patterns.

22.0 Global Positioning System

Global Positioning System (GPS) is funded and managed by the Department of Defense in the United States. Even though there are thousands civil users of global positioning system, the system was majorly designed and it is run by the United Sates military (Montana.edu, 2014, p.1). The GPS comprise of three segments and they include the following: the space segment, control system, and the user segment.

Space Segment

It includes the global positioning system satellites. The space vehicles transmit radio signals from space (Montana.edu, 2014, p.1).

Control Segment

It comprises of a system of tracing stations situated around the globe.

User segment

The global positioning system comprises of the User community and the GPS receivers. It requires four satellites to come up with the four dimensions that include time and X, Y Z (location). Global positioning system can be applied in agriculture, in sea, air, and land, and in surveyi ng and mapping (Montana.edu, 2014, p.1).

GPS Application in Trash Management

 The large populations in urban centers contribute to an escalating waste problem. There is need to ensure that all wastes are collected quickly and efficiently. Most companies execute GPS tracking technology in waste management to in reducing the use of fuel, improve vehicle and staff performance, and lessen errors. GP technology has also played a significant role in reducing paperwork. GPS has promoted effective communication in trash management because it operates through the use of satellite and offers an infallible way of communication. GPS tracking solutions give comprehensive driving directions to all personnel and this helps in arriving at the collection site easily. A part from tracking wastes, GPS also helps in tracking bins and containers. Understanding the real position of bins is important to waste management. GPS trackers enable individuals to locate the nearest vehicle hence minimizing and maximizing distances and efficiency respectively.

Location

This is the most popular use of the global positioning syystem. It can give correct and defined measurements anytime, and in any type of weather conditions. Examples include measuring the movement of glaciers and volcanoes, determining the location of icebergs. This is important to ship captains because it helps them to avoid probable disasters. Furthermore, most GPS receivers available in the market enable one to record a specific location (Montana.edu, 2014, p.1).

Navigation

It refers to the process of moving from one location to the other. This was the major reason as to why GPS was designed. This is because it enables individuals to navigate on land, air, and water. It also enables planes to land in the center of mountains and assists medical evacuation helicopters to save time by taking the appropriate route.

Timing

GPS enables all individuals around the globe to have precise timing. This explains why all phones can be synchronized to ensure that all global events are taking place at a similar time.

Mapping

This is used for making maps in a number of locations. GPS also helps in getting accurate measurements when creating maps (Montana.edu, 2014, p.1).

Tracking

The use of GPS in this category is ways of supervising people and things like packages. This has been applied along with wireless communication to maintain track of some offenders. The suspects accept to maintain a global positioning system receiver with him every time. If he goes to any place where he is not supposed to, authorities will be informed. It can also be pertinent in tracking animals.

23. 0 Geographic Information System

A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer system that enables individuals to model, query, map, and analyze large amounts of information within one database based on their locations. GIS enables individuals to envision scenarios, generate maps, incorporate information, present key thoughts, and come up with actual ideas (Epa.gov, 2014, p.1). GIS is used by institutions and persons, companies, government, and schools looking for innovative means to find solutions to problems. It also keeps information about the globe as a collection of layers that can be connected together by a regular locational component like longitude and latitude or road name. These geographic references enable people to identify features on the earth surface for analysis of patterns and trends (Epa.gov, 2014, p.1). The application of GIS in solid waste management can be explained as follows; there are various stages in solid waste management, from the point where it is produced to the final stage. The bifurcation of solid waste management is categorized into two phases: one is the area where waste management is generated and second is waste management at dumping grounds. GIS would assist in addressing various factors concurrently that require to be put into consideration when planning waste management.

GIS is a computer software and hardware, designed to enable users to manage, collect, and regain large volume of referenced information and related attribute data collected from various sources. It connects information to its geographic position. It provides the ability to incorporate several data layer into a composite layer in order to form base layer. Various layers are included in making a GIS route map. The first is a catalog of client with their contacts. The list is geocoded in order to give a base layer upon which routes are constructed (Epa.gov, 2014, p.1). The second consideration is creation of waste per customer. GIS is used to approximate the quantity of garbage per household depending on calculation that entails population density and group distributions of local income. Another important piece of information is a traffic flow study that assists in reducing congestion caused by collection of vehicles. Once the client data has been structured and connected with the base map then the real route can start. Effectiveness is the important word in route mapping. Routes are supposed to ensure that travel time is minimized to the destination, which may imply that splitting prevailing routes into various trucks. GIS software enables individuals to input all these factors into programs like Quantum GIS. These steps can also be applicable to yard waste and recycling collection routes as well, which will possibly need varied routes as well depending on the generation of materials that are collected to their final destination (Epa.gov, 2014, p.1).

24.0 Scale

Scale is used to make the drawing of maps achievable. It entails taking up of real life things and reducing these things several times so that they can be shown on a map (Walrus.wr.usgs.gov, 2014, p.1). Each map has its own scale that is indicated on the front. It is vital for one to check this figure before reading the map. It enables one to tell that the area shown on the map is usually smaller compared to a similar area in real life. For instance, a scale of 1:25 000 implies that every one unit of measurement on the map is similar as 25 000 of those units in real life. Ordnance survey creates maps drawn to various scales based on what individuals want to use it for. Large scale maps are used to provide a comprehensive picture of individual buildings because they are only located on a small piece of land (Walrus.wr.usgs.gov, 2014, p.1). On the other hand, small scale maps are best for travelling either by using walking or by car because they cover a large part of the land. 

25.0 References

Montana.edu. (2014). Understanding the Global Positioning System. Retrieved 30 December 2014, from http://www.montana.edu/gps/understd.html

Epa.gov. (2014). Geographic Information Systems (GIS) | How We Use Data in the Mid-Atlantic Region | US EPA. Retrieved 30 December 2014, from http://www.epa.gov/reg3esd1/data/gis.htm

Walrus.wr.usgs.gov. (2014). USGS CMG “Shapefile” Definition. Retrieved 30 December 2014, from http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/definition/shapefile.html

Iges.org. (2014). Shapefiles. Retrieved 30 December 2014, from http://www.iges.org/grads/gadoc/shapefiles.html

Earth.rice.edu. (2014). What are map projections? Retrieved 30 December 2014, from http://earth.rice.edu/mtpe/geo/geosphere/topics/mapprojections.html