Elimination-By-Aspects (EBA) Model

Elimination-By-Aspects (EBA) Model

Elimination-By-Aspects (EBA) model refers to a multi-attribute decision making theory in which a choice has to be reached via an iterated eliminations’ series. It is a brand choice theory or model representing ultimate selection as a series of several eliminations. Every alternative that is available while making a choice is seen as comprising of several aspects such as product features. At every stage of the process of making a choice, an aspect has to be selected with a probability that is proportional to the importance of that aspect for the consumer. All alternatives that are considered but do not have the aspects selected are eliminated. This decision making process continues until when there is a single alternative. It is at this time that the assumption is made that the consumer has chosen the remaining item.

How the Elimination-By-Aspects (EBA) model works

To make a choice, iterated elimination series are made. The person making a decision has to select an attribute every time. There is a probability of making a selection that is proportional to the perceived importance of the attribute, and eliminating all alternatives that do not have the attribute and selecting a next important attribute as well as proceeding in a similar manner until all but one of all alternatives is eliminated. This model is a stochastic lexicographic choice version and though there is no guarantee that it produces an optimal choice, it seems from the experimental tests that it is a characteristic of the multi-attribute process of human decision making.

Who produced the model?

This model was proposed by Amos Tversky, a psychologist, in 1972. The psychologist proposed that individuals evaluate a single characteristic of an option at a time starting with the feature that they consider as the most important. If the item does not meet the established criteria, it is crossed off the options’ list. The list of the possible choices keeps getting smaller as the items are crossed off the options’ list until a single alternative is eventually arrived at. This alternative is assumed to be the one that the consumer has chosen.

What are the strengths and weaknesses of EBA model?


This model avoids the independence from the irrelevant alternatives property of other choices’ models like the Luce’s Choice Axiom model. This attribute is usually seen as the appealing EBA model feature. The model has also led to the establishment of the other choice models such as the sequential or hierarchical choice models which include the Hierarchical Elimination Model as well as the Generalized Elimination Model.


The model is more difficult to apply and calibrate than other choices’ models.

Who uses Elimination-By-Aspects (EBA) model?

This model can be used by anybody when making decisions. In most cases, the model is considered as being used by consumers to eliminate the available options that lack a given attribute. The probabilities that result from this model are used in constructing demands. The demands are in consistent with a partial heterogeneity of the tastes and they can be linked to the spatial framework where the consumers possess convex distance’s perception. In EBA model, price equilibrium in the pure strategies is found where the highest attributes level’s cost is not very low. This leads to the attributes’ differentiation form being both vertical and horizontal.

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