Education Sample Essay Paper on Management Practices

Management Practices

Compare and contrast the materials from (The Supervisor’s Guidelines & Motivating Human Services Staff) Reid & Parsons series with “The 13 Management Practices that Waste Time and Money” in “Oops” by Aubrey Daniels


When comparing the materials by Reid and Parsons with the materials by Aubrey Daniels, several similarities can be established. The first similarity concerns the setting of goals. According to Reid and Parsons, the management needs to set performance goals. These authors argue that managers and supervisors need to concentrate on formulation of performance goals. They should do this in collaboration with the rest of employees. The authors argue that it is important for the management to communicate the expectations of the organization to new employees upon hiring them. This enables the communication of performance goals to the employees and provides them with a yardstick of primary and ongoing expectations (Reid & Parsons, 1995). Similarly, Aubrey Daniels takes in to consideration the setting of goals by the management where he argues that the management should set short-term goals that are achievable. This would aid in preventing the employees from overwhelming and frustration if they do not achieve aggressive goals. Once short-term goals are achieved employees would be motivated to continue working hard with the aim of achieving other goals (Daniels, 2009).

Another similarity in the materials can be seen where the authors acknowledge the recognition of employees. Recognition may be in the form of performance appraisal or through other means. According to Reid and Parsons, the management and supervisors can affect employee motivation through by recognizing the positive accomplishments and efforts by employees. Daniels also argues that performance appraisal can be effective in motivating the employees if it is done immediately for the success achieved rather than doing it once a year (Daniels, 2009). Recognition of employees can unfortunately fail in motivating the employees as argues in both materials. According to Daniels, the strategy of performance appraisal is disliked by both employees and the managers because it is done once in a year, hence ignoring the rest of the year. Reid and Parsons similarly argue that performance appraisal and employee’s recognition at times retains problems in the organization. This occurs when wages, which employers focus as the best incentive they can offer to employees, is used as rewards for performance appraisal or recognition of employees. Employees prefer concrete feedback for appreciation and hence salaries and wages are less motivating.


In his material, Aubrey Daniels believes that the ranking and evaluation of employees should not be done in organizations by the management. Ranking and evaluation of employees creates gaps among the employees. Some of the employees are ranked top while others are ranked bottom. In most cases, the employees who are ranked bottom feel like failures and their morale end up reducing. In contrast, Reid and Parsons believe that some form of employee’s valuation should take place in employment situations. They argue that when employees believe that they are doing a good job, then the employer should appreciate their good job. The appreciation would in form of promotion or through other means. As a result, the workers become motivated and continue performing their work at high levels (Reid & Parsons, 1995).

According to Daniels, performance appraisal and ranking of employees are some of the management practices that waste money and time. He therefore, disregards these practices and gives alternative solutions. On performance appraisal, he proposes the alternative of giving immediate feedback to employees for their success or failures rather than waiting for a specific period in the course of the year (Daniels, 2009). In contrast, Reid and Parsons argue in favor of recognition. According to them, recognition is an important aspect in any organization and it should be incorporated into the culture of every organization. Reid and Parsons propose several ways of employees’ recognition. These include following the basics of effective recognition, not forgetting long-term employees, watching out for pitfalls, and using other favorable strategies (Reid & Parsons, 1995). This proves that as Daniels dislikes the idea of recognition and appraisal, Reid and Parsons are in favor of the practice and that’s the reason behind their development of strategies for employees’ recognition.

Ways o f resolving discrepancies during supervision, coaching, and monitoring staff

  1. In an attempt to resolve discrepancies, as a supervisor, a coach, and a mentor I would work and participate with the rest of the workers who are under me so as to ensure that resolutions have been found. To resolve the discrepancies in an effective way I would evaluate, inspire and create an atmosphere that is friendly to all the workers. This would eventually lead to solving the discrepancies through promotion of self-motivation, professional development and learning. As a supervisor, a coach, and a mentor, I would create cohesion, build teams, resolve conflicts and shape the culture of the organization. I would also attend to diversity and ethical issues in all aspects in the process of resolving the discrepancies. This kind of supervision or leadership is essential as it improves the quality and the overall objective of solving discrepancies (Kouzes & Posner, 2012).


For many years, there has been a trend where senior colleagues guide the less experienced one in their professionals. This approach is effective as organizations have a duty to ensure the improvement of all personnel and instill in them the ability to deal with different issues in case they arise. New employees have a right to supervision, monitoring and coaching so that they can develop in them the necessary skills that are necessary in their profession. Supervision creates an impact on the advancement of the workforce and staff retention. Solving discrepancies through supervision will therefore aid in retaining the staff under supervision who would otherwise resign as a result of the discrepancies.

 A supervisor has an ethical and legal responsibility of ensuring that quality service is delivered to clients, and to ensure the maintenance of procedures and program policies. In the presence of discrepancies, it would be difficult to achieve ensure the maintenance of these obligations. Due to this reason, a supervisor wishes to resolve all disputes within his group to achieve the desired results. Resolving disputes provide an opportunity for learning, both for the supervisor and for the rest of the team that he leads. Skills are generally acquired through observation, practice, and feedbacks from supervision. Solving disputes hence act as an avenue for learning for all the parties involved (Kouzes & Posner, 2012).

  • Another method that I would apply in resolving the discrepancies would involve setting a setting communicating performance expectations and standards. It would also entail conducting appraisals to enable me to manage employee performance so as to achieve the most excellent results. To begin this process, I would collaborate with the employees to develop the standards of performance. I would develop a performance plan that would aid in directing the employees towards achieving certain goals. This would support their professional growth and prevent evolving of discrepancies either between the employees and the supervisor or among the employees. In an attempt to resolve disputes, I would always discuss the objectives and the goals of the organization throughout the year to keep the employees focused towards the achievement of common goals. I would also attempt to solve discrepancies by listening and acting on the feedbacks from the employees. This would be effective as all employees would present their disputes and their opinions for ease in decision-making (Kouzes & Posner, 2012).


A supervisor plays very important roles where his closest interaction with the employees occurs during coaching, training, and monitoring the performance of employees. When the performance standards and objectives are communicated, the supervisor has a duty to observe the employees’ performance and solve any discrepancies that arise to ensure that the standards are maintained and that the group keeps on track to achieve their objectives. Coaching on the other hand strengthens the communication between the employees and the supervisor and hence it becomes easy to discover a discrepancy as early as possible through the employees. This helps to solve discrepancies in their early stages before they get out of hand. Coaching also provides support to the employees as well as increasing their self-esteem. Self-esteem will in turn aid in quick decision making through common solutions.

  • A third way of solving discrepancies would be holding and following up discussions. Generally, different discussions will emerge in the process of solving discrepancies. As a supervisor, I would ensure that I hold and document the discussions, agree on actions to be taken and set a date for follow-up. The discussion would indicate the consequences of continued lack of improvement. With this kind of a document workers will most likely observe the agreed upon discussions and hence discrepancies will be solved (Kouzes & Posner, 2012).


Different times call for different actions and there might be a need to alter some guidelines to move with time. Discrepancies would occur because of harsh rule or oppressive regulations that would need to be altered. Discussions would in this case prove to be essential as new rules or regulations may be formulated or a revision of the previous ones may be done to accommodate changes in the organization. As a result, the discrepancies would be solved and the employees’ rights would be protected.

Reid, D. H., & Parsons, M. B. (1995). Motivating human service staff: Supervisory strategies for maximizing work effort and work enjoyment. Morganton, NC: Habilitative Management Consultants.

Daniels, A. C. (2009). Oops!: 13 management practices that waste time and money (and what to do instead). Atlanta, Ga: Performance Management Publications.

Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2012). The leadership challenge: How to make extraordinary things happen in organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.