Criminal Justice Research Paper Sample on Homeland Security

Homeland Security


This paper explores the reasons for the formation of the Homeland security in the United States, its implementation, analysis and reception among the US citizens with regards to the implications. The paper argues that in as much as the US has undertaken to invest billions in executing the plan, there are several effects that have come up along with the act. This paper points at some of this elements and also figures out the overall views of citizens towards the security plan.


The United States homeland security came into action in the year 2002 under the reign of President Gorge Bush. This was triggered mainly by the need to establish security reorganization in the country especially after the 9/11 terrorism attack in the United States. As a result of this reorganization, several departments were affected including the aviation sector, which was marred by extensive screening at the airport terminals. The terrorist attack in the US in September 11, 2001 led to the US government passing the bill called Patriot Act into law in October 2011. The patriotic law was the ground unto which homeland security laws ware formed under the homeland security department.

Aims of Homeland Security

One of the main intentions of homeland security was to deal with terrorism in the US as a Nation and in all the states. The law allowed the different state forces to coordinate with the national federal forces in sharing of crucial information to curb any terrorist threats. Other security fears like Anthrax attacks also accelerated the US government to ensure that homeland security changes are adopted across all the States. In the reforms, there were also substantive input amounts of public health system, which were to help in cases where there were bioterrorism acts. All the related cases were matched with special units that handled them in countering cases of terrorism and other associated emergencies.

Another reason for the establishment of the US homeland Security Act was to establish and give power to response instruments in dealing with terror menace. Homeland security department was responsible for making sure all American inhabitants are protected from activities of terrorists, limiting any chances of terrorism doings in the States and advance response services in order to reduce any terror related menace. It was mainly meant to respond positively in cases of any terrorist threats to all the American inhabitants.

Implementation, Analysis and Implications of Homeland Security Law

The full implementation of the law however was never immediate since it began in 2003 in stages due to the delicate changes and reorganizations involved. These are very vital since they determine the effectiveness of the implementation. This ongoing measure would take into consideration both the public and private sectors.


Several years after the enactment of the homeland, security plan has seen some significant enhancement of the security situation in the United States. There has been actually a reduced amount of terrorist cases in all the states. Additionally, several states have received sufficient fund allocations that help them to deal with security situations and other disaster occurrences, which have been beneficial too. There have been some loopholes in the plan like failing to effectively respond to disasters for instance Hurricane Katrina. This is because the plan mostly is giving much attention to terror related cases, which need to be re-examined.


In the stepwise implementation of the Homeland Security Law, information about terrorists is carefully gathered. This entails various security forces in the States and Federal government to use contentious means to gather the information. This provision was allowed by the Patriotic Act, which gave the government powers to conduct a severe inspection at records and documents on individuals held by third parties. Additionally, this act has also allowed government to carry out searches on data about people without their prior awareness and approval. The most adverse way of information gathering allowed by the government is the “tap and trace “means. In this case, the government is able to get the address data on the source and destination of a communication. All this information is meant to detect any possible terror threat. However, it has become a social problem among several citizens of the United States. It has severely contravened on civil liberties of innocent citizens. Their private lives are being compromised with this law. The security enforces in the law must therefore keep note of the civil liberties of the citizens in order to ensure the success of the homeland security.

Another implication of the homeland security strategy in the US is its cost and benefits. Several people argue that the cost effects of security should not be priced since it is a requirement for everyone. However, homeland security is one of the costly arrangements in the world. The amount of money allocated in the plan each year runs in billions of dollars. This question comes into effect if it is whether prudent for the US to spend so such billions in security  and several people are not sure if the plan has assured them of total safety. The American people are experiencing a financial crisis especially in the medical sector, food providence and maintaining homes, which have affected many citizens economically not mentioning other expenses like education. This money being spent in the security plan is so severe and painful to the economic stability of the United States and its citizens straining to maintain the budget through paying revenues. During the National Convention of Inter-nations Studies Associations for instance, one of the speakers Rear Admiral William who is also the vice director for strategic plans and policy for the US Defense Department said al-Qaida aim was to bankrupt the US. This would be followed by withdrawing its troops in the Middle East. This could be the case especially by looking at the US budgetary allocations for Homeland Security that goes into billions of dollars.

Homeland security assessment is one of the way in which the effectiveness of the plan can be judged. This is could be important especially in guaranteeing American citizens that the plan is worth the amounts that are being allocated to it. The main issue now becomes the way in which citizens view the success of the antiterrorism plan altogether. This is because there is no specific way in which monetary value can be attached to it because one cannot estimate exactly how much damage was prevented or lives lost were avoided. The effectiveness of the security plan depends on the citizen’s perception and views. Some individual will feel confident about the plan due to security reasons thus supporting it while others will not. Citizens’ perceptions will be the effects of the plan like disturbed by the infringement of private lives together with the straining budget affecting the US economy. This will lead to some supporting it to receive enough funding while others not being in support of it.


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Clovis, Samuel, Promises Unfulfilled: The Suboptimization of Homeland Security. Retrieved 22nd April 2013,

Fisher, Uni.(2007) “Deterrence, Terrorism,and American Values.”Homeland Security Affairs 3,Article 4(February 2007).

Mayer, A., Carafano, J., & Zuckerman,J..(2003). Homeland Security 4.0: Overcoming Centralization, Complacency, and Politics. 2011.  Retrieved 22nd April 2013

United States Government Accountability Office, Progress Made and Work Remaining in Implementing Homeland Security Missions 10 Years after 9/11, 2011. Retrieved 22nd April 2013,

Woodruff, Judy. Drastic Changes in Airport Security After 9/11 Stir Controversy. 2012. Retrieved 22nd April 2013