# Creative Writing Essay on Lesson Plan

## Lesson plan

Name:

Date: 05/25/2014

Subject: Mathematics

Lesson length: 1 hour

Theme: Operations and Algebra

Grade level: 3-5 (ages 8- 11)

Lesson Objectives:

1. The students will work with visual models and demonstrations to represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division
2. Learners will recognize the properties of multiplication and the connection between multiplication and division.

Common Core State Standards

1. Math.Content.3.OA.A.1/ CCSS.Math.Content.3.OA.A.2
Interpret products of whole numbers and whole-number quotients of whole numbers (Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2014)
2. Math.Content.3.OA.B.5
Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide whole numbers (Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2014)

Materials and resources

• Index Cards
• Student dry-erase boards, markers, gloves
• 40 tennis balls
• Handouts

Overview

The use of whole number visual models and classroom demonstrations enables students to gain a better understanding of multiplications and divisions and consequently develop greater insight into the concepts of real number multiplications and division. In this lesson, students will demonstrate the concepts of multiplication and addition using 40 tennis balls and use index cards for group work to represent and solve multiplication and division problems. They will analyze the demonstrations and identify common student mistakes in working with multiplication and quotients of whole numbers.

Lesson Development

Introduction or Anticipatory Set                 time 5 Minutes

• Connect to Background
• Who has ever had to share items before? Whom did you share them with? What were the items you shared?  How did you share them?  How did you divide them?
• Relate to Prior Knowledge
• Ask the students take a look at their rulers. What do you notice on your rulers?
• Possible answers: Numbers, Inches, Centimeter, Lines.
• How many lines are there in between two centimeters/ numbers/ inches/ lines? How do you think this was achieved?

Lesson presentation

1)         10 minutes

Tennis balls demonstration

• Give each student in the class a tennis ball
• Ask the students at random state how many tennis balls there are all together given that each has one
• Represent the total number of tennis balls as well as the number each student has using multiplication and division concepts.
• Take the balls back from the students and call out eight students to the front of the class
• Give five balls to each of the students and ask the rest of the class to determine the total number of balls.
• Use the concepts of multiplication and division to represent the total number of balls and the number of balls with each of the eight students

2)         10 minutes

Teacher to give out hand outs to each learner and write the pose the following expressions appearing on the hand outs on the board;

On the board;

Say: the empty boxes in the first set of expressions represent two numbers that when multiplied by 40 and 8 respectively, the answer equals to 40.

The second set of expressions of represent another two numbers that divide 40 to get 5 and one respectively.

3)         15 minutes

Pose the following expressions on the board

Say: the expressions in the first bracket have the same value. This shows that for multiplication of two numbers, the order of the whole numbers does not have an effect on the result of the equation. This is called the commutative property of multiplication.

For the second set of equations the expressions show that multiplication is distributive, this is referred to as the distributive property of multiplication.

Practice the problems

4)         10 minutes

Guided practice

Group work

Divide the class into small groups of 5 students per group and give each group a set of pre-prepared index cards. The cards comprise of word phrases and numbers. For each group, one student will read out the phrase aloud as the rest of the group work in collaboration to compute the multiplication or division problem. The students will then shift roles until every student has taken the roles of reading and working out the solutions.

5)         5 minutes

Independent practice

Give the students two exercise questions from the course text book and instruct them to complete them individually.

CLOSURE    Time: 5 Minutes

Say: algebra involves addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. In this lesson, you have learned how multiply and divide as well as the properties of multiplication.

Use Exit Ticket:

• Give each learner an index card and ask them to write their name on top.
• To show that you have understood the concept of multiplication and division in algebra, answer the following question on your card and submit it for marking:
• Name two properties of multiplication

Differentiated instruction

Differentiated instruction in this lesson is achieved by;

1)         Checkerboard puzzle (Jurek, 2013)

In the guided practice exercise, the groups were formed by grouping learners of different abilities in the same group. Each group of five contains at least two students of high ability in mathematics and the others are learners with difficulties.

2)         Think Dots (Jurek, 2013)

Through this activity, learners will be paired in mixed ability groups and given a set of algebra problems to solve. Each student in the group will then have to demonstrate to the partners how to complete their problem.

Assessment and evaluation

• Ongoing assessment will be done throughout the lesson; teacher will continuously monitor the guided practise and provide assistance as necessary.

• The teacher to give individual practice exercises and move round marking the student’s work
• Teacher to give homework assignments to be submitted for marking before the next class session

References

Common Core State Standards Initiative. (2014). Operations & Algebraic Thinking. Retrieved May 25, 2014, from Common Core State Standards Initiative: http://www.corestandards.org/Math/Content/OA/

Jurek, K. (2013). Differentiating Instruction in Algebra. Waco, Texas: Prufrock Press.