Free Term Paper: Comparative Book Review
After being born in 1837 in a rich family, Subhas Bose pursued early education in the European school called Cuttack. He was then admitted to the Revenshshaw Collegiate School. During his schooling, Bose seemed very intelligent and he always featured among the top students in his class. His ability for grasping subjects was great.
He also had great interest and willingness for pursuing his studies and venturing into his career life. Bose passed his Matriculation exams excellently with a distinction after which he joined the Calcutta University1.
In 1913, Bose enrolled in Presidency College where he continued his academic development. He pursued philosophy studies after completing his intermediate class. While pursuing his studies in Presidency College, Bose met with Dr. Suresh Chandra and the two became close friends.
Suresh was serving as the president of the Indian Trade Union Congress and he was still a medical studies’ student. Bose participated in the strike that occurred in 1916 despite being a leading student in the class. Consequently, a conflict ensued between him and the administration of the college.
 An Indian Pilgrim by Subhas Chandra Bose (Netaji Works: Volume one. An unfinished
autiobiography) ISBN: 13-978-0195641486.
The strike was caused by a professor who assaulted students. However, revenge was taken against the college professor by a ranging Nationalism wave that led to retaliation by Indian tridents. Bose was among the expelled students after the strike. This halted his career for a while.
Bose thought that this marked the end of his career and his future appeared uncertain and dark. Nevertheless, he did not seem apologetic for what had happened. On the contrary, he was strongly joyful and satisfied because to him, what he had done was great. To him, he had fought for his people’s rights. What he did not know was that the expulsion marked the start of his career.
The events that occurred were a foundation of his career. He stood up for the people’s right with composure and courage during the crisis. He had also developed self-confidence which saw him through his future. He also established a leadership’s fore-state and developed a character that would enable him to face his future fearlessly.
After about two years, with Sir Ashutosh’s efforts who recognized and appreciated his courage and ability, Bose was permitted to continue with his studies. Consequently, he joined the Scottish Churches College and pursued a B.A in philosophy. He featured at the top in philosophy in the university. Later, he underwent military training at the University infantry. He went to England in 1919 to participate in the Indian Civil Service Examination competition while supposedly sitting for the M.A exams. At this time, he found himself on the wrong side of the authorities’ rule for stating that a circular was unfavorable for poor Indians. However, there was a change on the circular.
2 The Indian Struggle by Subhas Chandra Bose, Sisir K (editor) ISBN: 13-978-0195641493.
However, there emerged a time of a call by the Motherland from political bondage. There was a launch of a movement against Montfort Reforms by the Indian National Congress’ Nagpur section. This was a revolution that swept the entire country. It was an exceptional movement that compelled lawyers to end their employments, servants in the government to resign and students to leave school among several other changes. It was at this time that Subhas Bose met with the C.R.D.s who quit his bar attendant’s job.
While in England, Bose could no longer control himself. He did not want to continue serving a country that Mahatma Gandhi considered satanic. As such, he declined to fulfill the promise that he had made with friends and eventually resigned his civil servant’s position so that he can respond to the Motherland’s call. He went to share the afflictions and woes of his people. This was when he started his relationship with Das.
Later, Subhas was appointed as the Das’ lieutenant and later the National College’s principal. In addition, he was made the Publicity Officer in the Bengal Provincial Congress Committee. He produced several statements while occupying this position in response to the criticism of the work of Congress in Bengal. This enabled him to silence critics while satisfying the public. His achievement was noted by everybody including diplomats.
Nevertheless, he was appointed as the Swaraj Sevak Sang’s captain where he offered an excellent lead in the University Training Corps. There was a successful Hartal after a visit to India by Prince of Wales. Subhas Bose was among the leaders attending the occasion. Additionally, Subhas Bose led the Hartal as an indication of spirited protest of the Indian people against British rule that was oppressive to the Indian people. The movement led by Non-Cooperators caused opposition and criticisms from the Anglo-Indians and the Europeans. There were many insults and abuses poured by Cooperators newspapers against non-cooperators. There was a release of patrol cars from the Fort to the Congress and the streets. The British Government also illegalized the volunteer organizations. Congress offices were raided and valuable documents were also seized. Subhas and other leaders were also arrested at that time.
Generally, the life of Subhas Bose was filled with passion and commitment for his motherland since his early school life. He developed beliefs and values about politics. His background in education overwhelmed that of the other Congress leaders including Gandhi and Nehru. This was due to the fact that the foundation of his education was his beliefs, achievements and values on which his career was established.
In 1927, Bose noted in his writing that one needs to love new things, become insane due to uncertainty and express open and free mindedness by countering all barriers that might limit the life of a person by destroying them via utter destruction. Bose expanded the philosophy of Stuart John Mill that universal independence must have universal education its foundation. As such, Bose advocated for universal and compulsory education for all.
During his life, this was his aspiration. If he was living today, Bose would express his support for Millennium Development Goals whose target is the provision of primary education to every child across the globe. He would strive to actualize his aspirations. The character and beliefs of Bose were influenced by the social, cultural and political environment where he grew up from.
3 See An Indian Pilgrim by Subhas Chandra Bose.
He remembers that despite the people having moral activeness, he lived in a politically silent country. Among the political heroes of his time were Iswar Chandra and Keshav Chandra. These were men of great moral status and stature although there were never anti-British or anti-government rule at any time3. Actually, Keshav Chandra at some point perceived the British government a divine dispensation and intervention. Iswar on the other hand avoided interacting with this government because he was a non-cooperator despite being a person with a highly respectable and independent character.
Similarly, his father had great morals and he influenced other family members although he was against the rule of the British. This is why he was ready to accept government leader and prosecutor posts at a go. Cuttack was a small town whose population was about 7,000 people. However, it had several factors that were vital for the Bose Chandra’s growth. The tradition of this town was unique and it had existed from the time of the early Kalinga’s kings.
It acted as a pilgrimage while bosting of popular artworks that included those of Udagairi and Konarak. In addition, it served as the Orissa’s ruling chiefs and British government’s headquarters. The combination of these factors created a favorable environment where a child with ambitions similar to those Subhas to grow. This environment imparted the virtues of a city life and country life in him.
Since his childhood, Subhas Chandra became used to a life of having many brothers, sisters, aunties and uncles. Additionally, there were many servants who assisted him in herding goats, horses, cows and even other works. He lived in a home that was constantly open to visitors that included his distant relatives. Consequently, Subhas Chandra became used to a life around visitors and servant as well as a class. His attitude towards other people including servants and his mentality were changed by the town and family experience. In addition he had Muslim neighbors. Nevertheless, Chandra Bose was not even able to recall a time when he considered them as different creatures. Festivals were among their anticipations and they usually treated them as their own.
During his days, there were no conflicts among Muslims and Hindus. Consequently, his ability to live and work with people of different origins and thinking capacity were broadened by the family environment as well as the practices and beliefs that he was exposed to.
Similarly, he was brought up in a middle-class level family. For this reason, he did not know what poverty meant. As such, he did not develop bad characters that include greed, corruption and selfishness. He also did not lead an extravagant lifestyle that would have supported a supercilious mentality in him or ruined his soul.
Actually, Bose involved himself in politics actively from his early age. He decided not to remain deaf and blind to the other citizens’ plight while pursuing a career that would ensure his privileged well-being and material gain. Consequently, during the Indian Civil service’s probation, he proactively and purposefully wrote to C.R.D.s seeking assistance. Therefore, he joined engaged in political activism.
As a result, Subhas Bose was selected as the Chief Executive Offer of Calcutta Corporation following the election of Das as the Calcutta’s mayor. At this time, Subhas was 27 years old only. Bose made a great achievement by becoming the CEO of the Calcutta Corporation at his age. Actually, Subhas had a major principle aspiration, self-trust and ambition of having the unlimited ability of achieving great things.
Majority of Bose’s achievements are attributed to the willingness of sacrificing personal needs and desires for a worthy cause. In some parts, the foundation of his ability was religious faith and belief. He wrote his mother a letter via Vivekananda’s influence in which he said,
“Mother, how much longer shall we sleep? How much longer shall we go on playing with non-essentials? Shall we ignore the wailings of our nation? Our ancient religion is suffering the pangs of near death – does that not stir our hearts? How long can one sit with folded arms and watch this state of our country and religion? One cannot wait anymore – one cannot sleep anymore – we must now shake off our stupor and lethargy and plunge into action. However, alas! How many selfless sons of the Mother are prepared, in this selfish age, to completely give up their personal interests and take the plunge for the mother? Mother, is this son of yours yet ready?”4
These were indeed inspirational and mature words from fifteen years old boy.
The whole life of Bose was devoted to the redemption and service of his country that was under the oppressive rule of the British. He was seeking independence at expense of personal comfort. He was jailed 11 times by the administrators without charges or trial. Consequently, he spent several years in jail or exile away from the family as well as under poor or bad living conditions. Unlike most people who have selfish attitude, Bose was ready to sacrifice personal freedom and pleasures for a worthy reason.
He also had evident views on secular side. His attitude towards religions was impartial. Concerning religions, Subhas view was that the Indian government ought to have been neutral and free. Religious choices were supposed to be personal since as a private affair, the state ought not to have interfered with it. According to Shah Nawaz, Subhas Bose noted that there ought not to be state or religious differences. As such, Subhas Bose compelled all Hindus, Silks and Muslims to believe that all of them were sons of one country. He advocated for caste system’s abolition and untouchability holiday’s introduction that was to occur each year from 6th April to 13th April in India5.
He supported inter-castes marriages fully and apprehended that India’s development depended on the encouragement of the downtrodden untouchables that were considered as the most constituents in the society. To him, caste discrimination was evil and it had to be eliminated.
Additionally, his stand on women empowerment was very firm. He realized that economic challenges and illiteracy were the causes of women serfdom because they made women dependent. He spoke and advocated for women education. In addition, Chandra established a program whose aim was to ensure educational, vocational and physical training among women. He also appreciated women’s role in the civil movements led by Gandhi where the role of women of addressing the crowds publicly and leading campaigns during elections was equal to that of men.
5 Ibid 25.
Women were also imprisoned; they endured suffering and torture while fighting for freedom in their country. Bose also believed strongly that a country could not fight to acquire independence successfully without women’s participation. As such, he established a regime known as Rain Jhansi. This was a first regiment after the Second World War. In addition, he appointed a first woman to a position of a cabinet minister in Azad Hind Province.
Nevertheless, his opinions on the methods, objectives and nature of the struggle were diametrically opposed to the views of the other Congress leaders. He was considered controversial due to his views on the armed resistance and collaboration with Axis power. He was allied to foreigners including the Japanese and the Germans. Consequently, he was considered an opportunist which rubbed all his acquired positive titles.
It is highly probable that Chandra was considered ignorant of the influence that Nazi Germany of Hitler would have on India or that he was practicing real politic on the basis of the calculations that he was ready to shake the devil’s hand if that is what it would take to attain India’s independence. His actions reflect disapproval and dislike of annulment and racism of the Nazi in the democratic institutions in Germany. As such, he was charismatic in the fight for independence in India rather than having a vision for the future.
Other leaders especially in Congress were overwhelmed by Bose’s education and this was beneficial to his struggle for independence. Bose had for instance studied and realized that using force would enhance the achievement of independence. This is because it enabled him to employ military actions and non-cooperative movements.
6 See An Indian Pilgrim by Subhas Chandra Bose
He noted that no single country had attained independence without bloodshed. He was in support of the slogan that says “Give me blood and I will give you independence6.” Consequently, he was unhappy with Gandhi when he declined to prosecute civil disobedience campaign in a sustainable and strong manner.
He found himself in a controversial situation with Gandhi when he said that Swaraj was only achievable through the use of some force. Fortunately, he won support from the National Movement and Congress Party for taking this position. He won the position of the president of the congress twice which was against the wishes of Gandhi.
In addition, the 1947’s events vindicated him. It was at this time that his action of being the Indian National Army’s leader hastened the Independence Day’s events. Although they lost the war because of the military campaigns that were ineffective, they sparked off a conduct that was unacceptable to the British Government. Former officers of INA ere tried and this initiated movement and riots from the Indian public because they could not tolerate public prosecution of freedom fighters and patriots.
Consequently, the British government gave up fighting, backed off and issued pardons. This made the British rule shorter by a minimum of fifteen to twenty years. Actually, this was a major reason why the British government gave India independence in 1947.
Subhas, Chandra Bose. An Indian Pilgrim: An unfinished Autobiography, Volume one. Netaji Works, 1998. ISBN: 13-978-0195641486.
Subhas, Chandra Bose, and Sisir Kahar. The Indian Struggle. 1948, ISBN: 13-978-0195641493.
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