Interview with an Older Adult
Old people play a fundamental role in society, as they offer free guidance to the younger generation on various issues, which include relationships, health, finance, as well as political issues. However, old people usually encounter several challenges when they retire because society may isolate them, or they do not make good plans about it. The major challenge among older adults is health, where majority of them suffer from chronic illnesses. I decide to conduct an interview with Johnstone Pillemer, one of my grandfather’s closest friends, to understand his past life’s situation, his current, as well as his plan for the future. Pillemer is a retired banker, aged 71 years. He is now a retiree, who spends most of the time in his resident, with her wife, who is 67 years old. Their children, who are now adults, live away from their home, and they only come to visit them whenever they are free. This has made the family to hire a house-help, who undertakes the household chores, in addition to facilitating their medical attention in case they fell ill.
Report on the interview with Mr. Pillemer
I asked Mr. Pillemer about his childhood days in my first day’s visit, and he was eager to explain that he was raised in the urban setting, where all facilities were within a few kilometers from their home. Pillemer had grown as a healthy boy without suffering from serious illnesses that could demand spending some time in hospital beds. The environment was conducive, with minimum polluters. Just like any other child, he was fond of playing with his toys, as well as his pet dog, which he nicknamed Boyd. He was the last born in a family of three, which include two brothers and a sister. Pillemer claimed that his father was a wise man, who kept on reminding him of showing respect to elderly people because one day, he will be at the same situation as them, and he would demand respect from young people. He advised him that society has a role to play on the life of the older people. As a part of the society, he should visit the elderly people in hospitals, or in their homes, and assist them in any way that he deemed appropriate. Pellimer grew up knowing the essence of taking care of the old people, who are not even family members.
During my second day in Mr. Pillemer’s house, I decided to probe on how he spent his young adult life until the retirement age. Pillemer has worked in various banks with the borders of the US, and whenever he was transferred to a given branch, he moved with his family to the new city. Having a health insurance cover was a necessity in the banking sector, thus, Pellimer was enrolled in a private insurance cover that covered for him and the family members. Pellimer was also involved in community programs that offered voluntary services to older people in his home area, where he learned a lot from counselors and health care providers who joined the course. Inadequate facilities to cater for the elderly people, as well as financial constraints, were the major problems in the provision of health care to older people (de Guzman et al 309).
When Pillemer attained 45 years, has diagnosed with chronic lower respiratory ailment, a disease that made him spend several days in the hospital bed. Luckily, he has a health insurance card, which assisted him to cover all the medical requirements. Although he recovered at that time, the disease kept on disturbing him even after his retirement. Now that the bank cannot pay for his medical needs, Pillemer had prepared for such a time by enrolling in Medicare, the federal social insurance program that caters for the health needs of people over the age of 65 years. Pillemer is glad that Medicare has helped him to recover from his ailment, as well as assuring his family of his survival.
My third day with Mr. Pillemer focused on his future, as well as the role of society in taking care of the elderly people. He vividly explained how society could assist in taking care of the elderly people through various community-based programs. He emphasized that community is a place where people live in harmony, socialize, and undertake their daily responsibilities, and community-based programs should assist elderly people to face their future with ease through meeting their physical and mental needs. Although he has two sons and a daughter who are working, he feels lonely, and sometimes, depressed. He misses the time that the family used to live together. He hopes that they would learn from his noble deed and invest on their future.
Pillemer underlined the essence of community programs in facilitating for good health among the elderly people in society. He mentioned about senior centers that handle elderly people with disabilities. According to Stanhope and Lancaster, senior centers provides education, recreation, counseling, case management, therapies, among other services, to a group of older people who opt to remain independent in the community (368). These programs are capable of facilitating treatments of those who are severely affected by various illnesses and offer high quality care to the old people.
Individuals can also plan for their future by joining Medicaid or Medicare, depending on their levels of income. According to Pillemer, these programs are essential to cater for the health of individuals in their current life, as well as during their retirement, when they are unable to earn a living. Pillemer regrets that he has not saved enough to live the way he would have liked to. He thinks that children should reciprocate and provide their parents with resources that they lack, especially at this era of technology, so that they can eradicate loneliness. However, he is happy that he has laid a health foundation for his children, who have emulating his deeds.
Living a health life is fundamental in the life of retirees and elderly people in society. A big lesson that the young generation should learn from Mr. Pillemer is that they should be prepared to face the retirement by investing on health insurance, as well as good relationship with their family members, who can assist them in such a crucial time. Old people should not be perceived as a burden, as they still hold an essential part in the community. Children should take the responsibility of ensuring that their elderly parents receive the health care that is appropriate to their survival. Apart from individual efforts in catering for the health of the elderly people, the state and community has the capacity to identify, as well as execute appropriate strategies to promote the health of the aged people.
de Guzman, Allan B., et al. “Concept of Care, Caring Expectations, And Caring Frustrations of the Elderly Suffering from Chronic Illness.” Educational Gerontology 38.5 (2012): 299-313. Academic Search Premier. Web. 22 Nov. 2014.
Stanhope, Marcia, and Jeanette Lancaster. Foundations of Nursing in the Community: Community-oriented Practice. St. Luis, Mo: Elsevier, 2014. Print.
Missions of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
One of the CIA’s missions is to gather information that is supposed to reveal the plans, intentions and the potential of the US adversaries, from which decisions are made and necessary actions taken. At the same time, the CIA is mandated with the responsibility of keeping and safeguarding the United States secrets that aid in national security (Mello, 2000). The information may be collected overtly through the readership of overseas newspapers and magazines or surveillance of overseas television and radio stations. On the other hand, the information may also be collected covertly through listening devices, hidden cameras or satellite photography. The CIA carries out these operations through the creation of multidisciplinary centers to tackle aforesaid high-priority concerns like nonproliferation, counterterrorism, and counterintelligence (Wagner, 2007). The CIA operations are also concerned with international organized crime and drug trafficking, environmental and firearms control intelligence.
An operational example of this mission is in the employment of the CIA officials in the US embassies across the world (Mello, 2000). The officials carry out counterintelligence, and other specialized operations that relate to overseas intelligence and national security. Another example is in the worldwide fight against terrorism in relation to information gathering and the crackdown on al Qaeda hot spots in different parts of the world.
The second mission of the CIA is to produce accurate and timely analysis of the intelligence information to the president and all the other government officials that create and implement the policies of the US national security. The analysis could be anything from a translated document aimed at providing insights, warning and opportunity to the president and policy makers, whose responsibility is to protect and advance the interests of the US. The CIA is the leading agency responsible for the provision of global intelligence reports in all manner of issues ranging from political, social, technological, economic and military settings (Wagner, 2007). They are involved in forging strong partnerships between numerous intelligence collection centers and the analysis centers, and enhances the correlation and evaluation of the information allied to national security and the provision of proper distribution of the aforesaid intelligence.
An example of this mission in operation is the 2003 war in Iraq, where the CIA officials arrived early in 2002 and prepared a battle space for the subsequent invasion of the US military forces (Mello, 2000). Another example is the capture, interrogation and analysis of intelligence information from Sheik Mohammad that led to the discovery of Osama bin Laden’s hideout in Abbottabad.
The third mission of the CIA is to execute covert ops upon the orders of the head of state to prevent threats and to accomplish the US policy objectives (Wagner, 2007). This kind of operation is carried out in circumstances where openly operating against the adversary would be considered disadvantageous. Such operations are usually unlawful in the targeted nation and regularly considered to violating the laws of the sponsor nation. Covert actions may comprise of disruption, assassination, supporting coups or subversions.
The president indirectly communicates his wish for a sensitive operation with the government officials in a boardroom and it is the mandate of the CIA officials, who have internalized the idea, to carry out that wish. An example of this mission in action is the saga involving the Iranian Contra Affair where the President Reagan’s administration was advancing the proceeds of firearm sales to Iran towards the Contra rebels in Nicaragua to aid in ousting the left-wing Sandinistas (Wagner, 2007).
Mello, T. B. (2000). The Central Intelligence Agency. Chelsea House Publishers.
Wagner, H. L., & Mello, T. B. (2007). The Central Intelligence Agency. Infobase Publishing.
Financial & Legal Aspects of Procurement
The marginal cost of a product is that incremental cost that arises when a firm produces one extra unit of a product (Drury, 37). The marginal cost of a product is arrived at when all the fixed cost associated with production of a product is absorbed by that product and only the variable costs remain. This means that the marginal cost is associated with the variable cost of product that are yet to be accounted for but have the capacity to be measured and accounted for.
The marginal cost of a product is usually made up of variable cost but sometimes a portion of the fixed cost is included in it. Expenses such as administration overheads and selling expenses can be apportioned and reflected in the marginal cost of a product. Therefore, the marginal cost of a product can be calculated by finding the change in cost of producing an additional unit divided by the change in quantity produced.
Marginal costing is a technique that can be used to help improve and sustain the economies of scale. Marginal costing will provide useful information regarding the production of an additional unit of a product. Instead of just growing a business blindly without the concerns of whether the growth is useful, marginal costing can be used to help aid the decision of growing a business. This type of assessment is in relation to the diminishing marginal utility. When the marginal cost of producing a product continues to increase as the business grows, the returns expected from such a growth will continue to decrease. This will result in diseconomies of scale, which could have been avoided if the marginal cost of the product was considered before growing the company.
Opportunities caused by marginal costing
Marginal costing is effective in controlling the cost incurred by the business when it needs to produce an additional unit of a product. The marginal cost can be compared with the marginal revenue and the management can decide on the best action to take based on the results. If a product marginal cost is less that the product marginal revenue then it will be unwise to develop that product because it will only increase the cost of the company. Therefore, marginal costing is useful in eliminating capricious allocation of overheads that will only increase the company’s total costs.
The simplistic nature of marginal cost will help a buyer make informed decision regarding the purchase of a category. The rationale behind this is that the buyer only needs to have the knowledge about marginal costing and then he can make a purchase that will be beneficial to his portfolio. With marginal costing, the buyer will be able to determine whether the category will result into a loss or a profit in the future. If the marginal cost of purchasing that category outweighs the marginal revenue of purchasing the same category, then the buyer will know it is not a sound business decision.
Every product or service has inputs that affect the cost of producing or providing that service. The inputs that affect the cost of any material or service are known as the cost drivers of that product or service. Therefore, any changes in the cost driver of a product will result in a change in the overall cost of any product. This is the reason why managers strive to determine the cost drivers of a product in order to be able to reduce the cost that the product incurs. The knowledge of cost drivers is insightful when an organization is looking to reduce its cost in order to gain a competitive advantage in the industry.
In order to establish the cost driver of a product properly, the management needs to develop a cost model. Below is an example of a cost model of producing cars and it illustrates how different cost models affect the total cost of producing a car.
The model above indicates that the cost of producing a car is affected by various elements. The elements in this case are the ones marked as cost drivers and any change in the cost drivers will affect the cost of producing a car. Below the effects of the major cost drivers will be analyzed.
Number of Setups
In order to produce a car, certain equipments and machines are needed in the production process. The machines needed need first to be set up and prepared in a way suitable for production. This process is a production process and it consumes time and resources. Therefore, the costs associated with setting up machines are included in the cost of producing the car. Therefore, to determine the machine set up rate, the organization can use the number of setups as the cost driver.
Number of Purchase Orders
This inputs required for producing a car need to be ordered from the suppliers. Therefore, the cost associated with ordering inputs can be apportioned based on the number of orders made. The number of purchase orders can therefore be used as a cost driver when an organization needs to apportion it overhead costs to different departments.
Number of Machine Hours
Production process requires the machine to be used in the process. This has the effect of depreciating the machines. Other costs that are associated with machine usage are the maintenance cost incurred and the repair costs. In order to determine the cost associated with machine usage the organization can use the number of machine hours in a production process as the cost driver. Therefore the cost of associated with using the machine can be calculated by multiplying the number of machine hours and the rate estimated per hour.
Number of parts
The cost associated with the assembling department can be calculated using the number of parts that have been assembled. In other instances, the weight of the parts assembled can be used to calculate the cost incurred in the assembling department. In the case of producing a car, various parts are produced then assembled together. The number of parts required to complete a whole car can be used as a cost driver to determine the cost incurred.
Number of Inspections
Organizations have the obligation to test and inspect their products if they are fit for final consumption. This is a safety measures and it is required by law in order to protect consumers from consuming harmful products. Furthermore, organizations need to ensure that their products are of the right quality in order to maintain their market share. Therefore, these cost associated with this department can be calculated using the number of inspections done on the products. The costs in this department include the salary of the experts inspecting the elements, electricity, and other forms of equipment need to test the products. Therefore, the cost driver that is appropriate for this department is the number of inspections done.
Number of Labor Hours
Supervision is required in order to ensure that the production process is transpiring as planned. Supervisors are paid salary, which will affect the cost of the car produced. Therefore, to determine the cost of such a department, the number of hours that the supervisors have worked can be used to determine the cost of the department. The number of hours worked by the supervisors can be multiplied by the rate that supervisors are paid in order to determine the cost of the department. The number of labor hour will also be used to apportion the overhead incurred in producing one car.
“Competition is just not about asking 4 or 5 suppliers to quote”. This statement is aimed at broadening the scope that most purchases have in terms of competition. The statement points out how many individuals think that by asking a number of competitors to bid for a product you are increasing competition between them. This however is not the case since competition between suppliers is affected by various factors. Such factors include the type of product being offered and availability of the product in the market. Considering various factors affecting competition, the four strategies below have been developed to ensure the right decision is made in relation to competition.
Critical commodities are products that are critical to the ongoing operations of the business. Such purchases have the tendency to be available through a few suppliers and they tend to be quite expensive. They involve large expenditures that might cripple the business in case of a wrong decision. The purchases also have the characteristic of being complex in nature and their quality is critical to the livelihood of the business. When dealing with such a commodity it is not advisable to invite suppliers to quote and compete for the purchase order. This situation is usually delicate and the best solution will be to find a supplier and form a partnership with them. It will be beneficial if the organization increases the role of such a supplier so that they can handle the purchase order as diligently as possible.
This strategy involves heavy negotiations with the supplier and an inherent understanding of the supplier process management. Due to the nature and importance of such a purchase order, he firm need to have a contingency plan in case the supplier is not able to deliver that order.
Many alternative products that the firm can choose from characterize routine commodities (Moore, Robert &Clifford 37). Furthermore, numerous suppliers in the market supply these products and therefore they are perfect match for a competitive strategy. These products are used in every day transaction and they rarely have a huge impact on the operations of the organization in the event that they are not supplied. The qualities of this product also rarely affect the quality and the operation of the firm.
The best strategy for such products will be to simplify the acquisition process because of their level of significance. The firm can also automate the purchase of such orders since there are no heavy negotiations needed. A firm can create a system that scrutinizes tenders and offer the order to the lowest bidder. This is beneficial to the firm since it will cut cost and reduce the labor required in procuring such commodities.
Leverage commodities are commodities that usually involve high expenditure on the part of the purchaser. Even though these commodities involve high expenditures, they are usually ample in the market place. This means that they are easily acquired and have various alternatives. The characteristic of these products are also perfect for a competitive strategy between the purchaser and supplier. The best character of the product that facilitates a competitive strategy is the fact that the products are price sensitive therefore; a change in price will have a effect on the quantity of product demanded and supplied.
A firm therefore needs to maximize on the commercial advantage presented by these products. The firms need to ensure that the suppliers constantly compete for the purchase order for these products. Since the products involve huge investments the firms stands to save on costs if the suppliers continue to engage in price wars in order to be competitive. This is aided by the firm’s effort to promote competitive bidding.
Bottleneck commodities have complex specifications that require intricate manufacturing process (Moore, Robert &Clifford 37). The availability of these products is scarce and only a few parties in the market can supply these products. Bottleneck commodities also have huge impact on the operations of the organization and can affect the future operations of the organization. These products are characterized by advancement in technology and innovations.
The best strategy for dealing with these products is to ensure that their supply is continuous by managing suppliers. The firm can undertake to help develop new supplier of the product in order to ensure their operations are not threatened by a shortage in supply. It can do these by introducing new supplier in the market so that the uniqueness of the existing suppliers can be diluted. The technological aspect of such a product needs to be considered before making any contracts. Since technology is dynamic, the firms should engage in short-term contacts so that they can always have a competitive advantage once the technology of the supplier is outdated.
Techniques Used in Competition
Different techniques are used to help a firm carry out a competitive or collaborative strategy. These techniques are the ones that differentiate between the two strategies. In competitive strategy, the following techniques are applied to ensure a successful strategy:
- Promote competitive bidding
- Exploit market trends
- Little negotiations
In a collaborative strategy, the following techniques are used:
- Heavy negotiations
- Manage supply
- Increase role of supply
The main difference between the two strategies is that the techniques used in a collaborative strategy are aimed at showing the supplier that firm depends on them, while in a competitive strategy it is the vice versa. A competitive strategy clearly states that with or without your supply, the operations of the business will continue. The firm therefore does not intend to be friend the supplier unlike in a collaborative strategy where the firm intention is to make the supplier feel as part of the firm.
A tender bond is issued to act as a surety in the case that the tenderer fail to deliver on the requirements of the contract (Luk 238). Therefore, it will act to cushion the organization if an individual who tendered his bid is unable to perform his duties. The tender bond will be damages that the organization incurs after its process slowed down because of the inability of the wining tender to perform his duties.
A tender bond is also used to differentiate between serious suppliers and jokers in the industry. Therefore, any supplier who is sure he can meet the requirements of the tender will not have a problem in providing a tender bond. This is because he is assured that his bond will not be forfeited by his lack of performance. The organizations intention when it issued the tender bond was to invite tenders from serious suppliers. The tender bond persuades suppliers who are not sure of their ability to supply not to bid for the contract. By issuing a tender bond, the organization ensured that it saved its time and resources by only going through tenders from reliable suppliers who have the capacity to deliver on the contract.
Disadvantages of a Tender Bond
Since a tender bond requires that the supplier provide the amount of the tender bond upfront, then it will reduce a supplier’s cash flow. In case where the tender price is huge, then the tender bond will be a huge amount. This will affect the working capital of the supplier and might affect its operations. However there are cases where you bank might not want the whole amount, this will be helpful to the supplier and will not affect his capital flow.
The supplier also face the risk of the tender being called by the beneficiary without any specific reason. This mostly happens when the tender was unconditional (Luk 238). This will damage the finances of the supplier since he will lose money for no good reason.
Tender bonds also increase the cost of the supplier. This is because suppliers take insurance bonds in order to protect themselves for huge losses in case the beneficiary calls for the tender bond. This reduces the net profit that a firm would have received in case they did not apply for a tender bond.
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Drury, Colin. Management and Cost Accounting. London: Thomson Learning, 2007. Print.
Luk, Kwai-wing. International Trade Finance: A Practical Guide. Kowloon, Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong Press, 2011. Print.
Moore, Nancy Y, Robert W. Bickel, and Clifford A. Grammich. Developing Tailored Supply Strategies. Santa Monica, Calif. [u.a.: Rand, 2007. Print.Bottom of Form
Sojourner Truth and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
For a long time, women were viewed as lesser beings than men in almost every culture in the world. Both Sojourner Truth and Elizabeth Cady Stanton are women activists who in different ways tried to fight for women rights. Both of them existed at a time when women were not viewed as fit to lead politically or in public offices. Other than just being kept at homes, women privileges were limited, thus, making them inferior to men morally, physically, and intellectually. Therefore, activism against women rights started in the ancient days and this paper explores the lives of Truth and Stanton, with a view to show the gravity of women oppression in the society.
Men were the only group of people who would get opportunities to speak for a community. Men and women were not supposed to interact freely for whatever cause, something that made these two groups of people lack understanding of each other (Lewis n.p). In this connection, it is the view of Truth and Stanton that women are equally powerful as men. This idea of feminism has had overwhelming effects on the Western culture in the last century and is now invading the Eastern culture. Women required someone to air out their grievances for them to saved from men (Truth 29). In education, boys and girls went to different schools and as usual, boys’ schools had better facilities to facilitate learning as opposed to girls’ schools; after all, a woman’s education was not that important. In a family set up, all the property was recorded under the man in that family and in case of a divorce; the woman would be left with nothing. At around 1972, female activists began to fight this unfair treatment of women. They used varied ways to prove that women could actually do things that only men were allowed to do.
Truth was born a slave in the New York City at a time that slavery was the norm, especially for the blacks. At an age of nine, Truth was sold into slavery after her mother’s master died. From then, Truth was sold to many other people where she would do farm jobs among other slavery tasks. Her experience in slavery made her to see the injustices that women were facing and more so the black women. “how can you say that women require to be helped to jump ditches and I have never seen any man carry me?” (Truth 28). After her time of service, Truth worked as a domestic in New York, where she gained a reputation as a gifted preacher. She moved throughout England and New York preaching against slavery and women discrimination something that not many people were willing to stand for at the time. As a former slave and a black woman, Truth connected easily with her audience and gained many followers. She used her own experience to prove that women could do the same tasks as men.
Truth in her speech “Ain’t I a Woman” stated that, “I am a woman and I have to say I have as much muscle as any man and can do as much work as any man. I have chopped, husked and mowed, can any man do more than that? I can eat as much as any man can eat and for intellect all I can say is, if a woman have a pint and a man a quart, you need not be afraid to give us our rights” (28).
On the other hand, Stanton grew up in a well up family allowing her to get access to better education, unlike the rest of the women at that time. Through her father, Stanton gained knowledge in matters of law. She was often concerned of the little attention women were gaining in the society even at the family level, and as a result began to read her fathers law journals. Stanton was a bright student and although she qualified for the best colleges, she could not attend since they were only male colleges. “I wish you are born a man because these brains will go on to waste just because you are a woman” Santon’s father lamented. That in itself explains how women were viewed at that time. When Stanton and others ran away from college in protest for women’s rights, she joined Weld, a renowned human activist. Her father was supportive of her course, even though he tried to discourage her at first by asking if a woman of her position was disadvantaged as a woman. Being well acquainted, she reminded him of the many laws that favored men at the expense of women, from which he began to give her law related examples that would further illustrate her point. Stanton began her quest for ending slavery and women discrimination and she was instrumental in revolutionalizing women’s rights to vote.
Lewis wrote Stanton’s speech, which stated, “ we have not met here to discuss our rights or wrongs and not to propose the legislature to go into details into our social lives but to uplift woman’s fallen divinity upon men species” (n.p).
Both Truth and Stanton have been viewed as great female activists who fought against slavery and female discrimination, although they were from different courses of life. Truth is from the minority group, the blacks, while Stanton is from the elites, those people who were not as much affected by women discrimination as the rest of the world. This disparity creates the difference in which the two women approached the issue of social prejudice. Truth addresses the issue from her own personal experience while Stanton is guided more by what she sees other women go through. In her speeches, Truth quotes from her own experience during slavery and also uses her lame hand to show that women can still work even when not fit. She is driven by the fact that she feels qualified as a woman and urges the rest of the women to feel the same other than hiding back to the mediocre life that men subject them to. She uses repetition and keeps asking, “Aren’t I a woman, women should rise up and fight for their rights at the same time making them feel worth” (Truth 29) . On the other hand, Stanton uses law to address her audience. She uses several examples from the way other women are treated in public, although as her father puts, she is not among the disadvantaged. In other words, Stanton is fighting for other women’s right and not her own, since we can see her receiving public recognition.
Another difference between the approach in which Truth and Stanton use top address women discrimination is the fact that Truth ran her campaigns individually, while Stanton collaborated with other activists. Although Truth gained many followers, she would run the show on her own on most occasions. Stanton, on the other hand, collaborated with many people, such as her college fellows like Weld and her husband on latter stages. Her father also being a renowned lawyer had great influence on her work. These partnerships with great people created a platform for her to address issues of equality at high level (Lewis n.p). As a result, she managed to influence the government and the elites where some of the issues she suggested are now laws.
As a politician, Stanton was always disgruntled with how female delegates were handled. At a political rally, women delegates could not be allowed to sit with the rest of their male counterparts, instead, they were given seats in hidden places. Stanton fought against this kind of treatment among other issues between male and female delegates. Similarly, Truth fought against a similar issue about sitting arrangement in the transport sector. As a result, a law was formed that indicated equality in seating arrangement among the travelers. As a frequent traveler in Washington, she ensured that the law was followed to the letter and incase conductors defected from that she sued them.
Truth used the injustices done to her family to illustrate her points. On the other hand, Stanton uses her family’s support to get those in power to listen to her quest. Her father and her husband are the two main family members who show a lot of support for her work although not publicly on her father’s side. In addition, Stanton’s level of education allowed her to interact and address social injustices done on women from an intellectual point of view. Her knowledge in law and matters of the land acted as a proof that women can still hold office just like men at work places. Her focus was mainly on the intellectual ability of women in that women could perform better in education and workplaces as men. Her fight was to ensure that the education sector provided equal opportunities for the girl child as they did for the boy child. As stated earlier, girls and boys did not attend similar schools even when their intellectual ability proved similar since education for a girl child was considered a waste. On the other hand, Truth addresses the masses considering the fact that she did not have much of the formal education. As Stanton focused on bringing social justices from the higher levels, Truth used her influence to move the masses. Truth handled the normal day-to-day activities from the ground, issues like sitting arrangements in public transport among other things. She mostly debated about the physical ability of a woman by stating her own achievements yet she was a woman. Although her fight is mostly for the black women, she employs her audience to see women in general as equal to men.
Although there are differences in how these women approached social injustices among women, their course is almost similar. They both had a glimpse of what was going on in the society and did not like it. Although Stanton was from the elite group of the society, she had a taste of this kind of social injustice, for instance, by not attending the kind of college that suited her intellectual ability. Both their courses were successful in one way or the other, and both became part of the great female activists who ever lived. Although Truth did not publish any of her speeches, maybe due to her inability to communicate in English, scholars have picked and continued her work, thus making her course a success. Moreover, Most of Stanton’s speeches have been read throughout the world and have influenced many antifeminist movements.
In conclusion, although these social injustices are not as severe as they were at the time, human activists continue to fight for equality between men and women. The 21st century activists borrow a lot of skills from these two theorists. Their works continue even though they are long gone. One can say that they set the pace for what the world is enjoying today, a world where everybody is somebody regardless of their color, gender, race, or disability.
Lewis, Jones. We Now Demand Our Right to Vote. Women’s History. 2014. Web. 19 Feb. 2014
Truth, Sojourner. Aint I a Woman? Women’s Conventions. (1851):28-29. Web. 19 Feb. 2014
The use of internet in business activities has been of great benefit to most businesses. Internet has been providing these businesses with the unprecedented access to the global as well as local markets (Burgess, 28). The internet is used in advertising, selling, finding new markets, communicating with suppliers and customers, carrying out various financial transactions, among other activities. However, the use of the internet has exposed businesses to online scams, data theft and other cyber crimes.
The issue of information security is not only a concern in big businesses but also in small businesses. In fact, statistics show that small businesses are at great risks since they are the easy target (Roessing, 61). This is because most large businesses have been pursuing the information security measures with significant resources. These resources include people, technology, and their budget. Because of this, such big organizations have become more difficult to be targeted by the cyber criminals and hackers. The hackers have now diverted their attention to small businesses since these tend to be less secure. Therefore, it is important for the owners of small businesses to understand the concept of information security as it relates to their businesses. These businesses have to secure their information, networks, and systems appropriately.
Most of the small businesses do not have high priority for the security of their information, networks, and systems. However, this matter is very important for the employees, customers, well as the businesses trading partners (Burgess, 30). The employees have expectations that the business appropriately protects their sensitive personal information. On the other hand, the customers of these small businesses expect their sensitive information to be respected. Furthermore, it is their expectation that such information will be give sufficient and appropriate protection. It is the expectation of the current as well as potential business partners that the status of the information security is given sufficient security. They always seek an assurance that their information will not be put at risk in case they engage into business activities with the small businesses. Usually, they expect proper level of levels of security that is similar to the one implemented within their own systems as well as networks.
In order to understand the issue of information security, it is important to understand the concept of information security threats and vulnerability. In its simple term, a threat refers to an event or a person with a potential for negatively influencing a valuable resource (Roessing, 18). On the other hand, vulnerability refers to the quality of a given resource as well as its environment, which allows the realization of a threat. In the context of the system and network security, threats are always present. However, they are mitigated by proper usage of security features. The people that cause threats to small businesses include the internet hacktivists, experimenters and vandals, cyber criminals, and information warriors. According to the SBC Computer Security Library, these people cause various threats to the business such as denial of service. They may blackmail the business and request a lot of payment before they can allow the business activities to return to normal. They may expose the business to malicious codes and viruses, which may enable them to access important information about the business. They may delete or alter this information. Threats may also originate from within the business.
Generally, the information of the business may be compromised in different ways. Protecting the information against confidentiality refers to ensuring that unauthorized people do not access sensitive information about the business (Lubbe, 66). Leaking of the sensitive information may be because of poor security measure within the business systems. Integrity refers to preventing unauthorized people from causing errors as well as omissions that may alter the data of the business. This is achieved through proper data storage. Malicious attackers may also corrupt or delete information, which is very essential for correct functioning of the business activities. Availability is concerned with the prevention of unauthorized persons from withholding the business information or resources. It generally requires that information be freely available to all authorized users.
Authenticity, as applied to information security refers to the process of verifying the users when they log into the system. In other businesses, smart cards as well as retina cards are used. This is accomplished using user names and passwords. Non-repudiation refers to ensuring a computer user cannot falsely deny their actions (Khosrowpour, 68). It provides the undeniable proof that such users performed certain actions including money transfer, sending messages, or authorizing purchases. Authorization is the process that allows only the authorized users to access the business’s sensitive information. This process has to use an appropriate security authority in determining if a user can access the resources.
There are various methods and techniques for protecting data breach and theft. One of the methods involves protecting the information, systems, and networks from damage by spyware, viruses, or other malicious codes (Lubbe, 88). This can be achieved using updated anti-virus as well as anti-spyware. In addition, installation and activation of software firewall on the business systems is also vital. This must be always updated on each of the business’s computers. Moreover, it would be necessary to provide security to the computers when connecting to the internet.
Burgess, Stephen. Managing information technology in small business challenges and solutions. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Pub., 2002. Print.
Khosrowpour, Mehdi. Managing information technology in a global environment: 2001 Information Resources Management Association International Conference, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 20-23, 2001. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Pub., 2010. Print.
Lubbe, Sam. Managing information communication technology investments in successful enterprises. Hershey PA: Idea Group Pub., 2007. Print.
Roessing, Rolf von. The business model for information security. Rolling Meadows, IL: ISACA, 2010. Print.
“SBC Computer Security Library.” NIST.gov. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2014. <http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SMA/sbc/library.html#04>.
The Cult of True Womanhood: Its Impact on Social Reform
The Cult of True Womanhood or Cult of Domesticity came into existence at a time when the US’ social structure was transforming from a two-tiered hierarchy (lower and upper) into a three-tiered (lower, middle and upper) model. This transformation began in the early 1980s and lasted up to the American Civil War. The cult of true womanhood was a system of beliefs that outlined how a woman should be like and behave. It stated that women should remain at home and take care of the family while their husbands go out to work. In essence, it constrained the women to their homesteads whereby they were expected to carry out all domestic functions and let their men focus on earning an income for the family. This cult also advocated beliefs that women should be perfect wives and mothers. They were also labeled as the moral guardians of the society. The church and printed media were the primary proponents of this line of thought. Contrary to expectations of supporters, the cult of womanhood actually motivated women to engage in the social reform movement of the 19th century.
Impact of the Cult of True Womanhood on Social Reform
The ideal of womanhood had four essential characteristics: piety, purity, submissiveness and domesticity. All ‘good’ women were expected to cultivate and practice these values.
- Piety: Americans of the 19th century believed that women should have a particular propensity for religion. Therefore, the modern woman of the 1820s was considered as a certain kind of Eve (Bible’s first woman), working with God to take the world out of sin through her passionless, pure love and suffering. Religion was promoted as a very good thing to all women, a relief for a potentially fidgety mind, a kind of occupation to them.
- Purity: Americans, especially men, highly revered female purity. In the absence of sexual purity, a woman was no ordinary. Instead, she was considered a lower form of human being, unworthy of their love and definitely undeserving of their company. To weigh up the loss of purity brought not only hysteria but also tears to young women at the time.
- Domesticity: A woman’s place was confined to her home and household chores. She was supposed to be active at those tasks that will maintain and fulfill her piety and purity. All other tasks outside her home were left to be left to the men.
- Submissiveness: This was probably the most feminine out of the four virtues. While men were encouraged to be religious, only a few of them actually were. While they were persuaded to be pure, not many people expected them to do so. However, men were never encouraged or expected to be submissive. They were supposed to be movers and actors in life. Meanwhile, women were expected to be passive bystanders and submit to men. Their fate lay in the hands of their men. They were warned that this was God ordered things to be (Welter 152).
While women’s magazines and books as well as churches encouraged this belief of the ideal woman in the 19th century, other social forces were at work that impelled women to change so that to play a more central role in the society. Contrary to the proponents, the very perfection of the domesticity movement carried within itself the roots of its own destruction. Some women came to understand that if they were considered little less than angels, then they should play a more creative role in running the society. The motivation to participate in events was fuelled by the chaos that were being caused by men.
Out of the four characteristics, the virtue of purity appears to have remained throughout much of the 19th century. As such, it was perhaps the least important in transforming the history of women in the United States. The other three were dynamic, thereby giving women ideas that allowed them to activate manipulate their visions and, thus, their history and fate. One use women made of the cult was to broaden their domesticity though relief work and charity. The number of charitable groups expanded significantly in the 1820s and 1830s. Involvement in these activities ensured that women could not be tethered exclusively to their private homes.
Another way that the gender ideology encouraged women to participate in social reform was that it compelled them to bond in women-only sittings. The belief system, by limiting the sphere of women, had meant that women could only meet in family, social, church and group settings. However, this only motivated them to bond with one another. During the 1830s, they were centrally involved religious work and charitable endeavors. Some of them assumed the role of missionaries. In the 1840s, their meetings went beyond discussing the religious agenda. Most of them engaged in social issues at the time such as abolition of slavery and women education. Some feminists at the time formed study clubs to educate women. This would later inform their social reform efforts (Thomas 1).
As it would be expected, many privileged women were bothered by the restrictions placed on them by the gender ideology. Nevertheless, this ideology was not challenged extensively until the late 1940s. Still, women found within the ideology’s boundaries some openings for confidence building and action, especially through its emphasis on their responsibility to serve others and educate children. For instance, successful women writers used literature to raise awareness on public issues even as they used the platform to convey their opinions on important social issues at the time. Even though the women’s suffrage movement of the mid 19th century did not gain adequate traction for several decades, women who contributed in sanctioned publications or became members of acceptable church and women organizations started to make a difference (Stansell 326). Such women would play a central role in the abolitionist movement and the fight for women education.
One woman who used her influence to mobilize women to fight for equal rights was Elizabeth Candy Stanton. Just like other privileged women, Elizabeth was against the ideology that barred women from professions and prevented them from attending college. She also did not approve of the perception that women who went against the cult of true women were chastised since they were considered indecent. In the 1830s, Elizabeth went to Troy Female Seminary, the only place she could receive the best education specifically tailored for women. After marrying Henry Stanton, she moved to the small town of Seneca Falls. While there, she was starved of intellectual companionship. Even though she was a successful writer, she was never given the respect that her talents deserved. Elizabeth was dissatisfied with the role that women like her had been assigned within the community. As a result, she was determined on expanding women’s rights and enhancing their position in the society (Accessible Archives 1).
Through her activism, Elizabeth was able to unite women to stand against male oppression. Alongside Lucretia Mott, she successfully organized the first ever meeting for women’s rights in the United States. The gathering was held in 1848, at Seneca Falls. Just like the Declaration of Independence, this women’s rights movement came up with the Declaration of Sentiments, which essentially demonized oppression by men. Even though it took decades before women could be granted equal rights to women, the seeds for women activism had been sowed at this meeting.
The cult of true womanhood had extensively promoted the idea that women are supposed to be religious. This notion had far-reaching consequences for the fight against slavery in the mid 19th century. While feminists were quick to point out that the gender ideology had curtailed their rights, a significant portion compared their plight to that of African American slaves. Consequently, the women’s rights movement at the time also doubled up as the abolitionist movement. Most of the early women abolitionists were Quakers (Christians). While men had formed abolitionist movements prior to the 1820s, women were barred from joining such groups. During the 1830s, Lucretia Mott tried to join the Quaker movement but she received stiff opposition from men. Her experience demonstrated how oppressive the male dominant society was. Thus, other feminists used her plight to draw the parallels between the treatment of women to that of slaves. To advance their advocacy, these women used religious teachings.
The end of the American Civil War marked the end of slavery within the United States. Even though women did not fight in the front line, their activism and efforts played a crucial role in the Northern forces victory. Even though this victory did not bring gender equality, it paved the way for more activism by women that expanded their rights considerably. For example, they were able to attend colleges in the later decades.
While the cult had restricted the role of women to their homes, some important events meant that they had to participate in economic development. For example, the United States (especially the North) underwent rapid industrialization in the 19th century. This compelled free women in working class households to get into labor. Some of them worked as street vendors, garment workers, tavern keepers etc. Starting in the 1820s, young women provided the labor force for textile factories. Some women even became breadwinners of their families. For instance, women’s right crusader was a very successful editor and supported her family financially. Harriet Beecher Stowe earned more than her professor husband. This turn of events is not what supporters of the cult of true womanhood had envisioned.
The cult of true womanhood had placed firm restrictions on women. For example, they were supposed to be submissive to their husbands and accept their fate. They were also expected to remain at home to nurture their families. However, this gender ideology did not completely silence them. Instead, it motivated them to engage in social reform. Through religious gatherings and charity events, women educated each other, found a common voice and fought against male oppression. Comparing their plight to that of slaves, they also stood against this practice. Other events such as industrialization meant that they could not simply depend on their husbands. Thus, while the cult of true womanhood was aimed at pulling women down, it ended up giving them a platform to cause a revolution in the society.
Workplace Safety and Insurance Appeals Tribunal (Ontario)
WSIAT is an agency of the ministry of labor and it is the final level of appeal to which dissatisfied workers and the employees bring disagreements and disputes regarding the workers compensation issues in Ontario and is independent of WSIB (workers safety and insurance board). Its decisions are final and therefore are unquestionable. The public interest mandate of the tribunal is to hear and decide appeals that have been brought before them by the workplace safety and insurance board as well as other matters that may be assigned to them under the Workplace Safety and Insurance Act Of 1997
Fundamental guiding principles guiding the Workplace safety and insurance appeals tribunal (Ontario
The tribunal, being a public system adheres to all procedures and guidelines stipulated by the WSIAT (work safety and the insurance appeal of 1997). This being the case, it has laid down principle that guides its operation in the execution of its mandate. Some of the guiding principles include the following.
- To have an accessible appeal in relation to workers and employers disputes
- To Providing superior quality services to the workers, the employers and all the other stakeholders involved
- To have experienced and knowledgeable decision makers who are capable of making logical and informed decisions
- To process a given dispute or case in a timely and efficient manner
- To provide easy access to information regarding the compensation laws and the processes involved as well as
- To effectively and efficiently coordinate with the WSIS partners in the course of an appeal determination so as to ensure fairness and accountability in their undertaking.
Procedures in place for the tribunal
The appeal has laid down practices and procedures in place and some of the latest appeals practices include those practices that are related to the intent to object form as well as the time limit to object, and concept of credibility among other policies are in place. As indicated, the tribunal is guided by section 131 of the WSIAT, this act does not give pre mandated procedures, and therefore gives the board express jurisdiction to determine its own practice and procedure in relation to any appeal, application, proceedings, or mediation. In case during the proceedings a conflict arise between parties as to the practice direction and a given guideline, the practice direction would prevail. But all in all, when a case is brought up, the prehearing process starts, followed by the hearing, and then the post hearing.
All appeals that are brought to the tribunal are decided by the board, and are decided either by the vice chair, or the vice chair, or a panel of three. These three parties include the respondent, the responder and the appeal chamber. Despite this fact, in certain instances, and upon the board studying the appeal, it may decide to advice the members to the appeal to consider alternative dispute resolution mechanisms. In this case, the board advices the parties on the advantages and disadvantages of presenting their appeal to the tribunal and that of the mediation so that the parties can make informed decision on the matter. All in all, the ADR process is an efficient one as the parties can decide ion the pace that they intend to mediate in. at the same time, it is also cost effective meaning that the litigation costs and other costs associated with the appeal like the experts witness account are done away with. Through the use of ADR, the parties are able to hide the company’s privacy details since the mediation does not take place in public but in private.
If the parties opt to undergo the tribunal’s way, the board ensures that there is procedural fairness. This is in regards to various issues regarding the responder and the respondent, in terms of issuance of notices, evidence presentation among other factors like expert witness and witness surveillance. This being the case, the board ensures that there is fairness by requiring the parties to give contact address through which they use to contact them in case they are required at the tribunal. At the same time, prior to attending, the tribunal writes to the participating parties notifying them of the hearing date. The parties are supposed to set a hearing date but if they fail, the board fixes the date. Since the hearings are conducted in English or French, the party which does not speak either of the language is given an interpreter. There is a three weeks’ notice which the tribunals gives the parties to prepare for witnesses in order to produce evidence
Many prehearing procedures take place before the commencement of the appeal hearing. These processes include the notices of appeal (NOA) by the person intending to make an appeal. The confirmation of the appeal through a letter, application for time extension if applicable, access of the information subject to appeal, mediation processes to try and solve the case out of the tribunal, prehearing conferences to update the parties of the expectations of the tribunal, disclosures, surveillance evidence production of documents and summons among other processes.
After the prehearing process, the parties are scheduled to report to the panel at a later date to start the hearing. This is determined by various factors including the workload pending in the tribunals file, the urgency as well as the source of referral. During the hearing, there are various ways in which disclosures are handled. Disclosures enable the parties to the appeal an opportunity to understand the case, to prepare for the hearing, to consider if they can mediate instead of going to appeal, to prepare documents and evidence, as well as identifying another information that should be needed in the preparation of the hearing. Based on the Act, all the parties are supposed to disclose all evidence to the other party three weeks before the hearing date commences. The materials to be presented like the medical reports should be availed during disclosure. The disclosures usually require three weeks but certain exceptions including the submissions for the law and tribunal disclosure of updates apply. The tribunal requires all the witnesses to be disclosed on the COA, including a summary of their evidence and the number of witnesses to attend.
Procedures in place regarding vary depending on the condition. In the determination of jurisdiction, the board has the mandate to jurisdiction on all WSIB final decisions that a party is dissatisfied with (Workplace safety and insurance para). When dealing with a party to the appeal that is absent, or failure to attend by the respondent within 30 minutes, the tribunal may opt to start the proceedings without the said party. In case of failure to attend by theappellant within 30 minutes of the hearing, the board may decide on the case based on the information presented, or may declare the case inactive for 3 months. In case of non-communication within the tree months, the tribunal may withdraw the case or take any other action that may be considered appropriate.
Adjournment requires the hearing to be postponed and occurs when one of the parties writes to the tribunal indicating so. Because of the workload of the tribunals, the parties are expected to prepare for the hearing and be ready to attend on the specified date. The strict adjournment policy does not allow for adjournment and therefore leads to non-expediting of the hearing. All in all, adjournments that are made before the hearing is expected to be made and a copy sent to the tribunal indicating the reason for the request and sent to the other party requesting them to confirm adjournment. In case of adjournments after the hearing has begun, the appealing may refuse to grant one and thereby promoting the party to attend. The absence of one party may not render an appeal to be adjourned, and where the adjournment has been brought, various conditions may be looked at including whether the need to adjourn supersede the hearing, whether there will be any prejudice upon grating the adjournment. Upon request, the panel may impose condition for future conduct but only after the testimony of the available witness is heard.
Admissibility of evidence
The board uses Surveillance evidence and determines whether it meets the board’s requirements. The board scrutinizes all evidence and weighs the admissibility. When dealing with witnesses, any party intending to bring a witness is expected to be presented before three weeks to the hearing or at the earliest possible time. In case of an expert’s witness, the board verifies his credibility and in certain times may use his evidence. In the case of expert witness, the panel considers various factors concerning the person including education, certification, knowledge and skills, training and expertise, affiliations among other factors. If the tribunal is satisfied that the person is an expert, disclosure of the expert must be done soonest possible, but not later than three weeks prior to hearing. In the submission, the expert report will be required, the expert’s CV as well as a letter for the experts report. The party who files for the expert is the one that pays him fully, though the panel may pay where the expert’s opinion is important in decision making. An expert witness is that person who gives opinion based on training, education, or experience (Currier and Thomas 524). The board must recognize the person as an expert before he/she can be given the opportunity to give expert witness.
To determine credibility of the witness, the board undertake investigations and therefore are equipped with some facts regarding the appeal. This helps them in weighing evidence and determining the outcome. They also use the laws set out to determine the weight of the evidence. Documentary evidence in an appeal should be brought prior to the appeal date.
In the determination, hearing and presentation of the case, advocates may be present to represent either of the parties. At the same time, the media and interveners may be present during presentation.
In the determination of alternative dispute resolution, the board usually employs the following process
- The request by either of the party to the appeal to enter into mediation
- The acceptance by the appeal and the issuance of an appropriate mediation process
- Agreement of both parties of the mediation
- Signing of the consent form at the mediation and agreeing to participate and engage in the mediation process. .
- Allocating mediators from the board
Challenges and benefits of ADR the tribunal/board
One of the advantages of ADR is that it leads to efficiency especially when both parties are in agreement. At the same time, it may lead to time savings. With the use of ADR, confidentiality and privacy regarding some company aspects can be maintained. In terms of costs, the ADR process if cost effective since the litigation costs, time wastage would be reduced. It can also lead to the implementation of new strategies to sort the cases under the tribunal.
The challenges however of this approach includes the fact that if the mediator take asides, it may not lead to mutual understanding. The mediator may also act in partiality, thus compromising the outcome. The parties to the ADR who represents the disputes have various skills, but Generally speaking, the practitioner should be well versed with the mediation process and should be aware of the labor laws as well as public relation skills. Generally, university education or higher level of skills in relevant fields can be appropriate for the practitioner.
Decision making by the board
Once the post hearing stage of the appeal is complete, all the materials regarding the case are left with the vice chair or the panel (if there is one). There is no communication between the parties and the chair or the counsel office until such a time when the decision will have been made and released. The decisions are solely made by the vice chair and is not helped by the council staff to write up the decision. These decisions may take time and upon completion are mailed to the parties. In case there is need for post by the tribunal are published at the board’s website where one can gain access through inputting the key word, or searching the required decision by reference, decision number, release date and so forth.
Rights of appeal
The decisions by the WSIB are appealed to the WSIAT before the expiry of six months. It should also be known that the final decisions of the WSIAT can be appealed only after a final decision have been made. A notice of appeal (NOA) is therefore filed to the tribunal indicating the why the made decision is being considered to be incorrect and therefore ought to be appealed (Macintosh, Para).
Code of conduct
There is a set code of conducts for the members participating in the appeal and include
- The fact that the members shall conduct themselves personally and professionally so as to enhance and maintain public confidence, objectivity and impartiality
- That members shall act in accordance to the applicable laws
- That members shall not condone or commit unethical issue and shall not invoke others to the party to do so
- That the members should act in transparency and in an accountable manner personally and professionally
- That the conflict between the parties shall be resolved in the favor of the public interest.
Media and the board
The media is allowed in the boardroom as observers, but in certain cases requiring privacy, they are not allowed. All in all, the mediaprohibited to participate in the proceedings. Various articles about the tribunal have been published in the media. One of such case entailed a man who had gone on a hunger strike for 10 days protesting what he termed as injustice being done by the tribunal for not hearing his case that occurred in 1991 when he used to work at Baycrest arena in New York, and was injured in the process (Inside Toronto para). This is a tribunal decision no. 2159/09 where it was ruled that the limit on mental stress policy of the WSIB violated the charter of rights and freedom (Mondaq para).
Currier, Katherine A, and Thomas E. Eimermann. Introduction to Paralegal Studies: A Critical Thinking Approach. New York: Aspen Publishers, 2010. Print.
Inside Toronto. Man ends 10day hunger strike after WSIB grant appeal request (2014). Web. Accessed on 22-11-2014 from: http://www.insidetoronto.com/news-story/4235053-man-ends-10-day-hunger-strike-after-wsib-grants-appeal-request/
Macintosh, Jon. VA Disability Claim: A Practical, Step-By-Step Field Manual for Active-Duty Service members and Veterans on How to Prepare, File, Maintain, Win and Appeal a Service-Connected VA Disability Claim Without Going Insane. Adagio Press, 2014.
Mondaq: Canada: WSIAT: Limits to entitlement for mental stress violate the charter (2014). Web. Accessed on 21-11-2014 from: http://www.mondaq.com/canada/x/314584/employment+litigation+tribunals/WSIAT+Limits+To+Entitlement+For+Mental+Stress+Violate+The+Charter
Safety, Ontario Workplace, and Insurance Appeals Tribunal. “[Notice of appeal and revised appeal procedures].” (2001).
WSIAT. Why is WSIAT an Expert Tribunal. Web. Accessed on 21-11-2014 from: http://www.wsiat.on.ca/english/about/expert.htm
Understanding our Economy through Investment
The present value is that sum of money that would be needed today, and by using certain reigning interest rate would give rise to a given future amount of money (Mankiw, 2014). Every investor has to gestate this concept in mind if s/he wants to obtain a higher return for the future. The formula can be expressed as;
PV = K
Where; K – represents the discounted future amount, i – the interest rate (represented as a percentage and but expressed as decimal in the formula) to be compounded either annually, semiannually, quarterly, monthly or yearly basis and t – is the number of period between the current date and the date where the present amount will worth the future forecast, e.g. a lecturer who has a high school daughter would want to save sum of money in his account today for his child’s future education in the next 2 years. The total sum he expects in the next 2 years is $500, 000 and he’s certain of getting a 25% interest per annum for his savings account. How much should he start depositing to his account? This is calculated as below;
PV = K
PV = 500, 000 = $320, 000
For him to be in a position to get $500, 000 in the future, the present value that he’ll have to deposit in his account at the moment will be $320, 000.
With regards to the above illustration, as the interest rate increases, high chances of opportunity cost for the future amount also increases thus the present value of the amount to be obtained in the future decreases. On the other hand, when there’s a decrease of the interest rate, the opportunity cost of the future fund also decreases hence the present value for the above payment will raise. Before an investor consider either of the options, s(he) has to evaluate investment real rate that will be determined through getting the difference of inflation rate from the market rate. This will help in choosing one of the best investment options to garner a good return in the future. Both the corporate bonds and long term investments are considered to be more risky to short term investments and government bonds thus interest rates are usually higher.
The Federal Reserve being described as independent within the government has a mandate to ascertain that the regulation of the circulation of money is isolated from the political pressure that may arise in U.S. Fed has two parts structure: Board of Governor which is the central authority situated in Washington, D.C, 12 Federal Reserve Banks who are appointed across the country in a decentralized network, and Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) that is responsible for formulating monetary policy.
The Board of Governor – also known as Federal Reserve Board, is appointed by the president and consists of 7 Board of Governors members who are later confirmed by the senate before resuming their role. To shield the state from political crisis that may arise, they serve a 14 year term. The chairman and his deputy are approved by the senate to serve a 4 year term which can be renewed after their appointment by the president.
Federal Reserve Banks – includes 12 Federal Reserve Banks. These are nongovernmental organizations that are set up in the same manner as the private corporations, to operate in the interest of the public. The reserve Banks have their own board of directors that comprises of commercial banks representatives who are also members of Federal Reserve System. Their presidents are appointed by the board of directors and approved by Board of Governors.
Federal Open Market Committee – this in the body that is responsible for the monetary policy making and constitutes of 12 voting members. Seven of them are members of the Board of Governors and five members are Reserve Bank presidents who usually circumvolve. Even though the Federal Open Market Committee is entitled to make its own decisions and pass them to the Congress, the head of Federal Reserve System is expected to report to the Congress on a regular basis.
Money market is that place at which the amount demanded and supplied meet to determine the nominal interest rate. The demand curve represents the quantity of money that is in demand for a certain interest rate. People would rather hold less money and have higher interest rates on bonds and other investments therefore the demand curve will have a downward sloping. On the other hand, the supply curve represents the quantity of money that can be supplied at a given interest rate. The curve for money is vertical because it does not depend on interest rates but rather the ultimate decision made by the central bank. The point at which money demanded equals the quantity supplied is referred to as equilibrium point (Boyes & Melvin, 2012). The factors that would influence the demand for a product are categorized into two; first, household determinants such as income, the price of other goods, ones taste and the necessity for the product and secondly the market demand. This is influenced by the price of the product. An increase in the price will lead to the decrease in the product demanded and vice versa. Though there could be exception to this where there are inferior goods, at times of conspicuous consumption and when there is speculative demand within the market. An increase in price of the complement products will lead to a decrease in the demand, and an increase in price of one substitute good would lead to a fall of its demand thus the demand of the other substitute.
Mankiw, N. (2014). Brief Principles of Macroeconomics: Present Value: Measuring the Time Value of Money. P. 178-184
William, B., & Michael, M. (2012). Macroeconomics: Foreign Exchange Market Intervention. P. 303-306
Code of Business Ethical Conduct
Ethical business practices are known to provide companies a significant competitive advantage over their worthy competitors. To establish and sustain an ethical business culture, companies have always developed a code of ethical conduct that guide their business operations, employee relations, and even their interaction with clients, other companies, and the society at large.
Coca-Cola’s Code of Business Conduct
Coca-Cola is a United State-based beverage manufacturing industry. The company was founded in 1982, and has developed over the years to become a multi-national company, with business operations is almost every country across the world. The leading Coca-Cola brands include Coca-Cola, Fanta, Sprite, Minute Maid, among others. Coca-Cola’s success in selling its products around the world is largely attributed to its franchising strategy. Through this strategy, the company has been able to domestically manufacture all its important concentrates in the United States (U.S.), but has franchised the bottling business to independent firms across the world (Gong, 2013, p. 47). Coca-Cola is among the world’s most valuable brands.
Coca-Cola attributes its global success largely on its rich culture of integrity and ethical conduct. The company interprets integrity as the ability of its employees and the company to act honestly and treat one another, its customers, partners, suppliers and consumers fairly, and with much deserved dignity. Furthermore, Coca-Cola acknowledges that the code of business conduct has been instrumental in helping it establish and sustain ethical conduct. Coca-Cola’s code of business conduct identifies three issues that are critical to its success, namely, acting with integrity around the globe, integrity in the company, and in dealing with others.
In the “acting with integrity around the globe” issue, Coca-Cola clearly explains what is expected of every employee of the company. For instance, this section requires everyone to comply with the company’s code of conduct and law, regardless of the location. It requires all employees to make informed judgments, and even avoid exhibiting any improper behavior. It insists that its employees should consider their actions and ask for guidance when in doubt. Coca-Cola managers are expected to encourage a culture of ethics and compliance, and also respond to questions and concerns raised. Those raising concerns are assured of anonymity, confidentiality, and appropriate protection against retaliation.
The issue of integrity in the Coca-Cola Company has also been identified as critical to its success. This is particularly true as Coca-Cola’s employees cannot be expected to act with integrity across the globe without beginning ethical conduct within the Coca-Cola Company. This issue highlights how the company’s employees and management teams are expected to deal with the company’s records, assets, and information. For instance, they are required to ensure the accuracy of all the company’s business and financial records. This is particularly important because ensuring accurate recordkeeping and reporting would be a reflection of the company’s reputation and credibility. Furthermore, it would ensure Coca-Cola complies with its legal and regulatory obligations. Secondly, Coca-Cola requires its employees to protect the company’s assets, and ensure that such assets are in the intended manner. It prohibits individuals from using the company’s materials and equipments for personal benefits. This rule is important to the company’s overall success as it is meant to ensure that all Coca-Cola’s assets are entirely used to benefit the company. Finally, employees are required to safeguard the Coca-Cola’s nonpublic information. The rule covers a wide range of aspects, such as contracts and pricing information, marketing plans, staff information, and even the technical specifications of its products. This rule is critical to Coca-Cola’s success as its ability to dominate the market is largely attributed to the highly secretive formula that has been used to manufacture its leading brands for years, for example, the Coca-Cola soft drink.
Finally, the issue of integrity in dealing with others is important because the company’s success is largely dependent on its external relationships. It is for this reason that the company requires its employees and businesses to deal fairly and lawfully with all entities it encounters, for instance, governments, customers, suppliers and consumers, and even competitors. The company prohibits any forms of bribery when dealing with the government, and prohibits its employees and business units from participating in political activities while representing the company. This rule has helped the company maintain political neutrality and work favorably with governments across the world, thereby contributing to its years of business success.
PepsiCo Code of Business Conduct
PepsiCo also operates in beverage and food industry as Coca-Cola. The company acknowledges that its code is critical to its success as it helps the company do business in the right way. Similar to Coca-Cola, PepsiCo also requires all its employees to embrace the company’s code of conduct principles. Three important elements in PepsiCo’s code include its requirement that all its employees show respect in the workplace, act with integrity in the marketplace, and perform work responsibility to its shareholders (Belew et al., 2009, p. 58-59). The showing respect in the workplace rule shows that PepsiCo believes that ethical conduct begins with employees within the company. It requires employees to respect diversity and human rights in the workplace to enable employees establish teamwork to accomplish the company’s goals. PepsiCo’s code principle requiring its employees to act with integrity in the marketplace is similar to Coca-Cola’s issue of integrity in dealing with others. This is because it requires PepsiCo’s employees to treat everyone they contact in the marketplace (for instance, consumers, customers, communities, competitors, and suppliers) with fairness and integrity. Its commitment to integrity is founded on its obligation to observe all applicable laws in every location it operates. Finally, the principle requiring employees to perform work responsibility to shareholders matches Coca-Cola’s issue calling for integrity within Coca-Cola Company. This is because the principle requires all PepsiCo employees to create value for the company’s shareholders. They achieve this through putting PepsiCo’s interests first, ensuring accuracy of its business records, and protecting and using the company’s resources, information, and property properly.
Kraft’s Code of Business Conduct
Kraft’s code of business conduct principles is also similar to that of Coca-Cola and PepsiCo. Firstly, Kraft requires its employees to make food that is safe to eat and also treat people fairly. This rule ensures integrity and respect for diversity. Making safe food would increase customer and consumer confidence in its products, which can result in increased sales and success. Secondly, Kraft requires its employees to keep honest books and records in order to add value to the investors, the company, and the employees themselves. This rule is critical to the company’s success because giving false information can make the company be prosecuted, managers jailed, and scare away investors, all of which contribute to its success. Thirdly, Kraft requires its employees not to trade the company’s inside information. For this reason its nonpublic information, such as the formula of its products provides it some competitive advantage in the industry.
Coca-Cola, PepsiCo, and Kraft
Coca-Cola requires its employees to keep the technical details of its product a secret, for example, the Coke drink formula. Some consumers have suspicious of the drink’s content, some claiming that it contains cocaine (Smith, 2013, 429-430). Disclosing significant information on how safe its beverages are would potentially improve sales among worried consumers because of transparency. Failure to address the issue would result in more controversy about the drink’s content, which would not be good for business. Integrity in dealing with others, such as suppliers and governments, would enable Coca-Cola to maintain its position as the world’s largest beverage company amid stiff completion. Failure to exercise integrity in dealing with governments may adversely affect its overseas operations as it can be denied permission to operate in some countries.
PepsiCo’s requirement that all employees show respect in the workplace is essential in building an organizational culture in which diversity is valued. This would create a very good working environment, which would eventually translate to higher productivity and profitability. The company risks losing its high performing employees if it fails to create an organizational culture in which diversity is valued and respected. Secondly, performing work responsibilities to shareholders would motivate them to invest more in the business to expand their global reach. Failure to meet shareholders’ expectation would result to scaling down of activities, resulting in unemployment as shareholders would channel their investments elsewhere where they get value for their money.
Kraft’s ability to make safe foods and beverages would increase consumers’ and customer’s confidence in its products. This would increase its customer base, and subsequently higher profits. The company can be rocked with the damaging food safety scandals if it fails to make safe food and beverage products, thereby reducing its market penetration and profitability. Keeping honest books and records would increase Kraft’s transparency. This would make the company attract new investors to boost its market competitiveness. Lack of transparency would discourage shareholders and potential investors, which would adversely affect its operations and expansion aspirations.
Coca-Cola can ensure its code of conduct remain relevant through reviewing/evaluating and amending them periodically, for instance, yearly, to ensure they commensurate with the changing economic, political, social, cultural, and technological forces on business and society. Secondly, apart from evaluating existing code, the company can also add on new rules that address new challenges that cannot be solved using existing code.
Coca-Cola is managing environmental issues through designing resource efficient packaging, and using recycled and/or renewable materials. Resource-efficient packaging has been highly effective in reducing the amount of energy and raw materials used in manufacturing its packaging materials (Ashby, 2013, p. 84). Using less energy reduces carbon dioxide emissions from combustion of fossil fuels. Minimum packaging materials often reduce the exploitation of raw materials from the environment, and use of less fuel in transportation as materials are lighter. Using recycled and/or renewable material has also reduced the demand and subsequent exploitation of resources for manufacturing packaging materials.
Coca-Cola is embracing technological advancements for innovation through allocating enormous resources to its technology research and development program. It has a technology hub that is constantly developing and testing new technological innovations. Furthermore, Coca-Cola is building and supporting technology startups, most of which have been integrated into the company. All these approaches have worked to improve Coca-Cola’s business offerings.
Coca-Cola would experience more problems benefiting from business intelligence using information systems because its franchising units across the world are quite independent. It can minimize this challenge through establishing an information system that integrates all its national and regional business units. Coca-Cola is not well prepared to benefit from the recently developed 3D technology. The company can minimize the challenge through exploring areas in which 3D can be useful in its business operations. Finally, marketing strategies are increasingly going online, especially in social networks. To minimize the challenge, Coca-Cola should intensify marketing via social networks as it is currently relying heavily on traditional media.
The U.S. federal government had singled out soft drinks, such those by Coca-Cola as uniquely contributing to the obesity problems in the U.S. The attempts to exclude soda from states’ food stamp program made Coca-Cola lobby the federal government against the move as it could adversely affect its business. The company was lobbying policy making institutions such as Congress and U.S. Department of Agriculture. Coca-Cola succeeded opposing a bill in Florida that could have prevented the supply of its products containing soda in the state’s food stamp program. The lobbying effort was appropriate because there is no convincing evidence that soda causes obesity. If there is, the problem should be addressed at the manufacturing level, not at the market level.
Coca-Cola’s global citizenship efforts have largely been evident in the sports and music industries that have global audiences. For example, Coca-Cola remained for years the main sponsor of World Cup football competition that has a global audience. This competition has brought teams and fans from different countries together, in which most travel across countries and continents. The company’s support for the competition has not only enhanced intercultural awareness, but has also helped market the company’s products to the global audience. These could possible boosts its sales and increase its customers’ brand loyalty. Secondly, the company is actively involved in environmental projects across the world, in an attempt to address the climate change problem. This has helped it emerge as an environmentally friendly company, thereby improving its acceptance across various regions of the world. It also ensures the company operates in a safe and sustainable environment that supports its operations.
Ashby, M. F. (2013). Materials and the environment: Eco-informed material choice. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann
Belew, S., Elad, J., Holden, G., & Rich, J. R. (2009). E-business. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.
Gong, Y. (2013). Global operations strategy: Fundamentals and practice. Berlin: Springer.
Smith, A. F. (2013). The Oxford encyclopedia of food and drink in America. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Oceanographic Perspectives on Surfing
Surfing is ordinarily joined with warm ocean shorelines s as those that are found
in California. Surfers, then again, don’t compel themselves to warm atmospheres or ocean waves. Surfers clean a foot of snow off their surfboards to seek after waves off the shore of Antarctica. They trek through unsettled areas to immaculate shorelines in Southeast Asia. They bestow the water to unprecedented South African white sharks. They also ride the “silver creature,” the titan tidal bore of China’s Qiantang River (Butt & Russell, 3). It is possible to surf in all these spots because the thought is clear. For this situation, one does not need to borad. The case is known as body surfing (Butt, 6). This paper will assume the liability of assessing different oceanographic points of view as to surfing.
The thought is direct, yet the practice is definitely not. Surfers have to paddle into the surf line, the zone of unlimited water where the wind waves crash just as they approach a coast. There, surfers take their seats and watch the waves come into shore. Achieved surfers assess a couple of assorted wave qualities. A wave has to be sufficiently strong to ride, however not sufficiently dangerous in tossing the surfer as it crashes (Butt & Russell, 8). Surfers must have the ability to ride and safely withdraw the wave—not close shore or rocks. For conduit waves and those at recreated surfing business locales, surfers watch waves structure and bounce straightforwardly into the breaking waves.
Surfing depends on upon the investigation of hydrodynamics. Hydrodynamics is the examination of water in development (Butt & Russell, 5). Oceanographers, vessel authorities, and designers ought to all have knowledge regarding hydrodynamics.
Both swells, and also wind waves need to break in order to be valuable to surfers. A cool day without disturbing wind may be good for shoreline goers, notwithstanding, makes for lousy surfing atmosphere. Surfers oblige a reliable collection of crashing waves, which obliges regulate toward the ocean wind. The most tremendous component in how a wave makes is the submerged topography. Geography is the surface contrivances of a reach (Butt & Russell, 7). Waves may be weakened or invigorated by geographical tricks of the seabed. Surf breaks are interminable idiosyncrasies that results in the breakage of waves through an expected way. Reefs, sandbars, and considerable submerged rocks are delineations of typical surf breaks. Ocean trenches and submarine ravines can in like manner choose the manner in which waves break. Surfers ought to record for the region of sea life, for instance, a kelp forest, a thick group of broad kelp. Kelp can direct a breaking wave.
Rolling waves, otherwise called Moving waves are the most characteristic waves, and the sort most surfers support (Garrison, 15). These waves relax up a suitable illustration. Moving waves are ordinarily an eccentricity of a level, sandy shoreline. The moving waves in Hossegor, can go the extent that 6 meters (give or take 20 feet).
Dumping waves are more whimsical. These waves are the outcome of a sudden change in seabed geography. A drench submerged slope or mountain can make dumping waves. They are normally obliged to finished surfers, since they are hazardous. They are capable of dumping surfers far underneath the water’s surface with phenomenal force. These waves are the result of a sudden change in seabed topography. A soak submerged incline or mountain can make dumping waves. These waves are ordinarily obliged to completed surfers, as they are unsafe. Dumping waves can dump surfers far underneath the water’s surface with incredible power. Dumping waves can be the inevitable result of point breaks. Point breaks happen when a wave hits a state of pitiless shore staying into the sea. Agadir, on the Atlantic bank of Morocco, brags several strong point breaks (Garrison, 18).
The waves can come to fruition as a result of reef breaks. Reef breaks happen as waves disregard a coral or harsh reef. The breaks can be extremely hazardous if they dump the surfersonto reefs. Then again, reef breaks give without a doubt the most compensating waves.
Surging waves are the most risky. They much of the time indicate on drench or unpleasant shores. Not under any condition like moving or dumping waves, they do not break as they approach the shore. They actually crash at the exact shore point. They are amazing as they crash against harsh slopes, for instance. They are capable of throwing surfers against the rock, and drag them at the end of the day to the water body.They are habitually made by generous storms. Perpetual surfers can enjoy the waves soon before storms.
Standing waves are in like manner referred to as stationary waves. They are predictable and don’t lose quality. The variables that help these waves; the geology of the locale, water stream and wind cases don’t change. Specimens of standing waves are conduit rapids and waves made by fake wave machines, referred to as wave pools. For landlocked districts, wave pools (frequently put at water parks) grant surfers to practice without expecting to travel.
Essence of Swell theory on surfing
The most dismissed viewpoint in surfing is the three-dimensional. Most of the surfers take a gander at waves from a two-dimensional perspective: wave tallness and bearing. Regardless waves need to be dissected from a three-dimensional viewpoint, which comparably unites the swell period. It is identified with the scrap of truth variable and expect a beast part in the unavoidable size of a swell.
Wave travel and decay
Long extends swells have the limit oversee more essentialness as they navigate the ocean. Concise time swells are steeper as they cross the ocean and, thus, are more helpless against decay from repudiating winds and seas (Garrison, 24). Long extend swells (more critical than 14 seconds) run with more essentialness underneath the surface of the ocean and are less drench so they can without a doubt pass through confining winds and seas with just about no impact (Jennings, 45).
Swells go as an issue of waves or a “wave train.” As the swell advances, wave train will have to back off drop over to the once again of the social affair while substitute waves push ahead by one position (Garrison 37). By then the accompanying wave in front goes back and interchanges with the others- just like a turning transport line that is also getting up and go. It’s a system kind of like the “drafting” technique that are mostly used by cyclists and auto racers. This case enables wave trains to spare their imperativeness as they navigate the oceans.
The rate of change of a swell or a wave train can be computed by replicating the swell period 1.5 times. For instance, a swell with a time of 20 seconds goes at 30 bunches in huge water (West, 35). (Groups are nautical miles for reliably. One group meets the 1.2 mph on solid land.) A wave front with a time of 10 seconds will go at 15 packs. The individual waves really move twice as smart as the swell or the wave train, and a solitary wave’s rate can be figured by rehashing the swell period multiplied by three times. Therefore, individual waves with a time of 20 seconds go at 60 packs in huge water (West, 37). Once more, consider the wave train to be as a turning mat lift that is likewise making advancement.
In summary, sea surfing has both financial, and social quality for beachfront groups and social orders. For the sole purpose of bringing about a noticeable improvement utilization of the beachfront assets through surfing, there is the need to have a typical dialect that would be vital in joining the specialized learning of scientists and surfers (West, 56). For this situation there is the need to fathom the different oceanographic points of view, among numerous different variables that assume discriminating parts in surfing. Such learning would be useful for knowing the right waves to subject ones’ self to amid surfing. Subsequently, oceanographic viewpoints are imperative in the determination of safe surfing.
Butt, Tony., & Russell, Paul. “Surf Science: An introduction to waves for surfing.” University of Hawaii Press. 2004.
Butt, Tony. “The surfer’s guide to waves, coasts and climates.” Penzance, Alison Hodge Publishers. 2009.
Garrison, Tom. “Oceanography: An invitation to marine science.” Cengage Learning. 2012.
Jennings, Feenam. D. “An assessment of the oceanographic program of the department of energy.” National Academies. 2004.
West, Krist. “Critical perspectives on the oceans.” The Rosen Publishing Group. 2006.