Should all UK companies pay a living wage?
‘A living wage’ is a phrase that has become common in the recent past and quite a good number of people confuse what it means and the role that it plays in the society. This research paper begins by shedding some light in regard to this state of quandary, by giving a clear definition of what a living wage is, their purpose when implemented in life, in addition to locating the phrase alongside other techniques that can be used to solve issues such as low pay, or rather minute earnings or wages. First and foremost, the paper discusses the difference and relationship between a minimum wage and a living wage, and then further explores the link between a living wage and in-job benefits. Deeper into the paper, discussions in regard to major economic principles associated with the subject, the difference between minimum and living wages, in addition to the relationship between demand and supply of jobs or labour and market wage rates in the United Kingdom (UK) are discussed. On the second part, the research paper discusses some ethical values that relate to living wages that includes the responsibility of business, including the understanding of the difference between social verses private costs and mentioning Milton Friedmann’s arguments on the responsibility of business. Additionally, the paper discusses the relationship between pay and performance, plus motivation and productivity, and then highlights some major findings associated with the research. The paper then concludes that all companies in the UK should pay living wages to employees based on an agreement or contract signed between them and their employees.
2.Economics: The Difference Between a Living Wage and a Minimum Wage
A living wage is clearly different from a constitutional minimum wage. While the process of working out the minimum wage may encompass giving a consideration of the pressures that low-paid workers experience linked with the cost of living, this is less important when compared to the degree of attention given to the current conditions of the labour market (Pollin & Stephanie, pp.12-76). A minimum wage refers to the maximum wage level that is thought to be reliable with evading major career losses in the least paying companies or divisions, regardless of whether most companies in those segments are able to have enough money to compensate employees with much higher pays. This implies that a minimum wage is constitutional, and it is compulsory that companies pay workers an amount that is not less than this set figure in the constitution. These particular considerations have been major to the process that is used by the Low Pay Commission (LPC) of the UK in determining the rates of National Minimum Wage since 1999 (Harford, n.p).
A living wage is mainly different because it is a phrase that is used to make reference to the rate of wage that is essential to provide employees and their dependents (families) with a fundamental but satisfactory, acceptable, adequate and tolerable living standard (Harford, 23; Pollin & Stephanie, pp.12-76). This implies a voluntary wage rate or rate of pay, usually calculated hourly, to help employees that are paid little or low amounts to afford a necessary or basic living standard. This least standard of living is defined socially, and thus varies from one place to another and with time. It is usually explicitly associated with other social objectives such as the realization of caring obligations. A living wage generally focuses on the responsibilities of employees beyond the working environment, for instance, as members of a particular community and as parents to families, and demands for a wage rate that will guarantee that employees are not forced to work overtime with an intention of having a satisfactory income. The possible effect on employment or the impact on employers is given minute, if any, thoughtfulness while calculating it (Levitt & Stephen, 47).
These ideological differences help to give a clear explanation of the various ways through which a minimum wage and a living wage are sophisticated. In the United Kingdom, paying a living is usually voluntary and is more than often adopted by companies (employers) after a negotiation process or a local or domestic campaign. This gives employers, who have a feeling that they cannot meet the cost of introducing living wages without losing employees, an opportunity to refuse the commitment of paying such (Levitt & Stephen, 76; Sloman & Dean, 101). It is therefore the nature of living wages to be fragmented and partial. Conversely, minimum wages are compulsory across the world, even though most companies have exclusion, through law or legislation at the local or national levels.
- The relationship between Demand of jobs and Wage Levels
- Demand for Labour: Labour as a Derived Demand
On top of making decisions associated with pricing and output, a company must similarly determine the extent (how much) of each input it is supposed to demand. Labour and capital are the most common inputs that any company can demand amongst others (Nordlund, 85). The supply and demand for labour are determined in the labour market by its participants, who are basically employers and employees. As companies demand for labour from employees in exchange for wages, workers supply the same in exchange for wages. What a firm finally decides to pay an employee or the additional cost that a company is ready to forge as a result of hiring an extra employee is referred to as the market wage rate (Sloman & Dean, pp. 32-46).
Employees are often required for the output, which they are expected to give or produce. It is said that labour, when considered as a factor of input, becomes a derived demand. When companies experience or see an increasing demand for their services and products, they will be forced to employ additional labourers or workers, thereby increasing the demand for labour (Pollin & Stephanie, 67). Since demand would determine the degree of supply of any product, or service, labour can be categorized as a service and thus the more the demand for labour, the larger the supply base since most workers would report to a company that is in demand of more employees. A direct and linear relationship, therefore exists between the degree of supply for labour and the demand for the same (Nordlund, 34).
- Demand for Labour and The Market Wage Rate
An inverse relationship usually exists between the demand for human labour and the market wage rates (Sloman & Dean, 113). This essentially because a living wage is a payment that is done to the employee, and since every employer will have to pay a salary, including both living and minimum wages to every additional labourer, they tend to shy away from additional costs (Levitt & Stephen, 50). If the market wage rates are high, it would imply that it would be more expensive or costly to hire (than fire) any extra labourer or employee. In the event that wages become lower, sources of labour or labourers would become cheaper than making use of or committing capital (assets) equipment. Consequently, it would become affordable and more attractive for companies to hire additional employees, thus increasing the demand for employees (Mazumdar, 191). It is imperative to note that most companies are interested in maximizing their profits, as such, they will make use of whatever factor of production (whether capital or labour) to realize this provided that the factor chosen realizes this objective with close to maximum efficiency and for the lowest or least possible expenditure or cost.
- Marginal Revenue Product
Marginal Revenue Product, similarly abbreviated as MRP, is a hypothesis that is linked with wages and it is used to describe a scenario where employees are compensated in regard to their MRP (Marginal Revenue Product) to the company under consideration (Mazumdar, pp. 190-193). The theory of Marginal Revenue Products postulates that the degree of wage differences originates from disparity in regard to the productivity of labour and the value attached to the output that a particular labour input gives or produces. The theory of Marginal Revenue Product is founded on an economical, competitive, and aggressive labour market and the hypothesis depends on various assumptions that are ideal (Mazumdar, 199). In actual sense, most supplies or sources of labour display imperfect features, which could as well be considered as a factor in determining the possible reasons for disparity in terms of payments or wages in occupations (Mazumdar, pp. 190-197).
Some of the assumptions that the MRP theory depends on include, but are not limited to:
- The generalization that all workers are the same or homogenous,
- Companies have no purchasing power when in demand of employees,
- Trade unions are non-existent,
- The degree of productivity that each employee gives can be measured clearly, and that
- The labour supply is purely (perfectly) elastic. In this given regard, the theory suggests that employees are geographically and occupationally mobile, and face the possibility of being hired at the same or constant market wage rates.
MRP particularly measures the disparity or difference in the total revenue that a firm realizes when it sells the product or output that is given by a specific additional employee. As such, it can be measured using the formula:
The Demand and Supply Curves of Labour
LD is an abbreviation for Labour Demand
Making reference to the diagram on the left, it is illustrated that there exists a fall in the market wage rate from point W1 to point W2. As a result of this drop in the market wage rate, the company is likely to increase its employment capacity from point E1 to point E2. The company undertakes such an action because the cost of hiring additional labour has become relatively cheaper for a particular degree of productivity, as compared to other input costs. A possible rise in the market wage rate from point W1 to point W3 is likely to cause a reduction in the demand for labour, or a contraction in the demand for labour.
- Shifts in the Marginal Revenue Product of Labour
The MRP of labour will rise when there is a rise in the productivity of labour, and similarly when there is a rise in demand for the company’s output, which results in hire prices thus raising the value associated with products given by this [articular employee (s) (Mazumdar, pp. 190-197). The diagram illustrated on the right hand side helps in illustrating how this market feature is likely to cause a noticeable shift in the demand curve for labour. For a specific market wage rate, ‘W1’, a company that maximizes its profits will hire additional employees, as such, the sum total of employment levels in the labour market will increase.
- Ethics: The Responsibility of Business
Ethics implies a division of knowledge that is associated with moral values (DesJardins et al, 23). In other words, it is a term that is used to represent the moral principles that govern an organization, a group of people, or a company in this given context. Morality would mean doing what is right, and knowing what is wrong. In the context of businesses, companies have responsibilities that they owe to all stakeholders, shareholders, its clients, employees, and the society at large (Bowie, 124). For purposes of coexistence in an environment or a given locality, a company must undertake certain activities that benefit all parties that interacts with it in one way or the other, and this is referred to as a Corporate Social Responsibility (DesJardins et al, 23; Schneider, 191). For instance, a company that manufactures agricultural chemicals has to do everything within its reach to avoid polluting the environment, employ people from its locality, while at the same time make sustained profits (Crane &Dirk, pp. 10-51). Similarly, a company cannot just increase prices to whatever amount that its shareholders desire with an intention of maximizing its profits without considering the affordability of the product, or taking into consideration inflation rates (Boatright, 270). This is where the subject of doing the right or wrong comes in, and a company has to be identified with a specific value or principle that will encourage sustained production. In light of this discussion, it is clear that a company is charged with the obligation of ensuring that all parties that interact with it, either directly or indirectly benefit from its activities (Corporate Social Responsibility). Imperative to note, however, is that there are costs that the company will have to incur when meeting this obligation such as social costs (Bowie, 31).
A social cost, under economic definitions, is the expenditure that a company incurs as a result of its activities, or a change in policy towards the society (Turvey, pp. 309-313). It includes both private and other external costs, third party impacts and effects. Private costs that companies incur are not always equal to the total cost to a society of a particular activity, product, or service. Thus, the difference in amount between a social cost and a private cost is the external cost. For a company, a private cost includes the costs that the company pays for purchasing capital equipment, hiring labour, and buying raw materials or any other inputs (Turvey, pp. 309-313). For as much as this cost can be looked at from the company’s side, it is significant that the same be viewed from an end consumer’s point of view. Contrarily, external costs are not included in the income statements of a company or in the decisions made by clients, however, they remain part of the costs to the society, not considering who incurs the loss (pays for them) (Turvey, pp. 309-313). Social costs include both external and private costs to a specific society, which normally arises from the manufacture or consumption of a service or good (Turvey, pp. 309-313).
Applying these principles to the subject matter, a company may decide to avoid paying for the cost of buying an air pollution control machine or equipment, which would mean the cost incurred is passed to the society in terms of harm or health hazard. Morally, this is wrong because the company causes the pollution and should control it instead of maximizing its profits. Considering the private costs, a company has the responsibility of paying its employees a wage that is fair or acceptable to enable them to live a standard lifestyle (Turvey, pp. 309-313). Failure to do this would mean the company is evading its responsibilities. Milton Friedman argued that the social responsibility that a business is charged with is to make profits. According to his statements, “The difficulty of exercising ‘social responsibility’ illustrates, of course, the great virtue of private competitive enterprise — it forces people to be responsible for their own actions and makes it difficult for them to ‘exploit’ other people for either selfish or unselfish purposes. They can do good — but only at their own expense (Laidler, n.p).” This implies that companies should only take into consideration the interest of its shareholders to make profits and ignore the welfare of its service and product consumers, plus employees (Schneider, 11). This acts in contrary to the demands of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), and discourages sustained productivity and profitability which are essential to the survival of a business in any environment (Crane &Dirk, pp. 10-51).
The curve illustrates that companies that incur social costs experience high expenditures and low outputs. However, the marginal private cost curve illustrates a better use of resources.
- The Relationship Between Pay and Performance
The aggregate supply curve for labor illustrated above represents the wealth effects of raising wages. During the low income levels and increased (higher) wages, employees are induced to work better since leisure is made more expensive in regard to the income that must be surrendered to get it. As such, employees, substitute their work for leisure. With high income levels and increased wages, however, possible income increments that can be achieved by more work in reaction to a higher pay is not as much of value as the foregone leisure. Nonetheless, a market wage level would be reached beyond which employees will work less for better pays since they can uphold the same degree of contentment as before, or rather still amplify it, by means of minus labour effort. Typically, as employees become wealthier, they work less and take additional leisure (Heywood & Daniel, pp. 249-490). Thus, pay increments beyond some level, by additional improvement of wealth, will increase an employee’s desire for leisure with an amount that is way above what an opportunity cost for leisure can reduce (Heywood & Daniel, pp. 249-490). Laborers therefore work less as payments improve beyond some level, and the supply curve, ‘SS’, portrays a backward bend pattern as illustrated above. In this regard, the effect of wealth originating from higher wages on leisure activities offsets the switch, substitution or swap effect.
- The Relationship Between Motivation and Productivity
Motivation of employees is a necessity in improving productivity, as such the more they are motivated the better the production because they work with zeal (Mahy, François, & Mélanie, pp. 455-489). Increasing a worker’s wage is one amongst many factors that can be used to motivate employees (Heywood & Daniel, pp. 249-490). Since productivity is directly related to performance, the arguments illustrated above are applicable (Mahy, François, & Mélanie, pp. 455-489). As wages, improve the performance, productivity similarly improves up to a certain level. Beyond a certain point, the effect works to the disadvantage of the company as workers would engage more in leisure activities at the expense of working (Mahy, François, & Mélanie, pp. 455-489).
This research came up with findings on the subject of wages in that:
- A living wage is constitutional, while a minimum wage is voluntary.
- The provisions of living wages do not necessarily lead to displacement of workers.
- There is some degree of evidence that productivity improves with improved motivation of workers, commitment, and minimal employee turnover.
- Increased cost pressure makes companies look for efficiency and the need to save costs from other segments of the industry like evading social costs.
- There is some proof of ‘spill-over or ripple effects’ with an intention of maintaining pay disparities.
- Companies are not committed to meeting their Social Responsibilities.
- Decisions made in companies should take into considerations the consumer and producer perspectives.
- The companies pay different living wages.
- Conclusion and Recommendations
Based on the above findings, it is clear that social responsibilities are becoming significant to the management of a business. Companies incur costs, both primary and social, when providing a given service or product to a society to enable sustainable growth and development of the business. A business cannot survive without making profits, but at the same time meet the welfare requirements of its employees and product or service consumers. Since it has become an absolute necessity to incorporate the interests of all parties affected by the activities of a company, it is necessary that all companies in the UK pay their living rates because it is moral or fair to do so. The productivity of a company depends on its employees’ performance and demoralized or poorly paid employees would not work, consequently leading to losses and high employee turnover rates in the company. This way, the business shareholders would not meet their fundamental goal of making profits. In the same perspective, it is clear that disparities exist in regard to the acceptable living wages that are payable to employees. It would therefore be prudent that an agreement or contract be established between employees and employers that would state an agreeable living wage that would enable a mutual survival of both parties based on each parties survival. The contract would then be enforced by law to ensure that companies meet their responsibility.
With these recommendations, it is possible that some companies may retrench employees with an intention of limiting or minimizing the expenditure that would be incurred as a result of implementing a statutory living wage. Additionally, employees are likely to file several lawsuits with an intention of compelling their employers to commit with the new regulation. In order to minimize the possibility transnational migrations and disparity that exist in regard to the amount of living wage paid to employees, there should be an established national and international body that determines the amount, though based on the market conditions in the country under consideration. The United Kingdom should therefore have a national body that oversees, implements, and enforces all aspects of economics that are associated with a living wage.
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Organizational behaviour defines a broad area of study that explores the impact that various persons, teams as well as organizational structures have on behaviour in an organization. The field aims at evaluating and monitoring behaviour within an organization to identify various ways through which an organization’s operations can be carried out effectively and efficiently (Bansal, 2011). Organizational behaviour equally aims at exploring varying relationships that exist among organizational employees and management. This is a critical field that determines organizational progress based on how individuals and teams interact within the organization. For any organization to achieve significant progress, it must have a deeper understanding of how various individuals and groups interact towards contributing positively to the growth of the organization. This field of study involves a wide range of important topics that include leadership, communication, team building as well as culture (Early, 1997). It is therefore evident that organizational behaviour requires a systematic approach that will enable management to have a deeper understanding of various dynamics that revolve around its organizational human resource. It is equally important for organizations to carry out consistent and comprehensive organizational behaviour analysis due to the rising trends as people from varying cultures and backgrounds are increasingly working in common organizations (Mark, 2006). This paper intends to analyze McDonald’s organizational behaviour in order to analyze how culture, motivational techniques, emotional quotient, nature of authority, communication and virtue elements influence overall behaviour within the larger organization (Royle, 2000).
Organizational behaviour analysis
McDonald’s is a renowned chain of fast food outlets that operate in more than 110 nations across the globe and it has its headquarters in United States. It mainly sells quality hamburgers and other fast food varieties on daily basis to more than 60 million people around the world. McDonald’s owns more than thirty thousand restaurants and has more than 1.71 million employees globally (Early, 1997). Due to its rapid expansion and operations in numerous countries, McDonald’s has employees that share different backgrounds and culture. This company has therefore adopted salad bowl culture that has enabled it to embrace all its employees irrespective of their culture, age, ethnicity, and language. As this company serves numerous customers that have different cultures, it has further integrated this culture to ensure that all the customers get products and services that complement their respective cultures. The company has equally embraced equality and fairness in handling all matters regarding its employees that include remuneration and promotions (Mark, 2006). It has also ensured that there is equal opportunity when employing its staff and this has seen the company employing people from diverse cultures, religions and sexual orientations. This has enabled the company to gain innovative, inventive as well as experienced employees as it adopt a non-discriminatory approach in developing its hiring and retention policies.
This approach further enabled McDonald’s to create an appealing brand that has been accepted at a global scale, and this has greatly enhanced its image to its stakeholders that include employees, customers as well as potential investors (Royle, 2000). The company also allows individual outlets in various nations to manage their employees with respect to their prevailing culture rather than imposing the culture of the home country. McDonald’s has empowered all its employees to work as a team by ensuring that no single manager or employee prevails over others (Bansal, 2011). This has enabled its employees to feel appreciated and accepted in regard to who they are, and as such, they have shown great focus and commitment in pursuit of the company’s objectives. This in return has enabled the company to thrive in numerous countries that have varying cultures as its numerous employees are increasingly becoming more satisfied and loyal (Early, 1997). It is therefore apparent that McDonald’s has gained a lot in embracing various people with respect to their culture, which has enabled it to continue attracting as well as retaining talented and skilled employees while on the other hand creating loyalty to its varying customers.
Communication at McDonald’s is paramount as customers and employees need regular and consistent flow of information and feedback. McDonald’s has employed both verbal and written forms of communication due to its complex nature and great number of employees as well as customers (Bansal, 2011). The company over time developed a well organized and systematic means of communication that has embraced emerging technology in order to lower cost of communication and reach an array of its scattered employees. In recent years, the company has engaged IBM to provide communication software that has enabled employees and management to communicate through social network and this has ensured that communication is quick and consistent. McDonald’s believes in thorough communication channels and means that ensure that all the employees are able to communicate with one another without limitations while delivering quality care to all their clients (Royle, 2000). The company has therefore adopted both formal and informal communication means in order to reach its vast team of franchisees and employees. These channels have therefore enabled the company to increase productivity as all employees and important stakeholders are able to access necessary information whenever needed.
Verbal communication has been rampant among employees working in the same restaurant as they consult one another regarding various decisions that require urgent attention regarding the welfare of the customers. This has therefore improved service delivery to customers as they do not have to wait for a long period of time to iron out a small issue that concerns their welfare. Employees have also gained great responsibility and freedom while working in the company as they are allowed to use the most convenient mode of communication that best suits a particular situation (Mark, 2006). The company has equally used formal communication means that include letters and e-mails to communicate formal information to its employees especially meetings and this has been generally accepted by all stakeholders. There is also a well organized two-way communication between employees and their supervisors, which encourages feedback between the two parties and in return all parties are satisfied with the running of the company.
McDonald’s has adopted a centralized organizational structure that upholds and stresses on recognized social rank in carrying out its operations. Centralized organizational structure usually empowers top management in McDonald’s to make major decisions regarding products, services as well as prices in all the company’s outlets (Royle, 2000). This is due to the fact that McDonald’s aims at providing similar products and services to its customers globally to ensure that its brand and image continue to expand and to impress global population. The company equally engages the top management in making major purchasing and promotional decisions as this is viewed as being both economical and easier way of making the brand popular rather than having each outlet make their own promotional decisions that might be more costly and less effective (Bansal, 2011). This approach of governing McDonald’s enhances quick adoption of common policies and procedures throughout the entire organization, it is bureaucratic and it does not always involve all major stakeholders that include employees (Early, 1997). This nature of authority equally promotes easier coordination and control of the entire business but it reduces motivation and creativity of low ranking managers and employees as their input is not incorporated in the overall decisions. Although this approach has been very successful in the overall achievements of the company, it is negatively affecting low ranking employees as they are left out in decision making.
Motivation is a key factor that has contributed to the rapid growth of McDonald’s and its ever increasing profitability. According to Mark (2006), McDonald’s has largely adopted extrinsic motivational technique, which has greatly motivated employees that in return have shown great focus and commitment to their job. The company has thus ensured that it rewards employees and managers as well as heads of franchises at the end of every month, quarter and year depending on their level of performance. The company has ensured that it awards employees who meet and surpass set targets with lucrative bonuses. McDonald’s has equally set awards for the restaurant of the quarter and of the year and this has made all its restaurants across the globe motivate their employees to give their best to ensure that they win the prize and in so doing they contribute to the overall success of the company (Royle, 2000). The company has equally introduced Ray Kroc Awards that include high perks and other gifts that are offered to the best manager across Europe. This has acted as a great incentive to the managers in the company that are now putting their efforts towards managing their outlets with great enthusiasm and professionalism to win the awards, which subsequently improves the overall fortunes of the larger company (Early, 1997). The company also offers “Champion of the Month Award” that recognizes the best performing employee that is ultimately nominated to participate in the “Employee of the Year Scheme”, which is one of the prestigious awards that attracts huge gifts in the company. While these awards have kept managers and employees motivated in pursuit of achieving and surpassing set targets within the company, it has greatly enhanced competition among the employees and the managers, and this has ultimately contributed to the rising profitability and rapid expansion of the company (Bansal, 2011).
McDonald’s has adopted effective practices in managing employees’ emotional intelligence, which has greatly benefited it as employees that have in return become loyal and committed to the company. The company has strived to ensure those employees’ emotions and personal affairs are positively managed to minimize cases of stress that reduces employees’ productivity (Early, 1997). The company has equally offered opportunities for managers and potential employees to undergo numerous training relating to emotional intelligence quotient. This has therefore equipped many managers and employees with relevant skills that enable them to effectively manage their personal emotions as well as the emotions their fellow employees and ultimately the emotions of their customers. McDonald’s sensitivity to its employees’ emotions has enabled it to implement various policies that include “Family and Friends Contract”. This contract enables employees to cover various shifts for their friends and family members that may not be able to attend duty due to their personal emotions and affairs. This has promoted emotional stability among the company’s employees’ and hence, they have contributed positively to the growth of the organization (Bansal, 2011). The company equally provides working mothers with baby care services that enable them to come to work along with their children, which enables them to be emotionally relieved hence being able to concentrate with their work. Due to the increasingly changing environment and technology, McDonald’s is prompted in providing trainings to its employees as it seeks to eliminate stress that comes with change and as such employees are always contented and pursue their work without fear (Royle, 2000).
McDonald’s has greatly incorporated virtual elements in its operations and this has enabled the company to save costs, improve sales as well as meet customers’ expectations. With rising technology, this organization has embraced video conferencing to aid it in holding meetings with managers and employees (Mark, 2006). This has therefore enabled managers and other employees to have meetings at the comfort of their restaurants without travelling to the main offices that may be situated in distant locations. This has enabled all restaurant managers and employees to save time and costs that would have been impossible if they were to travel to the main offices that are located in far distances. The company has equally implemented Fast Forward Drive-Thru that allows customers to order and be served without alighting their vehicles. This has not only increased sales but has also improved the company’s efficiency in its service delivery to ensure that customers get quality products timely (Early, 1997). McDonald’s has equally utilized online services that enable their customers to place orders at the comfort of their offices after which they can pick them once they are ready. This has greatly increased the company’s sales thereby becoming one of the world’s most admired fast food companies that deliver quality and timely orders to its customers. This in return has enabled managers and employees to enhance their skills in response to the changing working environment that requires effectiveness and efficiency to wade off competition from emerging competitors (Bansal, 2011).
It is evident that organizational behavior is a key aspect that determines how an organization conducts its affairs involving its employees and ultimately how employees interact with one another as well as the entire organization. McDonald’s fast food restaurant is a renowned multinational company that has numerous outlets and employees across the globe. Organizational behavior analysis at McDonald’s is well implemented as the company seeks to create a healthy working environment for all its employees and managers. This has enabled the company to employ extrinsic motivational technique as well as virtual elements that include video conferencing in order to improve employees commitment to their work and as such increase productivity. The company has equally embraced social networking, verbal as well as written forms of communication and this has enabled employees to interact without limitations to foster healthy relationships. The company has adopted salad bowl culture that has promoted diversity while eliminating all form of discriminations that arise due to diversity of people’s culture, religion and ethnicity across its outlets. McDonald’s has also put measures that ensure that employees’ emotions are cared for as it has implemented a system that enables friends and family members to cover shifts for one another. The company has adopted a centralized organizational structure that upholds social rank as the top management decides and implements all major decisions for the entire company. Well managed organizational behavior at McDonald’s has fostered healthy relationships among managers, employees and customers and this has ultimately improved the company profitability and growth.
Bansal, C. (2011). Organizational Behaviour, Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 47(1): 123-140.
Early, P. (1997). Face, Harmony, and Social Structure: An Analysis of Organizational Behaviour across Cultures, New York: Oxford University Press.
Mark, S. (2006). McDonalds in Crisis: A Comparative Analysis in a National Organizational Context, Competition Forum, 4(1): 102-150.
Royle, T. (2000). Working for McDonald’s in Europe: The Unequal Struggle?, London: Routledge.
Where and How Microsoft Passwords are Stored
E-commerce demands that security measures are in place to avoid unauthorized access to confidential information. Passwords are important guard against unnecessary intruders into personal online information. In order to prevent hackers from accessing such important information, Microsoft passwords are generated and stored in specific locations that are not easily accessible by the unauthorized persons. All windows-based computers use LAN Manager (LM) and NT LAN Manager (NTLM) for hashing the passwords (Sanders 1). Hashing is the process by which fixed-sized strings are formed through a definite procedure. The procedure involves cryptographic and mathematical encryption functions.
LAN Manager was the initial method used to develop password algorithms by the windows operating systems; however, NTLM has replaced it since the development of the newer windows operating systems like Windows 7 and Windows Vista. LM hashing entails six steps of computing and storing windows passwords. First, the inserted password converts into all uppercase and then followed by addition of other null characters in order to make them 14. The next step involves splitting of the password into two, seven characters each (Sanders 1). The separate values are then used to create DES encryption keys that lead to the separate 64-bit keys. DES keys then utilizes preset strings that result into two 8-byte values that are then combined into 16-byte vales, complete LM hash.
As noted above, NTLM is the recent Microsoft password authentication method. Sanders argue that is a simpler process that entails the use of MD4 algorithm in order to create hash through a number of mathematical processes (1). MD4 helps in converting the Unicode into NT hash. It is also used because it offers better security because it allows for longer password lengths, and is case sensitive, unlike DES used in LM hashing.
How to reset windows password using ISO by burn into flash
Windows passwords can be either forgotten or lost. In case this happens, the best way out is to reset the password through a number of steps (Bright 1). The use of ISO by a flash drive is the best option as it ensures that all contents are retrieved. The first step involves creation of a bootable USB flash drive, a process that requires downloading and saving of PCunlocker and then extracting ISO image from it. The USB flash drive is then inserted into the computer, followed by downloading and installation of ISO2Disk utility (Bright 1). The program is then launched and then burning of the ISO image into the USB is done.
The second major step requires that BIOS settings be changed. This is done by booting the locked computer and checking the set-up key the computer is powered on. Select BOOT tab and set Boot Device Priority to Removable Device. Save the changes by pressing F10. The last step is the actual resetting of Microsoft password. The created USB flash drive is inserted and the computer is rebooted. After a successful rebooting from the flash drive, the computer loads the WinPE operating system and then starts the PCUnlocker after sometime (Bright 2). Select SAM registry and the program will list all Windows user accounts. At this point, one is required to select any user account that requires resetting. Click Reset Password button and then, it will show blank. Once all necessary changes have been made, restart the computer to reboot it. If one leaves the password blank, logging in should be possible by a blank password. This process works well with Window 7 operating systems.
Bright, Peter. “Making the lives of IT easier: Windows 8 Refresh, Reset, and Windows To
Go”. Ars Technica. Condé Nast, September 19, 2011. Web. February 25, 2014. < http://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2011/09/making-the-lives-of-it-easier-windows-8-refresh-reset-and-windows-to-go/>
Sanders, Chris. How I Cracked your Windows Password (Part 1), windowsecurity.com, January
- 2010. Web. February 25, 2014. <http://www.windowsecurity.com/articlestutorials/authentication_and_encryption/How-Cracked-Windows-Password-Part1.html>
Osama Bin Laden
Osama Bin Laden was the forbearer of al-Qaeda, an Islamist militant organization responsible for several casualty mass attacks antagonistic towards both the military and civilian targets. The prominent targets were however strategized against the United States. He was the protagonist of the Arab Spring. This paper summarizes his strategized terrorism plans in relation to psychological models of radicalization.
One of Osama’s strategic plan letters was to plea with the jihadist groups to terminate domestic attacks against Muslim civilians, but concentrate on the United States since that was their main goal (Lahoud et al. 2012, 38-39). He therefore made a public statement based on Muslim opponents such as unscrupulous Muslim rulers and their counterparts Western overseers. Secondly, since he lacked public media campaigns to support his politics, he strategized to affiliate with a terror group that did not work in his favor and ended up killing thousands of Muslims. After the failure of this plan, he then strategized to threaten United States that he would take public measures with clear and practical steps in a bid to dissociate himself from the vile errors that violate Islamic laws. He also planned on expansion of al-Qaeda from the Arabian Peninsula by warning them not to declare an Islamic state in Yemen (Lahoud et al. 2012, 39). Later on, he strategized to take the loyalty pledge of al-Qaeda to Somali rebel movements to prevent foreign aid and investment in Somalia. The prominent strategic letter however was that of the dawn of the new political landscape, which he considered the formidable event. The political landscape emerged in North Africa and the Middle East, to foster its guidance and efforts on media outreach.
Osama’s relationship with the regional jihad groups at the time of his death was filled with frustrations, anguish and contest because they were being exploited by the enemy, further distorting the jihadis’ image in the eyes of the general public (Lahoud et al. 2012, 18). His was frustrated with the jihad groups, which caused sufferings to Muslims and urged them to outdo these attacks but rather focus on the U.S. In addition, his inability to control their actions and public statements was very compelling, advising them in pain to stop Muslim civilian casualties. He was not amused by the emerging trend of American populist jihad and its English magazines meant to appeal American Muslims launch attacks random attacks in the US because of its possible dangerous consequences (Lahoud et al. 2012, 57). His relation with the affiliates was a contest between three different positions and the senior leaders.
The radicalization process can be explained using five models that illustrate discrepancies and commonalities, as there has been a shift in the conception of a terrorist group (King et al. 2011, 604). Three essential elements of the radicalization process are evident in each model, and they include the struggles over identity, phenomenon of relative deprivation, and the presence of personality characteristics (King et al. 2011, 609-612). This is directly in line with the jihadists who possess different personal characteristics and Osama, the al-Qaida organization founder who was an active and radical extremist. In discrepancies, the focus is mainly on the portrayals and different formats of the radicalization process. Emphasis has been placed on the radicalization of “homegrown” jihadists to understand why immigrants born in Western countries can “become radicalized and plan terrorism against their homeland”, taking into consideration that most Western countries are currently facing multicultural challenges (King et al. 2011, 604).
The basing of counter-radicalization strategies on models that have not been empirically validated can be misleading and risky because ideology on its own can ensure continued individual radicalization and sustenance of extremist violent Islamic community, even though the jihadist organization or the adherents may be directly disadvantaged (King et al. 2011, 616).
While it is evident that Osama was a Protagonist in the Arab Spring and other terrorist activities, the involvement in such activities is influenced by psychological transformations occurring within individuals, increasing their susceptibility to legitimate terrorism. The transformations are referred to as radicalization. Each of the five prominent models of homegrown jihad radicalization has contributed essential theories in the field of terrorism research. However, future research on the radicalization of homegrown jihadist should focus on the single narrative and the Internet (King et al. 2011, 618). While the internet has featured in most homegrown jihadi terrorist plot since 2002, the jihadi narrative has a considerable influence on those involved in terrorist plots against the West (King et al. 2011, 618). Apart from these, the discussion forums can also be applied as a pathway to homegrown jihads.
King, Michael, and Donald Taylor. “The Radicalization of Homegrown Jihadists: A Review of Theoretical Models and Social Psychological Evidence.” Terrorism and Political Violence, 23 (2011): 602-622. Print.
Lahoud, Nelly, et al. “The Letters from Abbottabad.” Combating Terrorism Center at West Point. 3 May, 2012. Web. 25 Feb. 2014.
An emergency or crisis is an unexpected event or occurrence that can close down functions, cause physical or environmental damage, cause significant injury or loss of life to workers, learners, guests, or the community, or endanger Humboldt Education Center’s public image. Emergency management is the procedure of planning for, mitigating, addressing, and recuperating from an emergency. The All Risks Safety and Protection Strategy is the foundation of this plan and provides for a synchronized response and a clear line of control. The following will induce execution of this emergency security plan:
- Notice of a university emergency to the president, management, and/or other appropriate individuals by the security director
- Notice of a university emergency by a reliable source of information
- A routine failure reaction that gets worse and is considered significant by the Technological innovation Division
- Serious weather-related problems that endanger university functions
- A significant crisis, either natural or man-made (Butler & Clayton, 2009)
Should an emergency happen demanding the implementation of this security plan, an Emergency Command Center (ECC) may need to be established. The president of the university will set up the ECC and take the part of Incident Leader (IC). Communication concerning the implementation of the security plan, and relevant continuous information concerning the emergency will be sent through the communication center to notify workers, learners, and guests in the impacted areas. The message will cover guidelines for action. Emergency notices are ready and managed by the Public Relations manager to accomplish immediate and thorough communication. Should the occurrence impact computer systems and telephones, communication will be expected to take place through the Building Emergency Supervisors (BEMs) in the involved area radios and verbal communication (Abbott & Hetzel, 2010).
As part of the Security and Risk Evaluation Procedure, Humboldt Education and learning Center has recognized prospective risks that may cause a risk to the learners, employees, and visitors of the College. These prospective threats have been recognized through a procedure of information collecting and survey as well as on-site statement and research.
Hazards Profile and Assessment
The Humboldt Education Center campuses are exposed to many risks, all of which have the prospective for disrupting the community, triggering casualties, and damaging or destroying private or public property. Humboldt Education Center has recognized the prospective risks and, for each hazard, recognized the probability of occurrence, the approximated effect on public safety and health, and the approximated effect on environment and public (Trump, 2011).
Preventive and Mitigation Measures
By adhering to the District Security and Risk Evaluation process, the College and its staff will identify precautionary and mitigation actions considered necessary to reduce the possibility of risk on the Humboldt Education University. In addition, following any problems, Humboldt Education Center will evaluate the incident and response to determine if additional precautionary and mitigation actions need to be applied.
Timely and rapid communication of information to the communication center during emergencies is critical. In addition, precise and appropriate communication of information to emergency occurrence employees is required for sufficient response to emergency occurrences. Humboldt Education Center will use several communication strategies in handling different levels of occurrences (Trump, 2011). The communication center is the primary mode of communication to all members of the university community in the event of an emergency. This plan can be triggered by the public information official within the Region or by the following College officials: the president of the college, Vice president, Dean of Student, security director, or assistant security director.
Through emergency communication center alerts, students, and staff can receive emergency signals via communication center and individual e-mail accounts, mobile and home contact numbers, and text information. The communication center will be examined for appropriate performance three times per year at the beginning of each term and summer period depending on the Workplace Safety and Protection (Butler & Clayton, 2009). The liability of each member of district Universities and divisions involved in urgent management will be familiar with these communication methods. Individuals must also ensure that their private contact details and the contact details of their employees are up to date and precise in order for appropriate communication. Inconsistencies in contact details will be resolved as soon as possible.
District and Campus Web Page
The most recent information regarding the position of the district is always available on the district and university Websites. During and following emergency circumstances, details as it is applicable to the district community will be published on these Websites as it becomes available, such as details about such things as university closure. Other details will be published as considered appropriate (Trump, 2011).
Public Address System
Outdoor sound system are located in several places on the Humboldt Education Center in order to alert students, staff and visitors on College about an emergency. Both voice information and warning tones will be used to offer directions to those who are in sensible range of the outdoor sound system. The voice information and warning tones will guide all employees to seek protection. More information will be provided through the university emergency aware program, which disseminates information to university e-mail and mobile phones (Abbott & Hetzel, 2010).
The emergency authorities have the ability to spread important information via text directly to the mobile cell phones of users signed up the service. This provides emergency authorities with another option to connect with Humboldt Education Center staff and students during a disaster.
Basic responsibility for these functions is allocated to the university emergency communication center as monitored by the president or security director. Emergency tasks to be conducted include the following:
- Receive details on emergency circumstances
- Alert key district authorities of emergency circumstances
- Spread warning details and guidelines to the district through available alert systems
- Spread alerts and guidelines to special facilities
- Offer up-dates to the university community as instructed (Trump, 2011)
In the event of an emergency or incident, the president of the College is responsible for informing communication center staff so that alerts can be conveyed throughout the communication center program as appropriate. The security director declares university emergency alerts and evacuations via the university public address program.
Main responsibility for these functions is allocated to the university security director, who will sustain the College and Campus security Plans of this strategy and assisting emergency projects to be conducted include the following:
Building emergency management (BEM) Responsibilities: The security director will work as the emergency manager, and different supervisors should be allocated to execute emergency management functions when the main manager is not available. The BEM is accountable for the following planning activities:
- Developing an evacuation strategy for the campus building
- Assigning employees to execute various evacuation roles
- Maintaining an itemized duplicate of the evacuation strategy
- Training building residents in the evacuation strategy
- Conducting regular evacuation exercises
- Revising the evacuation strategy as necessary
- Assigning and coaching floor supervisors (FM)
- Assigning and coaching industry planners (SC) when necessary
Employees Responsibilities: Teachers are accountable for informing their floor/department student leaders who need evacuation support. Teachers are accountable for guaranteeing that learners who need evacuation support report to their designated place. Teachers should make sure disabled learners are being assisted and inform security department if learners demanding support are at the designated place. It is the obligation of all district faculties to point out their emergency evacuation tracks and emergency procedures to learners at the beginning of each term (Trump, 2011).
Staff Responsibilities: Upon installation of the building alert, specific employees are accountable for guaranteeing that residents with special evacuation needs are aware of the alert condition and respond to their designated place. The ground or division leader is accountable for giving personnel to perform this function.
District Evacuation Functions: Primary liability for these functions is allocated to the District Security director—in synchronization with the local officials—who will prepare and maintain the Evacuation of this plan. To make sure safe evacuation during a high-level emergency or disaster, the District security director shall:
- Recognize places where evacuation has already taken place or where it is necessary, and figure out at-risk persons
- Perform evacuation preparations for known threat places, such as paths and identification of visitors’ traffic control specifications.
- Develop simple planning techniques for ad hoc evacuations.
Learners and employees with disabilities who need assistance getting out of the building are requested to provide a duplicate of their schedule and workplace location to the head of the disability center. This center offers a list of places of individuals with disabilities to the Humboldt Education Center Security Office. Faculty and employees are to ensure that individuals with disabilities are being helped during an emergency or evacuation (Abbott & Hetzel, 2010).
Approach to Safety and Security Management
Humboldt Park Education Center will perform minimization activities as a fundamental element of the emergency management program. Mitigation is intended to remove risks, reduce the prospect of risks causing an emergency scenario, or reduce the repercussions of inevitable risks. Mitigation should be a pre-disaster activity, although minimization may also occur in the end of an emergency scenario with the purpose of preventing the scenario from repeating (Trump, 2011).
Preparedness actions will be performed to create the response abilities needed in the event of a crisis. Preparedness is everybody’s responsibility. Humboldt Education Center divisions and offices must create programs and procedures to help in the overall execution and maintenance of emergency programs. Among the preparedness actions included in the emergency control program are:
- Offering emergency equipment and facilities
- Emergency planning, such as maintaining this plan
- Performing or organizing appropriate coaching for emergency responders, emergency control employees, other local authorities, and volunteers who support this jurisdiction during emergency situations
- Performing regular exercises and drills to test emergency programs and coaching (Trump, 2011)
Humboldt Education Center will respond to emergency situations successfully and efficiently. The focus of most of this plan is on planning for the response to emergency situations. Response functions are designed to take care of a situation while reducing accidents and property damage. Response activities include alerts, emergency medical services, firefighting, police officers functions, evacuation, protection and mass care, search and rescue, as well as other related functions.
If a catastrophe occurs, Humboldt Education Center will carry out a recovery program that involves both short-term and long-term initiatives. Humboldt Education Center will be part of those initiatives. Short-term functions seek to recover vital solutions to the community and provide for the basic needs of the community. Long-term recovery concentrates on repairing the region to its normal state. The government, pursuant to the Stafford Act, provides many catastrophe recovery supports (Trump, 2011). The process of recovery includes support to individuals, businesses, and government and other community institutions. Examples of recovery programs include short-term housing, recovery of region services, debris removal, recovery of resources, crisis mental health services, and renovation of damaged facilities and roads.
Levels of Emergency and Response
Humboldt Park Education Center describes and categorizes emergency situations using a three-level system. Each category or stage of emergency has a corresponding stage of response, according to the magnitude of severity. The incident commander (IC) or the first certified individual to reach the field of the occurrence will establish the degree of an emergency. The severity of the occurrence may increase or reduce during response actions, demanding the stage of response to be modified. The degree of an occurrence is identified by the risk to the protection of the Region group and property, as well as the capability of the communication center to deal with the occurrence.
Level 1 Emergency: A minimal emergency scenario that is restricted in opportunity and prospective impacts, which involve:
- A restricted place and/or restricted population group
- An evacuation or in-place sheltering, generally restricted to the immediate place of the occurrence
Level 1 Response: Level 1 incidents/events are the least serious of the three levels of emergency situations. Regular district response services will be able to deal with the incident/emergency without activating the EOC. The crisis may result in minimal harm to college members or university group and minimal harm to district functions, and will impact a single local area of the university.
Level 2 Emergency: A significant emergency situation that is bigger in opportunity and more severe with regards to actual or potential effects than a level 1 Emergency. Features of a level 2 Emergency include:
- A huge area, significant population group, or important buildings or facilities
- The execution of large-scale evacuation or in-place sheltering, and execution of short-term protection and mass care functions
- District-wide caution and public instructions
- A multi-agency response working under the IC
- Exterior support from other local response organizations, contractors and restricted support from government or state organizations
Level 2 Response: Stage 2 incidents/events require implementation and activation of the emergency communication center. Sychronisation between several district divisions will be required for an effective response to the occurrence. The occurrence may result in significant damage to district functions or serious damage to members of the university group. A level 2 occurrence may affect one or more areas of the campus.
Level 3 Emergency: A catastrophe relating to the incident or risk of important accidents and comprehensive property harm. Often, such disasters are beyond the capability of the district and municipality to handle with its organic resources. A level 3 emergency involves:
- A huge place, substantial population, and/or crucial facilities
- The execution of large-scale evacuation or in-place sheltering, and execution of short-term protection and mass care functions
- Community-wide warning and public guidelines
- Significant exterior support from other regional response agencies, contractors, and comprehensive government assistance (Abbott & Hetzel, 2010)
Level 3 Response: Stage 3 incidents/events are those in which catastrophe conditions are present. Response will require activation of emergency communication center. A Stage 3 incident may result in major harm to several district functions, huge accidents, and severe injury to members of the campus group. The incident will not be local to a single place and may affect the entire district. The region may need to request support from several exterior support groups at the regional, state, and government level to properly handle to the incident (Trump, 2011).
Every Humboldt Education Center worker and student has a role in the campus crisis. All students and staff are required to be familiar with emergency procedures required by the Risk Protection and security Strategy. This will be accomplished through training and exercises as required by the Campus Protection Enhancement Act. The Humboldt Education Center controls the District emergency control center (ECC) and the emergency functions centers. During district-wide emergencies, the ECC serves as the control center for the response and recovery functions. An extensive range of communication tools are employed by the ECC to aid in the reception and release of vital details. The ECC brings together decision makers to organize the flow of information and strategy development. An extensive range of organizations and government departments may be represented during an ECC implementation based on the type and severity of the crisis.
Campus emergencies are basically reported to the Campus Protection and Security department first. This could be through the Emergency Management and Communications, on-campus emergency mobile phones, local mobile phones, weather sirens, weather radios or other means. The Security Personnel on duty will get in touch with the security director or the allocated official instantly when the reported occurrence is predicted to have campus-wide impact or include many resources or multiple hours of time to mitigate (Trump, 2011).
When the director or designated official decides that the disaster is categorized as the major crisis as described in the Risks Protection and security Strategy, he or she will instantly get in touch with members of the Campus Risk Response Group. If the director or designee decides that the threat to the university is imminent, any one member of the Campus Risk Response Group thus approached has the power to stimulate this course of action.
Prohibited Conduct and Sanctions
Humboldt Education Center prevents the ownership of weapons, such as carrying, maintaining, or storing weaponry, on any college or university facility when not required by the person’s job or according to relevant district policies or state laws. Appropriate disciplinary measures, such as prosecution and arrest, will be introduced for any person discovered to possess a gun or weapon on campus residence. Banned behaviour considered undesirable by the district and which will subject the individual(s) to disciplinary measure that conforms to district policy includes, but is not limited to, the following:
- Risk of or physical damage to others;
- Actual physical or verbal conduct that makes a reasonable fear of harm
- Actual physical or verbal actions that results in significant emotional problems to an individual(s);
- Actual physical or verbal actions or harmful aggressive actions, whether perceived or actual, based on ethnicity, gender, sex, sex-related orientation, or other secured status;
- Risk of or real defacement and/or damage of property;
- Sexual harassment or attack, such as dating, stalking, or domestic violence;
- Brandishing a tool or firearm; or
- Revenge against any individual(s) who reports a breach of these principles (Abbott & Hetzel, 2010)
Humboldt Education Center identifies that offering follow-up with employees and learners after a disaster is critical to keeping order in the educational institutions and helping associates of the university group move beyond the crisis. School, District, nation, and state based response groups have been established for planning and applying recovery/postvention actions (Butler & Clayton, 2009). These functions, activities include assisting the mourning process for employees and learners, offering precise information to university employees and the public, creating classroom materials for activities and discussions, intervening with at-risk learners, arranging follow-up events with parents and the public, assessment response initiatives and suggesting developments. The goal of these actions is to address the consequences of an emergency or crisis with the supply of support, control, and framework to strengthen a situation until it can return to its pre-crisis condition.
Abbott, E. B. & Hetzel, O. J. (2010). Homeland security and emergency management: A legal guide for state and local governments. Chicago, IL: Section of State and Local Government Law, American Bar Association.
Butler, A. S., & Clayton, E. W. (2009). A Review of the HHS family planning program: Mission, management, and measurement of results. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press.
Trump, K. S. (2011). Proactive school security and emergency preparedness planning. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Corwin.
Background and Setting
Niuswise Media is a social media provider and a PR firm that offers communication and Public Relations services to its customers. The media was established on the backdrop of technological advancement in communication and aimed to tap the growing need for communication.
It seeks to establish a niche in communication market by providing public relations and communication service solutions to its clients at affordable rate.
Among the services the organization offers includes: Development and Business communication, Public Relations, Media and Corporate communication, Marketing and Branding.
It has a dedicated team of experts that provide tailor made business and communication solutions to its customers. Established in 2005, Niuswise Media continue to live an imprint in the media as it strives to redefine communication and the media
The conflict that I will discuss involves a feud leading to termination of an employee contract due to lack of cooperation by the employee.
The employee was contracted on 3 months renewal contact as a video producer, after a short while the employer saw that he was not fit to work as video producer noting that he required more exposure.
The bone of contention began when the employee was relegated to article writer with a role to generate post for the firm’s online media. This attracted a go slow on employee side and after a week’s time protest the employer cracked the whip and dismissed the employee on summary dismissal instead writing or giving the employee due notice or wages in lieu of notice as specified in contract. Thus the parties in this conflict are the employer and the employee with the employer’s lawyer.
- I choose the employee’s side.
- In this feud the Principled negotiation, (PN) was not used by the employee who was overwhelmed by emotions after he was summary dismissed instead he opted for Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement (BATNA).
How PN would have benefited the two sides
The Principled Negotiation could have been implemented by the two parties. Furthermore there are a number of benefits that the employee and the employer should have gained from the process.
- A glance look at the Principled Negotiation does rest on four principles as illustrated by Fisher & Ury (1999). This includes separating people from the problem, focusing on interest not people, inventing options for mutual gain, and finding best objective criteria.
- According to Harvard scholars by separating people from the problem, one is able to separate and identify the issues to be solved rather of the people in feud, also it will help one avoid emotion and get to root cause of problem not individual focus. This could have helped the party to avid mixing the issues and emotion like dislike, hatred, and hunger in the disagreement.
- Focusing on interest at hand rather not position, this could have enabled them to understand their interest and reach to a mutual agreement like ironing out the root cause of the problem for their benefit instead of just looking at the physically result or what is at stake. (Fisher & Ury, 2011)
- Through inventing options for mutual gain, this would have enabled the employee and employer to brainstorm in available options and solutions and come up with a conclusive or possible solution instead of wavering or taking hard stances that could have stalled the negotiations.
- Finally arriving at the best criteria always depends on the solutions reached. Hence this could have enabled them to ensure that the criteria they reach is principled with the set standards and that all parties get satisfied and ward off any disparities like feelings of being treated or deal struck with unfairness (Raiffa,2002).
Principled Negotiation here was not used in above feud though it could have been of benefit to both employee and employer as illustrated above.
Spangler (2003) notes that Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement (BATNA) is what one or a negotiator gets without negotiating or negotiations fail. Since my side opted to compromise after the summary dismissal so as to reach a consensus with the employer after it happen that he had remain with 2 months on his contract. Consequently, there was no possibility of reaching at Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement with the employer.
What I could have done
Being the principal representation of the employee I should have first called for Principled Negotiation with the employer of my client to solve the conflict amicably.
I n this case my client was dismissed abstract without writing in advance or in lieu notice and further there was late in payment of my client and this warrants explanation. Also my client felt shortchanged from video producer to article writer, this was the reason for his ‘protest’ leading to dismissal.
The decisions that I could have taken:
- First include understanding the problem by identifying key areas to address.
- Secondly after analyzing the problems, concerns are likely to emerge and this are what will be the objectives to make addressed in decision making.
- Third after identifying objectives, I would identify alternatives solutions available to my objectives that I tend to achieve and enable me exploit other avenues like if they fail or possibility of succeeding in getting enough information about the conflict (McCarthy, 1991).
- Also every decision has a consequence thus it is advisable to know the outcome if they will be good or damaging , whether there will be alternative to safe landing or will the choice be harmful to my client.
- I will also need to minimize the number of objectives by making tradeoffs so as to stand with a feasible objectives instead of pursuing divergent agendas, there is need to focus on one goal looking at it impact. Moreso with key goals in hand I will identify possible uncertainty I am likely to encounter during the negotiations and its impact. With uncertainty in place I will need to be a risk taker if any negotiation is to be achievable by my client. (Hammond et.al, 1999)
Fisher, R., & Ury, W. (1991) Getting To Yes: Negotiating Agreement without Giving In, 2nd Edition. PenguinBooks, New York.
Hammond, S.J, Keeney, L.R., & Raiffa, H. (1999): Smart Choices: A Practical Guide to Making Better Live Decisions. Broadway Books, New York.
Kaner., S. (1996).Facilitator’s Guide to Participatory Decision-Making, New Society Press, Philadelphia.
Raiffa, H. (2002) Negotiation Analysis: The Science and Art of Collaborative Decision Making Belknap Press. Cambridge, MA.
Spangler, B. (2003)”Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement (BATNA).” Beyond Intractability. Retrieved from http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/batna
McCarthy,W. (1991). The Role of Power and Principle in Getting to Yes in Negotiation Theory and Practice.
The Spartacus Workout: A Respiratory Exercise
Health and wellbeing of the body is a priority that almost each individual is struggling to maintain. As such, many publications, tutorials, and literal works have been initiated to enhance sustainability and good health in the society. Men’s Health is a Britain magazine that is globally recognized for its articles that are dedicated towards health and maintaining good body shape. Therefore, this paper presents a critique to the articles The Spartacus Workout by Adam Campbell and Rachel Cosgrove published on Men’s Health magazine on 2013. The Spartacus workout contains guidelines that enable a person to manage breath while exercising.
Campbell and Cosgrove (2013) assert that the secret beneficial workout and exercise is to incorporate respiratory activities. However, they caution that not all exercises are beneficial; hence, they developed a workout plan called “the Spartacus workout”. This workout plan suggests that a person should incorporate ten exercises collectively to achieve positive results. Chandler (2013) states that each body muscle endures a workout activity different from the others. That is why the Spartacus workout gives each exercise or station a specified period to allow enough respiration. For example, the goblet squat should last 15 seconds while squatting and 5 seconds when standing. This is to allow the body to accumulate air and release used up air while relaxing and contracting the muscle. The time variation protects the muscle from damage because it acquires enough air. However, Chandler (2013) advises that an individual should monitor their hormonal response to determine whether the prescribed intensity is appropriate. The Spartacus workout incorporates a personal trainer who will evaluate body response and prescribe intervention and rests that allow proper respiration (Campbell & Cosgrove, 2013).
Campbell, A. & Cosgrove, R. (2013).The Spartacus Workout.Men’s Health. Retrieved from: http://www.menshealth.com/fitness/spartacus-workout-1
Chandler, T.J., and Brown, L.E. (2013). Conditioning for Strength and Human Performance, 2nd ed, Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins.
In dynamic business environment, enterprises have to maintain a continuous pace for change to deal with the emerging competitors aggressively. Change is inevitable in the business world because without change, organizations would lose the competitive edge and fail to meet the increasing customer needs and requirements. I have chosen Wal-Mart for diagnosis of change needs for this assignment. Wal-Mart is the largest departmental store in the US. This paper will apply Kotter’s 8-step approach to changing Wal-Mart enterprise towards a successful perspective. John Kotter designed the eight-stage process to introduce a sense of change to the corporate leadership. Change is considered paramount for solving problems of the day. Conventional methods of change results into a return of approximately 20% per dollar whereas modern approaches to change results into returns of approximately 80% per dollar that is more appealing to the investors and shareholders (Cohen, 2005). Since Wal-Mart has not optimized the modern transformation methods, a model for introducing change to its corporate culture is crucial to prepare the organization for change.
Wal-Mart store Inc is a multinational corporation with operating retail stores across the world. It was incorporated in 1969. It operates in 3 segments; the Wal-Mart international, Sam’s club and Wal-Mart U.S (Brunn, 2006). The company has established its operations in all the 50 states in America and 26 countries globally. It has fully owned subsidiaries in Brazil, Japan, Argentina, United Kingdom, China and Canada. Further, it has majority owned subsidiaries in Central America, Mexico, China, Chile and some parts of Africa. The company rose from a regional store to a global giant transforming the lives of numerous communities and customers live better lives. Wal-Mart concentrates on providing seamless shopping experiences to its customers whether online, on mobile devices or through their stores. Today, Wal-Mart is the largest retailing supermarket in the world whose model is emulated by many emerging retailers both in the US and other areas across the world. Wal-Mart deals with six merchandise units including grocery merchandise, entertainment, hard lines, health and wellness, apparels and home furnishing merchandise. The Wal-Mart US also provides financial services such as wire transfers, check cashing, bills payment and money orders (Fishman, 2006). Wal-Mart shares trade in the New York stock exchange and other regional and international financial markets. Today the share is trading at USD 84.62 at the New York Securities Exchange. Wal-Mart is recognized globally because it is the 3rd largest public company. It has over 8500 stores operating under 55 different names across the world. It is the largest retail stores in the world with over 2 million employees’.
The perception about change being the only thing that is constant in the world is relevant even today. Change is a common denominator particularly in the world of business. New ways such as project-based working, staying competent, technological improvements meant to drive ongoing changes in the most effective manner are necessary. Whether it is necessary to take into account a small change in processes or transforming the whole system of the organization, it is common to feel inconvenient and intimidated by the degree of the problem. To succeed in reacting to innovation, growth prospects, technology, culture, leadership and cost structure in the organization, change is inevitable (Cohen, 2005). Numerous theories and models are available to manage change in organizations that demonstrate clearly how to implement change, but for the purposes of this assignment, we will focus on Kotters 8-step model for change.
Kotter developed the model to introduce change and innovation sense to the corporate leaders. The model comprises of the following identifiable stages; developing sense of urgency, establishing a guiding coalition, creating a strategy and a vision, communicating your change vision, empowering the employees’ for broad-based action, generating the short-term wins, consolidating the gains and driving more change and last but not the least anchoring new strategies in the organization culture.
Utilizing the Kotter’s 8-stages approach to bring change in Wal-Mart
Step 1- building a sense of urgency for change
Due to the intensive competition at global level resulting from reduced merger activities and rising economies, the need for change has skyrocketed. The biggest challenge involves understanding why companies are not pursuing the change with some sense of urgency in order to accomplish organizational goals. A different perspective for business is crucial so that the purpose of the company should not be limited to making money but providing value to the society and customers. If the organization serves its customers well, it will generate revenue and profit. The leadership of Wal-Mart enterprise should focus on serving more customers to enable the company grow progressively. To develop some sense of urgency necessary for change, Wal-Mart should be committed to allocate resources optimally for growth and execute strategies to develop a portfolio of change for both long-term and short-term growth. Absence of these approaches indicates depending too much on the existing products and ineffective performance. During hard economic times, Wal-Mart management should turn to the basic idea that business and the community needs each other (Kotter & Rathgeber, 2006). To succeed, the company requires support from the community for infrastructure and employment and the community needs the company support for new solutions and employment opportunities. Sustainable growth creates a better company and community relationship that sours if the firm focuses purely on profit without focusing on the growth of revenue. The leadership of Wal-Mart should articulate the fundamental strategies for sustainable profits growth and the importance of change in accomplishing business objectives. This way, it will create some sense of urgency for change.
Stage 2-Developing a guiding coalition for change
A guiding coalition is a recipe for initiating change in the behavior of employees’. The change team organized to drill down change at Wal-Mart should represent the company not just the management. It should consist of powerful people without ego, people from all levels of management from both genders who embrace culture and diversity. A more diverse coalition is likely to be innovative in its strategies to introduce the anticipated change (Gupta, 2011). The guiding coalition should demonstrate enthusiasm, care for the people, company’s success, tools and methods applied. During this internet era, Wal-Mart guiding coalition should consider including outside members including consultants, associates, professors and professional bodies in diverse or related industry. The coalition should also utilize the social media platforms for spreading change message to supply chain, stakeholders and employees (Gupta, 2011). The guiding coalition should realize that employees make change happen in an organization with their support. Care and empathy for employees is necessary for building trust. Coalition members should acknowledge that employees have to be inspired to become innovative. When an organization is run for short-term gains, the environment is destructive and competitive because employees fear being laid off. Consequently, employees show up to pass the time, become nub because of stress since nobody is mindful of their ideas. However, if the company is run for long-term growth, failures are acceptable, employees’ develop a risk-taking culture and the environment becomes friendlier (Gupta, 2011). Company’s drive to change should persuade the employees’ that change is crucial for the success of the company as well as their personal growth. Drive to change should be an interesting experience that is worth sharing with families and friends.
Stage 3-designing a strategy and a vision for change
For Wal-Mart to develop a vision, it should think like a newly formed company all over again. The company should adjust its strategies and vision to meet the evolving customer needs and existing market conditions. The company management should review the existing business models including internal competencies, processes, product mix, resources and services. The review will allow the management to learn the trends in technology and growing customer and consumer demands. For Wal-Mart, the fundamental strategies should be profitability, growth and sustainability. This will require a combination of change and acquisitions to ensure that growth is attained profitably by utilizing resources optimally. Sustainability requires developing a portfolio including long-term and short-term changes (Gupta, 2011). Such a portfolio will allow Wal-Mart management to allocate financial and intellectual resources for change. The management should realize that change can be achieved internally by improving the current products and processes. The corporate managers should design a futuristic portfolio of changes and vision prior to formally launching the change initiatives.
Stage 4- Communicating change vision
Clearly communicated visions lead to organizational success. For Wal-Mart, frequent and clear communication of the corporate vision is crucial. There are numerous ways a company can communicate its vision succinctly such as through pocket cards, emails, story boards signs and posters or bulletin boards. Any Wal-Mart vision for change should be straightforward without apple pie jargons in order to vividly benefit all the stakeholders without inconsistencies. The best method of communicating a vision is to lead by example. The vision should be in a manner that challenges intelligence of the employees as well as demanding for collaboration from all stakeholders. Accomplishing corporate vision requires making decision quickly and accepting experimental failures. Communication of change vision should clearly allay employees’ doubts and instill confidence to all (Gupta, 2011).
Stage 5-Empowering the employees for broad-based change
Empowering employees involves making them responsible for company’s accomplishments, educating them and listening to their ideas. For employees to become intellectually engaged, Wal-Mart should give them more authority to the make decision related to change in the company. To deploy change in the most pervasive, profitable and predictable manner, the management should consider giving employees incentives. Incentives in this sense mean eliminating bureaucratic procedures and policies, communicating openly. Incentives also include encouraging reflective and thing minds through activities such as games. Wal-Mart Company should invest in its employees by training them on innovation and creativity concepts, tools, methodologies and techniques (Cohen, 2005). Further, employees should be exposed to launching of innovative products process. The management in different stores should develop in-house change competencies by setting up innovation laboratories. Checks must be established in order to develop a change routine. Employees’ empowerment should also involve supervisors who are supportive of the change practices in the Company.
Stage 6-Generating small and short-term wins for the change
Small and short-term wins will occur at Wal-Mart if the company’s management launches innovative products, embraces new cultures and ensures traceable financial impacts. The company must set up a system and process of dealing with surprise and expected elements of change (Gupta, 2011). Change comes with some chaos and the organization needs a high level of reproductively. Wal-Mart has to change from its existing rigid structure and shift to a more flexible structure that offers innovative and customized solutions as demanded by customers. It is possible that while working on short-term wins for the change, some of them are unsuccessful. Initial failures are necessary since they provide lessons of what needs to be avoided. Short-term wins are a source of visible evidence that change is worthwhile because they justify the desired changes in the company. Experiences from small and short-term wins for the change will strengthen Wal-Mart management to drive change throughout the company. Enthusiastic and well-informed company executives will provide more transforming and charismatic leadership for pursuing change (Gupta, 2011).
Stage 7-Consolidating the gains and driving more change
Publicizing the company’s success will influence employees to join the change bandwagon. Success is a good way of inspiring employees. A major challenge during selection of change projects involves collaboration by the various departments. The management of Wal-Mart should accelerate the drive for change after the short-term wins by fostering teamwork. To ensure that changes introduced are sustained for years, the Company should redefine its culture accordingly. Corporate procedures and policies, vision, informal rules, work environment, behaviors, organizational structure and rules should be amended to perpetuate change. Innovation certification and training should be utilized in acquiring change expertise (Gupta, 2011) .Periodic reviews, measures of change and action plan for nurturing change at departmental levels should be deployed and developed. This is the stage where change becomes a standardized procedure throughout the company.
Stage 8-Anchoring new strategies in the organization culture
The changing technology and customer demands create expectations for a dynamic and enjoyable experience. Wal-Mart has the responsibility developing portfolios of change for both long-term and short-term benefits. Anchoring change is crucial for perpetuating a culture of change (Gupta, 2011). The company should reinforce change in every step through environment, expectations, activities, decisions and measures. If Wal-Mart establishes fundamental strategies of sustaining profitable growth through change, infrastructure will grow significantly nurturing the culture of change continuously. From orientation of new employees to the exit interviews, the company should emphasize change to maintain the change awareness inside and outside the organization (Gupta, 2011). Once this is achieved, the society and company’s stakeholders will expect change. Without anchoring change in the corporate culture, this will be difficult to deliver.
In conclusion, the management of Wal-Mart is not quite sure how to pursue change. The reasons behind their change averse nature includes little confidence in change processes, long product development period, measures, little accountability for change among other reasons. As a result, the company provides limited incentives, questions investments channeled to driving change and has no plans to handle failures. There is a need to address the management’s inability to manage change and the little involvement of employees across the board to speed up change process. The ultimate goal is to sustain profitability, progressive growth instead of aiming at profits alone. The drive for change provides the company’s executive with a proven framework for executing their strategies successfully. The paper has explored in details the need for change at Wal-Mart Company and suggested the ways of addressing the change needs by utilizing Kotter’s 8-steps strategies to change.
Brunn, S. D. (2006). Wal-Mart world: The world’s biggest corporation in the global economy. New York: Routledge.
Cohen, D. S. (2005). The heart of change field guide: Tools and tactics for leading change in your organization. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press.
Fishman, C. (2006). The Wal-Mart effect: How the world’s most powerful company really works– and how it’s transforming the American economy. New York: Penguin Press.
Gupta, P. (September 01, 2011). Leading Innovation Change – The Kotter Way. International Journal of Innovation Science, 3, 3, 141-150.
Kotter, J. P., & Cohen, D. S. (2002). The heart of change: Real-life stories of how people change their organizations. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press.
Kotter, J. P., & Rathgeber, H. (2006). Our iceberg is melting: Changing and succeeding under any conditions. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
The Use of Linux in the Server and Workstation Environments
Thesis: Linux, a popular operating system, has a wide range of distribution, including Ubuntu, Debian, and community enterprise operating system (centos). Centos and Ubuntu remain the main distribution of Linux on servers and workstations (Smyth, 2011).
- Define Linux distribution and why it was developed.
- Thesis: Linux operating system is a free open source software developed and distributed by various vendors. It main components are Linux Kernel. It was originally designed for personal computers, but it has since been modified to operate on servers and workstations. Linux comes in packages called Linux distribution, including Debian, Ubuntu, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux (Smyth, 2011).
- State when the Linux operating system was developed.
- Discuss the purpose and intentions of its development
- Argument for the software development
- It is a flexible and fast software because of its extra features and attractive interface.
- It has a variety of open-source packages like Firefox serving businesses with a set of functionality.
- It enables users to store files online.
- Argument of it formation.
- Linux software would enable computer operators to access other devices to perform specific functions
- The software would send instructions from an application to the serve, the serve sends back the results of the instructed task through the operating system.
- Linux enables people to download it and make their own version since it is an open source (Smyth, 2011).
- Argument for development of the operating system against other existing operating systems.
- Linux distribution packages by Ubuntu and centos have variety of choices but Ubuntu is limited to Debian distribution.
- Linux distribution on Ubuntu is always on the lead to upgrade by having shorter release cycles .When new software come to the market Ubuntu users get it before Centos users because it is free .
- Linux distribution on Centos provides free community supported platform that are compatible with Red Hat Enterprise Linux, which is its main source.
- Red Hat Enterprise. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is not expensive as it comes with an extra option for technical support. Red Hat Enterprise Linux has low operational costs but it does not upgrade its software frequently to conform to consistency and issues of security.
- Centos lead in hosting, which means they are compatible with majority of the software. Centos have a longer support period while Ubuntu long support releases comes after every two years lasting for 5 years.
- Linux distribution on Debian offers professional 10-year support ensuring compatibility during the support period.
Argument in favor of it developing Linux operating system.
- The product is free while others like Microsoft have renewal fees.
- The software can be installed in a number of computers while others software come with license for installing on one computer.
- The Linux operating system has been in existence for a longtime. It is secure due to the new viruses that have been evolving with time. The software is not affected.
- The software enables one to customize it to a person’s liking
- It comes with hardware compatibility.
- When was Linux software developed
- What are some of the changes the products have brought since its development.
Smyth, N. (2011). Ubuntu 11. 04 Essentials. Payload Media Press.USA
Smyth, N. (2010).Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Essentials. Payload media Press.USA
The Arab revolution, a pro-democracy, modern day rebellion that has engulfed most of North Africa and the entire Middle East region since 2010, has been illustrated as a devastating revolutionary wave that has brought about the over-throw of many political regimes in its wake. The downfall of the Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, Hosni Mubarak, and Muammar Gaddafi governments and the riots of displeasure of Algerian and Moroccan citizens are the result of a deep revolution of these realities This phenomenon has had a great effect on the political advancement, and democratic supremacy in the Arab world in particular. Many scholars argue that, although the political, environmental, and socioeconomic aspects and variables that brought about, and sustained the revolutions in the affected countries appear similar in nature, they vary from one country to the other. Recent findings however, show that the inability of governments in these affected states to respond adequately to the growing demands of political inclusion, good governance, job creation and policies of inclusive growth played fundamental roles in awakening the people’s consciousness, resulting in the revolutions, this paper draws a comparative analysis of the key factors and variables that gave rise to the Arab Spring.
Many political scientists argue that the prevailing patterns of the Arab revolution have many underlying causes that vary sharply by country, For instance, religion, tribal, ethnic, sectarian, and regional ideology differences within each given nation (Rand. p. 126). Nonetheless, an examination of the broader demographic, economic, and security trends in the MENA region shows how these critical factors are in shaping public anger and discontent. The results from this analysis also show the critical role of the quality of governance, internal security systems, Justice systems, and progress in social change in shaping and dealing with each nation’s problems
Though different in many aspects, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt share a range of similarities with regard to the socioeconomic and political origin of the revolts as well as the contemporary phase of transition. Despite the issues, being brought to light by different reports claiming that there is no reliable way to assess the deep underlying structural impact of factors like demographics and economics on unrest. A number of skeptical technocrats claim similar efforts to underline these factors, like the Arab Development report warned nearly a decade ago, however, a combination of factors such as dictatorships or absolute monarchy, demographic pressures, human rights violations, extreme poverty, government corruption, economic decline, unemployment, and several demographic structural factors such as a great percentage of educated, but displeased youths within the population have been identified as having led to the objections. However skeptical these scholars may be, no one can realistically address the current upheavals in key countries and the MENA region without considering such factors.
Unequal distribution and income fluctuations create instability
During the making of this analysis, a common critic always came up, in some regions of political science, some researchers claimed that the data involved are uncertain, and many proceed the current period of unrest, but it is clear that economics and inequities in the distribution of wealth are among the key forces driving unrest in the MENA region.
The critics may hold some fact in their opinions, The Middle East GDP has lagged considerably behind other regions in the world. The per capita GDP for the North American region grew at a much greater rate than the per capita GDP in the Middle East between 1980 and 2010. During this time the North American GDP per capita nearly quadrupled, while the Middle East GDP per capita grew, expanded by just 25 times its original value. In 2010, the per capita GDP in North America was $47,111, while the average per capita GDP in the MENA region has been just $6,488 (Livingston. p. 23). However, the rate at which the regional GDP lagged behind is what is considered as the major factor or the Arab spring. Furthermore, while Kuwait had a GDP per capita ratio of $46,970 in 2012, Jordan’s ratio was $4,788, additionally, the per capita oil export income of Qatar, the MENA state with the highest per capita income is 25 times the per capita income of Algeria, the MENA State with the lowest income. The MENA region had wealth disparities among themselves and this was a sign that the region had financial issues despite them being oil-producing countries.
Figure 1: this graph shows the degree that the Middle East region has performed over the years against other regions
Economic adversity can be tolerated if the citizens believe there are a better days ahead, or have a sense that the burden is at least to some extent equally distributed (Morgeson. p. 159). This was not the case in the MENA regions. Political analysis show that the previous governments-led development gave place to a friendship based capitalism that benefited only a small minority. For example, in Egypt, new corporate elite’ entities collaborated with the Hosni Mubarak regime to accumulate fortunes unthinkable to the majority of the population living on 2 dollars a day. Additionally, in Tunisia, no investment arrangement was closed without approval of the ruling family.
Corruption Perception Index (CPI) for Egypt, Libya, and Tunisia for Selected Years
Sources: (Lambsdorff .p. 212 )Author’s Compilation from Transparency International (CPI Report for Selected Years)
From the above data, it is evident that through the decade all three countries got worse in terms of corruption ratings. This showed that though the degree of corruption was different amongst the countries, it was a predominant factor in all countries and led to the revolution.
The economic situation in the Arab region could steady over time under a capable and credible government, however, by the end of the 20th century nearly all Arab dictatorships were outright bankrupt both ideologically and morally. For example, as the Arab Revolution happened in 2011, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak had been leader of government since 1980, his Tunis counterpart Ben Ali had ruled since 1987, while the self-proclaimed imperial leader Muammar al-Qaddafi ruled over Libya for about 42 years (Rand. p. 3).
A majority of the population were deeply skeptical about the authenticity of these ageing regimes. Although until 2011, most citizens remained submissive out of fear of the government security services, and as a result of an apparent lack of better option or fear of an Islamist takeover.
Bungled State Response
The response of Arab dictator leaders to the mass protests was predictably brutal and unlawful, going from removal from office claims to panic, from law enforcement brutality reform that came too little too late. Attempts to calm the protests through the use of force flop spectacularly (Rand. P.130). For example, in Libya and Syria the conflict between citizens and law enforcement led to civil war. Every funeral for the casualty of state violence only fueled the anger and attracted more people to the street.
Even though backed in a number of countries by youth activist groups and unions, the riots were initially largely impulsive, not linked to a fastidious political party or an ideological wave. This phenomenon made it difficult for the old regimes to discourage the movement by simply arresting a few rabble-rousers, a situation that the law enforcement forces were entirely unprepared to encounter.
National Appeal of the Arab Revolution.
The explanation for the collection appeal of the Arab Revolution came from its universal message. A major motto of the protestors in the Arab world was “ash–shag lurid isa at an–nixam” that was translated to English, as ‘the will of the people is to bring down the regime’. This message called on the Arabs regains their country away from the fraudulent elites, a perfect fusion of patriotism and social message. The demonstrators wielded national flags, along with the iconic rallying call that became the symbol of the uprising across the region. The Arab revolution united, though for a brief time, groups of secularists and Islamists, both left wing groups and supporters of liberal economic improvement, middle classes, and the underprivileged
Arab Youth: Demographic Time Bomb
Most earlier Arab regimes for years had sat on a demographic time bomb. Results from the UN Development Program revealed that the population in Arab states had more than doubled between 1975 and 2005 to about 314 million people. For example, in Egypt, two-thirds of the inhabitants are under 30 years of age. Political and economic progress in most Arab countries simply could not cope up with the astounding increase in the youth population, as the ruling select group incompetence aided to lay the causes of their own end.
The MENA region has an extended history of struggle from leftist groups to Islamist radicals for a change of political structures. However, the protests that began in 2011 could not have developed into a mass phenomenon had it not been for the prevailing discontent over unemployment and low living standards. The rage of university graduates required driving taxis to make a living for themselves, and families struggling to afford for their children exceeded ideological divisions.
Massive conflict due to unemployment were largely responsible for the can, stir up in places like the Gaza Strip (40% unemployed), Afghanistan (35% unemployed), Yemen (35% unemployed), Libya (30% unemployed) and other Middle Eastern and North African countries.
The first group protest in Egypt was publicized on social media site Face book, by an unidentified group of protesters, who in a few days were able to attract a large number of supporters (Howard, and Muzammil. P.4). the social media platform provided a powerful recruitment tool that aided the activists to outsmart law enforcement.
In conclusion the Arab spring phenomenon that brought about extraordinary changes that have taken place in the Arab world since 18 December 2010 have changed the landscape of Arabic or Islamic politics. Many scholars will argue their facts that despite the spontaneous reaction of the revolution each country had a variation of revolutionary aspect that sparked the unrest. However, through this analysis, it is safe to say that there are similarities in the factors that brought about political change in the affected states. A combination of factors such as dictatorships or absolute monarchy, demographic pressures, human rights violations, extreme poverty, government corruption, economic decline, unemployment, and several demographic structural factors such as a great percentage of educated, but displeased youths within the population have been identified as having led to the objection.
Dabashi, Hamid. The Arab Spring: The End of Postcolonialism. London: Zed Books, 2012. Print. http://www.worldcat.org/title/arab-spring-the-end-of-postcolonialism/oclc/761850343
Howard, Philip N, and Muzammil M. Hussain. Digital Media and the Arab Spring. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. Print.
Lambsdorff, Johann. The Institutional Economics of Corruption and Reform: Theory, Evidence, and Policy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Print. http://www.worldcat.org/title/institutional-economics-of-corruption-and-reform-theory-evidence-and-policy/oclc/225430844
Livingston, Steven. Bits and Atoms: Information and Communication Technology in Areas of Limited Statehood. , 2014. Print.
Morgeson, Forrest V. Citizen Satisfaction: Improving Government Performance, Efficiency, and Citizen Trust. , 2014. Internet resource.
Rand, Dafna H. Roots of the Arab Spring : Contested Authority and Political Change in the Middle East. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013. Print.