Potential Retail Trade and Competitor Reactions
There are various potential retail trade and competitor reactions that emerge as a result of interdependent of this type of trade and cannot operate independently of one another. Therefore, a retailer running in a business with entrant experiences potential reactions of their nearby opponents during decision making for their businesses. These reactions are;
- Decreasing product prices
This is whereby a trader reduces his/her product prices in order to compete with the fellow traders in the market. For instance, in the case of the Cambridge Sciences Pharmaceuticals, the retailer desires to increase its market share by decreasing the price of the medicines. This trader considers the possibility that nearby competitors can decrease their cost in retaliation.
- Launching new product or service
Some retailer traders react by implementing new products or services in order to be different from their competitors. When one competitor differs from the other in terms of products and services, chances are that he/she will create uniqueness in the eyes of customers. In this case, when retailers have differing resources, assets, capabilities as well as market positions, they are likely to attract more customers.
A good example is depicted in the snack food retail business, for instance, the two leading retailers, Burger King and McDonald’s, undergo similar market trends. However, they have reacted in obviously different approaches to the obesity reaction. For the Burger King, it has launched high-calorie, high-fat sandwiches that are reinforced by in-your-face, and is politically wrong advertisement. For the McDonald’s, it has rolled out food varieties, it regards as healthy. As a leading business, the McDonald becomes the steering for the government and consumer reaction to obesity. Once the other retailers, such as Burger King realizes this, it gets a chance to cherry-pick share in the less health conscious fast food segment. In this case, Burger King responds asymmetrically. In some cases, the objectives of business decision makers never align fully with other corporate objectives and companies normally react in ways which seem to be conflicting with their declared strategic purposes or having unbiased judgments of outsiders regarding the right path for them to follow.
Potential channel conflict issues
There are potential channel of conflict issues that result from competitor reactions. These can be;
- Unjust competition
This involves one retailer distributing misleading and false information, which can harm the company’s interests of another business. In this case, misleading and false information to customers, including dissemination of information that lack a reasonable basis related to properties, price, suitability of uses as well as the quality of goods, fake use other brand names, product labelling or farm name and packaging.
- Predatory pricing
This is whereby a retailer sets its product prices at the level, which signifies the sacrifice of returns in the short run to abolish competition and obtain higher returns in the long run once a competitor or more competitors have been chased away.
- Products and services price limits
This means that some retailers set low prices and high outputs so that other retailer competitors cannot make any return at that price. This is normally achieved by trading at prices just lower than the average sum costs of a potential competitor. This signifies to the potential competitors that it is impossible to make profits. In addition, some retailers can be having a higher level of knowledge regarding the product pricing, market, production cost as well as its customers, which eventually can deter competitors to prosper in the market and result in conflicting issues.
Comparison on E-Government in the USA and the UAE
Electronic government (E-Government), also commonly known as connected government, online government or digital government refers to the employment of technology, ad particularly internet-based applications by the government for the purposes of enhancing access and delivery of information and government services to its citizens, employees, businesses, other governments and other agencies. This also includes the transmission of information from these sources to the government. This model provides benefits such as building better relationships between these entities and the government, enhancing interaction and improving core business operations. The government benefits by being able to deliver information and services faster and cheaply simultaneously to a large array of interested parties (Layne and Lee 123).
- Background Information
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has been a keen investor and adopter of Information Communication Technology (ICT), both in the public and private sectors in recent times. It has come to enjoy the benefits of the role ICT can play in economic diversification and empowerment. In 2010, the UAE was ranked 8th globally in Cisco’s broadband quality survey, ranking broadband quality and rate of penetration (Abbas).In accordance with this, the e-Government program was recognized among the seven major focus areas in the UAE government strategy of 2011-2013. This was in line with the achievement of the UAE Vision 2021, which was launched by HH Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, who was the reigning Vice President Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai. The e-Government strategy of the UAE involves availing more of the government services online. Its flagship project, adopted in the year 2011, was the enabling of payments for government services. Since then, the government has launched an official portal to act as a central point for all of the government-provided services. The services have been diversified to include provision of employment opportunities in the public sector, delivery of education certificates by the Ministry of Education, Pension fund and retirement benefits calculation and also business registration and licensing services, which are now available through a mobile application (“Smart Phone App for Business Registration and Licensing Unveiled in Dubai”).
The United States of America (USA) on the other hand has become more and more linked with the adoption of e-Government since the election of current president Barack Obama. One of his first directives since taking up office was to issue a memo to the heads of government agencies to make government “transparent, participatoryand collaborative” (“Transparency and Open Government | The White House”). In 2009, the US Congress commissioned the development of a plan to ensure that every citizen is able to access the internet, hence enabling the reception and enjoyment of government online services. This was the inception of the National Broadband Plan, which recognizes the importance of broadband as a tool for aiding the nation achieve its objectives of improving the education system, public safety, energy efficiency and overall to enhance delivery of public services. Since then, the government has embarked on a number of initiatives to increase transparency throughout the various levels of government. These have included making government data available to the public, the establishment of a National Contact Center to provide information about government services and the enhancement of these platforms to enable accessibility of these services from the convenience of a mobile phone.
One of the similarities that are evident in the e-government adoption strategy of the two countries is their recognition of the role of e-Government plays, hence their early adoption of e-Government strategies. The United States was among one of the first countries to advocate for the adoption of e-Government, through the enactment of the E-Government Act of 2002. The UAE on the other hand was among the first to implement a federal e-Government programme, known as the e–Dirham. This was implemented in 2001 to enable easier collection of fees for various government services. By 2006, UAE launched its first e-government portal(Al-Khouri 134). These respective governments therefore are aware of the potential benefits of e-Government and are seen to be taking actionable steps towards its achievement.
The governments of the UAE and the USA have also made considerable investments in ICT to enable access to e-Government services. The UAE in particular is considered to be among the highest investing governments in the adoption of ICT in the public sector. Its government has also heavily invested in promoting their e-Government services to the citizens. The country has also invested heavily in world class information and communication technology equipment and infrastructure to propel it to be among the world leaders in this field. Citizens are also encouraged to utilize the e-services provided by government and even rewarded (Mathews 22). The USA has also strived to create an enabling environment for its citizens to access its government services online. The National Broadband Plan was adopted to meet this need and ensure every citizen has access to the internet.
This has been reflected in the USA’s 78.3% internet penetration rate as of December 31st, 2011 (“North America Internet Usage Stats, Facebook and Population Statistics”).
One of the notable differences in the implementation of e-Government in the UAE and the USA is the level of marketing and awareness raised towards these ventures. Marketing is important in informing the citizens of the information and services that they can access online. UAE is a prime example of how promotion and marketing contribute to a successful e-Government system. The UAE government has employed creative community outreach programs to help spread the adoption of government e-services. This has also included empowerment programs to ensure that citizens have internet access. One such program is the partnership with technology providers to subsidize prices of computers and software (Mathews 22). In the case of the USA, such marketing has not been conducted yet and inconsistent focus on e-Government improvement has produced a difference in adoption in these two countries.
- Strengths and Weaknesses
- The United States of America
One of the major strengths of the USA’s e-government strategy is the level of engagement with citizens that is taking place currently. The USA has tapped into social media to interact on a more personal level with its citizens. This has enabled more awareness of its government initiatives to the users of social media, who are increasing on a daily basis. One of the most popular examples of government social media application is the New York Mayor’s office, which provides citizens with regular updated information across a wide range of social medial platforms.
The government has also empowered its citizens by providing access to government data, therefore increasing transparency of government initiatives. This open government initiativeis meant to promote access to government data for the benefit of the citizens. This is aimed at encouraging engagement with citizens, promoting freedom of information and encouraging innovative use of the data in entrepreneurship to promote economic growth.
Despite these strong points, the USA‘s e-Government strategy has various weaknesses. One of these is the fact that it has been difficult for different levels of government and even agencies in the same level to co-operate towards a successful e-Government strategy. Nils and Veit are quoted as saying that although recommendations are in place for the common use of various standards in the USA e-Government strategy, they cannot be imposed by law and therefore are often ignored or not adopted altogether (Mathews 13). This causes larger challenges such as insufficient e-Government funding, which effectively slows down the process.
- The United Arab Emirates
The e-Government strategy in the UAE can be said to have been a success. One of the main contributing factors to this success is the adherence to international security standards. This ensures online security for the users and gains the citizens’ trust. Dubai has employed a successful model for ensuring international standards are adhered to if a government agency wishes to provide any kind of services through the internet. These agencies are required to comply with ISO 17799 standards, to ensure the information safety of the citizens utilizing the platform. Without trusting the virtual environment, citizens cannot participate in the e-Government process and assuring them of their safety is the first step to a successful e-Government application (Hesson and Al-Mameed 227).
The UAE government has developed a model with verifiable goals to measure progress. The variables considered for measurement include focus on citizens and effectiveness factors associated with the initiatives. Individual portfolio management is employed for each of these effectiveness factors (Al-Khouri 143). This model is demonstrated below:
Figure 1: UAE e-Government Model
Security measures are incorporated to develop and maintain trust and confidence. This is especially important for the National Identity Management Infrastructure, which employs the use of smart cards to all citizens to enable secure e-Government transactions. This model has ensured simplicity for citizens and has contributed to the success of this program.
One of the limiting factors to the adoption of an e-Government model is the costs incurred. A drawback of this is that citizens may be paying for the cost but not receiving the full benefits of the service, for example, if they do not have internet access. The implementation of this without a focus on the citizens and their needs is also futile.
A successful e-Government model is a requirement for governments to be more effective in this digital age. The benefits from this strategy are numerous, but only if they are implemented with the citizens as the focus. Governments should consider the implementation of these ventures in light of the benefits they provide to citizens, rather than to governments. Though there are a few issues to be ironed out, the governments that form the focus of this comparison, namely the UAE and the USA, have taken massive positive steps towards achievement of government objectives while maximizing citizens satisfaction from the use of e-Government. If citizen-centric models are applied with a reasonable level of security, there is no limit to the benefits to be enjoyed from e-Government.
“North America Internet Usage Stats, Facebook and Population Statistics.”Web. 11 Mar. 2014.
“Smart Phone App for Business Registration and Licensing Unveiled in Dubai.” 2 June 2013. Web. 11 Mar. 2014.
Al-Khouri, Ali M. “eGovernment Strategies the Case of the United Arab Emirates (UAE).” European Journal of ePractice 17 (2012): 126-150.Print.
Hesson, Mihyar, and Hayder Al-Ameed.”Online security evaluation process for new e-services.” Business Process Management Journal 13.2 (2007): 223-246.
Layne, Karen, and Jungwoo Lee.“Developing Fully Functional E-Government: A Four Stage Model.”Government information quarterly 18.2 (2001): 122–136. Print.
Mathews, Kim. “E-Government in the United States: Steps to Advance its Success”.2010.Print.
Biological and Humanistic Approaches to Personality
The ebook provides an overview to personality through many theories and approaches. Personality indicates what constitutes the differences among people. According to Engler (2013), the formation of personality is based on the inherited characteristics. The genetic aspects can be divided into three aspects that include introversion-extroversion. In spite of the genetic makeup, personality can be influenced by external factors that include the environment. The discussion will provide relevant comparison between the humanistic and biological frameworks on personality. The study of Abraham Maslow is also relevant in understanding the formation of personalities. Maslow’s need hierarchy provides the influences of needs to understand the nurturing of personality. Biology has an extensive influence on the development of personalities in people. It will also investigate the relationship between Maslow’s model arguments and the biological factors. Further, analysis of the humanistic theory and biological factors indicates the differences that exist between the theories. The paper will investigate the biological and human approaches towards the formation of personality.
The growth needs can lead to a greater extent of improving the personality of people in their workplace. Maslow’s framework shows the implication of personality formation on the growth needs. Maslow believes that people are usually aware of their drives and motives considering the environments around them. Thus, Maslow focused on understanding the positive implications towards people. Depending on the different levels of Maslow’s hierarchy, it is evident that needs could be achieved after formation of relevant personalities. The growth needs seek to cover the intrinsic values in individuals for personal growth and development. The growth needs provide relevant correlations for people who are focused on new cultures in the society. The growth needs are correlated with personal growth and development in their life and careers. Personality contributions focus on the respect of systematic satisfaction of the different level of needs as implied by Maslow. Therefore, the order of the growth needs among the workers can lead to strong personality formation.
Researchers have investigated the biological factors that include the formation of personality. The influence of biology on the personalities of people is revealed by in born personality traits. Children are usually born with certain personalities. These inborn personalities are influenced by genetic makeup of the persons. The genetic foundations can lead to differences in the person’s physiology. Furthermore, the biological influences on the formation of personality interact with the environmental factors to influence development. Biological factors are also based on environmental choices, such as, a child growing up in certain cultures and circumstance. This makes children adapt to certain ways reflecting their immediate environment (Miner, 2002). In addition, dispositions may include the personality of the people based on the biological factors. Since these dispositions influence the personal experiences on the environment, they stimulate the formation of personalities in a certain way. Therefore, the structure of the biological factors is crucial in the development of personality and can be influenced by the immediate environments.
There exists a strong correlation between biology and the Maslow’s model. Maslow facilitates the revelation of the different needs that make people’s personalities. Each level of need is based on the selection criteria. According to the theory, people are influenced by their personalities in order to make satisfactory decisions. Thus, the quality of the personalities indicates how better the persons can satisfy their needs. According to Engler (2013), the biological model reveals that brains are the focus in the formation of personalities. Maslow’s theory relates the brain’s states with the hierarchical needs based on personality development process. Each person is biologically complex and different.
Biological aspects insist that the characteristics of the people from their personalities. The concepts of human psychology provide that value of person is based on their self determination. Abraham argued that personality development can be determined by various biological factors. These include diseases or genetics. These biological factors can influence the brain in forming a person’s personality. The structure of the brain plays a significant role in the development of personality. Abraham’s theory concepts incorporate the biological implications to promote personal development. This relates to Maslow’s model of human motivation (Miner, 2002). Generally, the biological factors relate to Maslow’s model of personality development because the biological factors that include brains, heredity and physical features are required at the growth level. This confirms the relations between biology and the concepts of Maslow’s model of personality development.
The biological factors can be said to be not similar from the humanistic concepts and frameworks. The humanistic theories focus on the selection of own actions and behaviors unlike the biological factors. In contrast, biological concepts are different from the humanistic frameworks, as they focus on a person’s internal aspects including the brains and the genes that people cannot control. Psychological understanding is usually based on people’s observations. The humanistic frameworks are not based on beliefs that people are good, but the thinking process (Miner, 2002). Biological understanding acts on the beliefs that personality is controlled by the genetic makeup. They do not use thinking and feelings in making their adjustments. Therefore, the concepts of biology and humanistic theories may be incompatible. In most occasions, the theories rely on past events and occurrences to assert the knowledge while biological factors use the present genetics to determine the formation of the personality. Researchers who support the biological theory argue for the genes as the main determinant of personality (Schultz, & Schultz, 2012). Generally, the biological factors are complex and need clear elaboration while the humanistic theories are simple.
There are different factors that influence the definition of personality. The factors that lead to the formation of personality can be biological or humanistic. The influences of growth needs can lead to personality development. However, the biological factors assist in the formation of personality. The biological factors could interact with the environmental factors to influence personality growth. Biological factors are also based on environmental choices such as varied childhood settings. Based on the arguments of Abraham, personality development can be determined by various biological facts. These include physical characteristics and genetics. These biological factors can influence the brain in forming a person’s personality. In most occasions, the concepts of biology and humanistic theories may be incompatible. For example, biological factors use the present genetics to determine the formation of the personality while, the humanistic theories uses past information. These indicate that the humanistic concepts and biological frameworks are different.
Engler, B. (2013). Personality theories. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Miner, B. J. (2002). Organizational behavior: foundations, theories, and analyses. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schultz, D., & Schultz, S. (2012). Theories of personality. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning
Citizenship Status Discrimination
Citizenship refers to being a participating member of a political community by meeting the legal requirements of that particular state. A person can become a citizen of the United States by birth, naturalization, being a dependent of military members, acquiring citizenship or applying for dual citizenship. A citizen is expected to observe the country’s laws and in return he or she is entitled to acquire certain rights and privileges of the nation. However, a person can be denied his or her rights and privileges as a citizen due to reasons such as ethnicity, race, color, and this is referred to as Citizenship Status Discrimination. Non American descendants are considered to be US citizens when they have acquired citizenship either permanent or temporary, aliens who have work authorization permits, international students, refugees and asylums. However, the law provides an exception where an individual fails to apply for naturalization within six months since he or she became eligible to apply or has applied and not approved within two years. In this case, this paper explores various unfair practices on an individual regarding citizenship or individual’s place of origin during employment.
Citizenship Status Discrimination
The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) consider against the law for an employer with at least four employees to discriminate workers while recruiting or dismissing them based on their citizenship status. The International Labor Law describes discrimination against an employee as morally deplorable and a crime punishable by the court of law. First of all, it is important to get a clear understanding of discrimination against an employee based on his or her citizenship. The Office of Special Counsel for immigration (OCS) categorizes discrimination under the anti-discrimination provision of The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), 8 U.S.C. 1324b: into four discriminatory conducts. They include discrimination with respect to recruiting and hiring where an employer demands for a fee from the potential employee. The second conduct involves an unfair documentation process when verifying employment eligibility for employees. The third one is where an employer intimidates, threatens, retaliates or coerces an employee. The last category of misconduct occurs when an employer treats an individual differently because of their place of origin or ancestry. Also, an employer can discriminate an employee by asking questions which are not related to the job requirement. Therefore, if an employer violates any of the four employment practices, then he or she can be sued for Citizenship Status Discrimination.
Case studies involving citizenship discrimination
The United States Department of Labor stipulates that a fair employment involves an employer observing safety and health standards, meeting wages and working hour’s requirement, complying with benefits and compensations, proper working conditions, equal opportunities during employment and work authorization for non-US citizens. According to the Department of Justice (DOJ), on March 2011 the manager of American Education and Travel Services Inc. (AETS) in Antioch, California was charged with Citizenship Status Discrimination. The complaint was allegedly denied a counselor position because he was not a native English speaker. The department of Equal Employment Opportunity argued that the AETS employer violated the INA provision and he should be held accountable for discrimination act. The judgment passed that AETS would pay 10,000 US dollars as compensation for damages caused through discrimination. The assistant attorney general for Civil Rights Division Mr. Thomas Perez said that federal law protects authorized workers from being discriminated based on unlawful citizenship requirements and he was referring to this case.
Similarly, Wei Cho, Anita and Armando had legal work authorization documents to work in the United States. Wei won a “green card” back in her native country, China; Armando attained US citizenship by naturalization five years ago while Anita is a U.S citizen by both birth and naturalization. The three ladies applied for jobs at Raymond’s information technology company, but to their surprise they met a sign at the reception which read “U.S. Citizens Only”. After perusing their papers, Raymond only hired Anita and told Armando that he could not verify whether she was a U.S citizen. Surprisingly, Wei was not given any explanation why she was not hired.
In this case, Raymond practiced various discriminatory conducts against the two ladies who were looking for a job. To start with, he placed a poster that displays a message saying “U.S Citizens Only” and he does not give reasons for excluding the others. Raymond breaches the anti-discrimination provision which states that an employer should not treat employees different and that he or she is required to offer equal opportunities. Secondly, he gives false document verification information when he says that he cannot verify Armando’s citizenship. Armando is a U.S citizen by acquiring citizenship through naturalization; in addition, she has legal work authorization document’s meaning she is legally eligible for employment. Finally, Raymond discriminates Wei on the basis of her place of origin or ancestry. Despite the fact the Wei has worn a “green card” which means she is legally a US citizen; Raymond does not even consider her for the job. According to the Immigration and Nationality Act, Raymond should be charged for discriminating Wei because she is Chinese and not American and that displays an act of racism.
On the other hand, Uche an African businessman wanted to venture into the American market and start a branch of his own company in the United States. After Uche identified a perfect market location for his business, he proceeded to the local government to obtain legal documents for his company. Upon arrival, Uche was made to wait for several hours before he got served, but unfortunately he was turned back by the officer citing that he had not fully completed the immigration process. Uche decided to seek intervention from the immigration department which became instrumental and he was awarded the documents to commence his business. A few weeks later, Uche announced job vacancies from the top most management to the junior subordinates and casual laborers. The OCS officers received numerous complaints about the employment process and they decide to launch investigations. The report tabled by the OCS shown that all of the top most management positions were occupied by people with African native. During the recruitment, Uche gave first priority to African Americans and people associated with black race despite their qualification. Secondly, the report shown that Uche’s limited café only served food to individuals with African descendants and their salaries were way too high compared to the white natives who held similar work position. Thirdly, Uche’s organization required that successful candidates to obtain job training for two weeks at a fee of 500 US dollars per week. Also, the company was not installed with proper and adequate safety and health equipments. Despite the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) which requires employees to be covered against health hazards, Uche had not yet complied with the law.
Uche committed several accounts of discriminatory conducts by conducting a bias recruitment process, salary disparity and unfair treatment. After clear investigations, it was found out that Uche was on a revenge mission after he was discriminated while obtaining his business documents. Although the local government officer discriminated Uche, that did not substantiate his actions. He treated non-African native employees unfairly and awarded them a lower wage compared to African Americans. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits any employer from asking for pay or fringe benefits during job training as an Uche’s company was reportedly doing. In addition, Uche’s company did not comply with the OSHA regulations pertaining employees protection against health and work hazards. The OCS agents charged Mr. Uche for citizen status discrimination and violating employees’ rights by denying them habitable working conditions.
The Office Of Special Counsel For Immigration-Related Unfair Employment Practices also discourages bias pre and post hire questions. For example, a young Black man who acted in the position of customer cares service in an organization applied promotion together with his colleagues. Later on, he learnt that all his colleagues had been promoted apart from him and he decided to confront the manager for an explanation. To his surprise, the manager turned to him with a hoard of questions about his age, race, his views concerning work and other personal questions. Then the manager told the young man that his approach was too urban and due to his age he could not handle the clients. In spite of the young man’s experience and personal zeal about the job, he was denied a promotion and to add on he was bombarded with discriminatory questions. OCS discourages discrimination in employment because of age and stereotypes about youth experience.
Citizenship Status Discrimination is an existing problem that has seen aliens being ill treated and their rights being violated. The employer has not right at all to treat an individual different based on his or her place of origin, color or race. When hiring employees, an employer is supposed to offer equal opportunities to all applicants. Similarly, an employer should not fire an employee because of citizenship status. Also, an employee is entitled to proper treatment by the employer and should press charges to any employer who violates these rights. In addition to physical characteristics, an employee is protected against discrimination of language, manner of speech, dress code, diet, beliefs and practices and leisure preferences. Under any circumstances, an employer should not fail to offer employment to an individual based on the above mentioned characteristic. The Office of Special Counsel for Immigration-Related Unfair Employment Practices (OSC) offers protection to all residents against citizenship discriminations. This includes, even in the place of worship, recreation centers, shopping area and in the public facilities. OSC prohibits any employer from overstepping regulations set based on discrimination occurrences and its presses charges on behalf of the victim. In the presence of OCS, the ethnic, minority, non-US citizens receive an equitable treatment by the US employers as stipulated in the constitution. Therefore, citizenship status discrimination is a voice that should be avoided by all employers and OSC encourages all the victims seek help if they have experienced discrimination.
Justice Department Resolves Citizenship Status Discrimination Charge Against California Employer. Lanham: Federal Information & News Dispatch, Inc, 2011. ProQuest. Web. 14 Mar. 2014.
Kirmanolu, Hasan, and Cem Baslevent. “Life Satisfaction of Ethnic Minority Members: An Examination of Interactions with Immigration, Discrimination, and Citizenship.” Social Indicators Research 116.1 (2014): 173-84. ProQuest. Web. 14 Mar. 2014.
Poverty and economic development in the US
Description of issue
Poverty is a lack of necessities (Bradshaw, 2006). Based on human dignity values, food, medical care, shelter and safety are necessary for decent human life. However, the want for needs is relative and may vary from one person to another. Needs are relative to what is possible, and experience and social definitions influence perceptions about needs. Poverty is a mark of inequality, caused by relative deprivation. The definition of poverty can be social or objective. Social definitions are relative and allow for flexibility in communities addressing local concerns. Objective definition is a statistical measure established federally by the government and allows for tracking of progress and comparison between different areas. Economic development is a process that is multi-dimensional involving social structure changes, attitudinal changes, national institutional changes, accelerated economic growth and inequality reduction (Todaro and Smith, 2012).
Why the issue of poverty was selected
The issue of poverty is becoming an increasingly serious problem for Americans. The latest data from the US bureau of statistics show that there is no year-on-year reduction in poverty levels (Strachan, 2013). The levels remain unchanged with suggestions that the poverty rate might be increasing. Even though the economic recession has eased and there is a stock market boom, the benefits are yet to trickle down to the ordinary person. Although the national poverty level remains unchanged, the number of people leaving in poverty year-on-year increased. This is a worrying trend because many people will be left behind as the economy develops. Economic development should, ideally, lead to jobs and increased income for people, leading to reduced poverty levels. However, indications are that this is not the case despite concerted government interventions (Heavey 2013). This calls for an investigation to determine what is not working.
The poverty levels in the US have not changed substantially despite robust growth in the US economy over the past three decades (Hoynes, Marianne & Stevens, 2006). Poverty levels fell sharply in the 60’s from highs of over 22% at the beginning of the decade to less than 13% by the end of the decade (Haskins 2009). The drastic reduction in poverty in the 1960’s did not happen by coincidence. It was due to concerted government efforts and directed intervention measures. Government enacted a number of programs that contributed a lot to the reduction in poverty. The government’s efforts were possible due to a booming 60’s economy. The government invested heavily in education to give disadvantaged groups a chance to access quality education that could help the children escape the poverty trap. The government not only supported local school districts but also provided grants for students pursuing higher education. The grants, scholarships and work-study programs offered opened higher education to all irrespective of the economic background.
For young children, the government established pre-schools to give children an early feel for education that was invaluable to future success. The government also introduced a bilingual policy, where immigrants could be thought in Spanish as they mastered English. This ensured that immigrants were not left behind in education due to an inability to understand English. In cognizance of the fact that a healthy population is indispensable in the pursuit for economic development and reduction of poverty levels, the government set up Medicare to provide health insurance to the poor. These programs were accompanied by efforts to combat hunger and malnutrition. The introduction of food stamps helped to feed millions of households, immeasurably improving the health of the population. All of these factors in concert helped to improve the demographic structure of America in the 60’s as the life expectancy levels increased.
The healthier population coupled with the increased education opportunities contributed to the growth in the economy. Consequently, there were more job openings available for people. The virtuous cycle of better health, better education and many job opportunities helped to drive the poverty rate downwards drastically in the 60’s. The increase in Social Security disbursements in the 60’s lifted millions of Americans from poverty. The extra cash was very useful to the poor who did not need to worry about healthcare charges or tuition fees for their children. The money helped poor Americans buy homes, hence increasing the prosperity of the nation.
However, since the 1970’s, the poverty level has remained constant, rising on some occasions (Haskins 2009). The poverty level is correlated with the economy. It rises and falls depending on the prevailing economic conditions. The lack of a marked decrease in the poverty level is surprising given the number of government means-tested initiatives and programs implemented in the recent past. This is in addition to the vast amounts of monetary resources invested in those programs (Haskins 2009). This raises the question as to why there are no decreased poverty levels despite the government’s efforts to reduce the poverty levels in the country.
Current anti-poverty policy
The government is implementing policies to mitigate the effects of poverty within the American public. By the mid-1990’s, government policy shifted from the fight against poverty to the reduction of welfare dependence (Blank, 2000). This policy change interestingly led to the revival of the war against poverty. Initially disbursement of cash support occurred through the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. In 1996, the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) replaced AFDC; giving states more leeway to implement local poverty reduction programs in a manner that they felt was appropriate. Some states allowed people to keep a higher level of public support even after going to work, for a smoother transition from joblessness to work. Some states changed the welfare offices into work assistance offices where they give benefit beneficiaries incentives to seek for work. There are penalties imposed to those who do not show effort in seeking for work. These efforts were to help in removing people from the welfare system and help them into the job market so that they can earn to support themselves and their families. Other policies like the upward adjustment of the minimum wage, adjusted to inflation also helped in the fight against poverty.
Suggested policy considerations
Currently, the biggest problem is that it appears as if the multiplicity of support programs might be working against each other to keep people in poverty. Food stamps (SNAP) are the most effective program by government, lifting millions of families with children out of poverty. Beneficiaries seeking and finding work are punished for their success. A slight increase in income leads to precipitous cuts in food stamps, housing subsidies and loss of any cash assistance. This approach is wrong because usually the income earned does not put the welfare beneficiary above the poverty line. For programs to be effective, the beneficiaries should be slowly weaned off government support as their income rises until they are above the poverty line. If the government’s approach remains the same, the incentive for seeking salaried employment for the poor is reduced.
Recommendations for the future
The government has done much to reduce poverty in the nation. However, poverty levels remain unacceptably high, and much needs doing if the poverty level is to reduce to single digit levels. The following are some things that can be help to reduce poverty
- Adjust the minimum wage upwards to above $ 10 per hour to mitigate the increased cost of living
- Increase funding to anti-poverty programs, especially to SNAP which has proven efficacy in lifting millions from absolute poverty
- Taking care of the senior and disabled citizens, who are much at risk from poverty by strengthening the social security benefits system
- Help immigrants, who form a disproportionately high percentage of the poor, to settle and get decent jobs
- Enact programs that encourage people to seek work by gradually getting them off the benefits system as their income rises and they move above the poverty line
- Regulate and subsidize student education loans to prevent students from taking unsustainable levels of debt that handicap them after they graduate.
The trickle-down effect assumes that a developing economy leads automatically to a reduction in poverty levels. Although there is a positive correlation between economic development and reduced poverty levels, the government must actively intervene to ensure that some portions of the population do not miss the benefits if a developing economy. Poverty is a serious problem, and it cannot be eliminated by merely developing the economy and hoping for the best. The country requires putting social policies in place, and source adequate funding to ensure that the poor get help to overcome the poverty of their circumstances
Blank, R. (2000). Poverty: lessons from recent U.S. history. Journal of Economic Perspectives 14(2), pp. 3–19
Bradshaw, T. (2006). Theories of Poverty and Anti-Poverty Programs in Community development. RUPRI. Retrieved from http://www.rupri.org/Forms/WP06-05.pdf
Haskins, R. (2009). What works is work: welfare reform and poverty reduction. Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy. 4(1), pp. 29-60.
Heavey, S. (6 November 2013). U.S. poverty rate remains high even counting government aid. Reuters. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/11/06/us-usa-economy-poverty-idUSBRE9A513820131106
Hoynes, W., Marianne, P. & Stevens, A. (2006). Poverty in America: trends and explanations. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 20(1): 47-68.
Stevans, L. (2008). The relationship between poverty and economic growth revisited. Selected Works of Lonnie K. Stevans. Retrieved from http://works.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1003&context=lonniekstevans
Strachan, M. (9 September 2013). America’s poverty rate stuck at 15 percent for second straight year. The Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/03/08/worst-product-flops_n_4926112.html?ref=topbar
Todaro, M & Smith, S. (2012). Economic development 11th ed. Boston: Pearson.
How Platypus Sex Chromosomes and Bird Sex Chromosomes Linkage may have Same Origin
The determination of sex for several species has been genetic with females and males bearing different genes/alleles specifying their sexual morphology. Sex determination in animals in most cases goes hand in hand with differences in chromosomes through haplodiploidy or chromosomal combination of ZW, ZO, XY, and XO. This difference is often accelerated by a sex locus (main gene) accompanied by several other genes in a domino effect (Smith & Voss, 2007). There has been a generally accepted argument that the ZW and XY sex chromosomes underwent evolution in two separate branches at the same time (Namekawa & Lee, 2009).
However, there is substantial proof suggesting that there is the possibility of initial transition between the XY and ZW sex chromosomes like in the case of Xiphophorus maculatus bearing both XY and ZW systems within the same population despite the difference in location of genes between the ZW and XY sex chromosomes (Veyrunes et al, 2007). Due to the DMRT 1 gene found in the platypus X chromosomes that is usually possessed by birds, there is substantial reason to support the possibility of a common link between ZW and XY sex chromosomes (Smith & Voss, 2007) as cited in (Jennifer, 2006).
Smith and Voss argue that the proportion of chicken Z and human X orthologs noted in ALG2 is far way beyond what would be expected to be by chance, disputing the hypothesis currently in acceptance arguing that there are separate autosomal origins. Results obtained from research suggested that mammals and bird’s sex chromosomal regions originated from a common ancestral chromosome (Deakin, Hore, Koina, & Graves, 2008; Smith & Voss, 2007).The mammalian males have a combination of X and Ychromosomes to form the XY chromosomes while the females have two similar XX sex chromosomes. Comparing to birds, which have the ZZ-ZW sex determination system, their females are classified with heterogametic ZW sex chromosomes (Smith & Voss, 2007; Namekawa & Lee, 2009).
There is also notable similarity between the chicken W chromosomes and the mammalian Y chromosomes in their conspicuously smaller size as compared to their Z and X counterparts respectively, and also that they both contain fewer loci (Deakin et al., 2008; Smith & Voss, 2007). Deakin et al. (2008) further argues that as much as the mammalian X and Y chromosomes share homology between coding genes on the Y and X, and also within pseudoautosomal regions, the Y chromosomes are significantly variable and smaller in size as compared to the X. It is thus argued that this proves the theory that supports the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes from a homologous autosome pair in a mammalian ancestor after the acquisition of a sex determinant locus by one member of the pair, which resulted in suppression, differentiation and recombination between members of the pair (Deakin et al., 2008).
The evolution of the Z and W bird chromosomes are also proposed to have evolved in a similar way from an ancient autosomal pair. This is supported by the high similarity between the ZW and XY chromosome properties. For instance, both the mammalian X chromosome and bird Z chromosome are highly conserved between species with the W chromosome being degraded in different groups of birds to varying extents (Deakin et al., 2008). Both the mammalian and bird X and Z chromosomes respectively are large in size, conserved between species, and contain many genes. They also appear to be sex-biased in their gene content (Deakin et al., 2008).
Veyrunes et al., (2008) test the hypothesis that argues the possibility of the bird ZW and mammalian XY system sharing homology with the platypus sex chromosomes. The research uncovers that homologous regions to the chicken Z chromosomes were evident, distributed sparsely throughout, principally on the X3 and X5 (Veyrunes et al., 2008).
The research conducted in this coursework was based on secondary sources of data that featured how platypus sex chromosomes and bird sex chromosomes linkage could have shared the same origin. The research uses three major sources to evaluate the possibility of the existing platypus and bird sex chromosomes sharing the same origin. These sources are selected on the basis of originality, extent of research conducted, methods of data analysis, methodology used in the research and authority of the authors, population size used in data analysis, and relevance to the study. This coursework reviews these sources, analyzing the arguments of the authors in relevance to the topic of discussion outlining their results and findings and providing a brief discussions to support the results.
Results and findings
Veyrunes et al. (2008) localizes and identifies BACs on the sex chromosomes on platypus. Male platypus mitotic metaphase chromosomes resulted from the hybridization of 32 BAC clones. Out of the 32, 18 mapped on a single X chromosome: two were mapped on X5p, two on X3q, five on X5q, and nine on X1q, while the remaining 14 had signals with both the Y and X chromosomes (Veyrunes et al., 2008). The extent of homology between human chromosome X and platypus chromosome 6 was confirmed by the results obtained by Veyrunes et al., previously established for seven XCR genes. Results obtained depicted the entire representation of the conserved region of the therian chromosome X, by platypus chromosome 6, which has been reorganized in line with chicken chromosome 4p, human X chromosomes, and opossum X (Veyrunes et al., 2008).
Results obtained from another study, which tested for the origin of mammal and bird sex chromosomes through mapping amniote sex chromosome loci locations in a salamander were as follows. Orthologs of 20 amniote sex chromosomes were meiotically mapped to ambystoma linkage groups. Most of the Z orthologs were found to map on a single ambystoma linkage group (ALG2). The results had a frequency of Gadj = 6.2, P = 0.013 which is far way beyond than would be expected by chance. Also, the XCR orthologs frequency on ALG2 was above what would be expected by coincidence, Gadj = 6.3, P = 0.009 (Smith & Voss, 2007). When ALG2 genes were searched against the full genome assemblies for chicken and human, they were found to be randomly distributed among chicken chromosomes with Gadj = 32.9, P = 9.7e-9 and human chromosomes with Gadj = 42.6, P = 6.9e-11, which hindered reciprocal amniote sex-chromosome loci (Smith & Voss, 2008).
Distribution of orthologies of sex chromosomes on ALG2 has been demonstrated to be beyond the likelihood of having occurred by chance through statistical analysis. The idea of the Z-W and X-Y chromosomal regions being linked to a prior ancestral chromosome of the amniote and amphibian lineages is inconsistence with the pattern of orthologies on ALG2 (Smith & Voss, 2008). Analysis done in the study showed that quite a good number of gene orders that were conserved between the autosomes and sex chromosomes of humans and chickens were conserved on the same chromosome of a salamander and interspersed. This implied that some of the ancestral chromosome gene content that gave rise to the Z and X sex chromosomes are still retained by the ALG2 (Smith & Voss, 2008).
Various reasons have been outlined in this review in support of the link between platypus and bird sex chromosomes arguing that there is a higher probability that they share the same origin. Among the reasons outlined include their similarities, which is beyond what would be expected to occur by chance. Taking for instance, there are significant similarities between the chicken W chromosomes and the mammalian Y chromosomes in their conspicuously smaller size as compared to their Z and X counterparts respectively, and both contain fewer loci.
The evolution of the Z and W bird chromosomes are also proposed to have evolved in a similar way from an ancient autosomal pair, which is supported by the high similarity between the ZW and XY chromosome properties. For instance, both the mammalian X chromosome and bird Z chromosome are highly conserved between species. In addition, both the mammalian and bird X and Z chromosomes respectively are large in size, conserved between species, and contain many genes. They also appear to be sex-biased in their gene content.
There was high similarity found between the variable dosage and partial relationship of the Z chromosome genes on chicken and that of multiple platypus X chromosomes. There was also shared similarity in dosage compensation features between the mammal X chromosomes and bird Z chromosomes with the platypus. Basing on the above provided evidence, one could possibly and confidently defend that there is substantial evidence to demonstrate that platypus sex chromosomes and bird sex chromosomes may have shared the same origin.
Deakin, J. E., Hore, T. A., Koina, E., & Graves, J. A. M. (2008). The status of dosage compensation in the multiple X chromosomes of the platypus. PLoS genetics, 4(7), e1000140.
Namekawa, S. H., & Lee, J. T. (2009). XY and ZW: is meiotic sex chromosome inactivation the rule in evolution? PLoS genetics, 5(5), e1000493.
Smith, J. J., & Voss, S. R. (2007). Bird and mammal sex-chromosome orthologs map to the same autosomal region in a salamander (Ambystoma).Genetics, 177(1), 607-613.
Veyrunes, F., Waters, P. D., Miethke, P., Rens, W., McMillan, D., Alsop, A. E., & Graves, J. A. M. (2008). Bird-like sex chromosomes of platypus imply recent origin of mammal sex chromosomes. Genome research, 18(6), 965-973.
HIV/AIDS and Prostitution
It is now more than 25 years since HIV/AIDS was declared a global pandemic, yet the strategies necessary to combat it are still issues of great concern. Statistical analysis has indicated that approximately 34 million people live with the virus across the globe with an estimated 22 million dying annually (Hanenberg 69). The demographics of prevalence and HIV incidences continue to change over time. Research studies indicate that prostitutes suffer a larger portion of this infections and deaths, accounting to nearly three quarters of the total worldwide (Hanenberg 70). Worldwide, the pandemic has struck all sectors of life and has affected social economic growth of the global economy. It is believed that a well-written constitution that is supported by governmental laws will help to combat the menace (Weinberg 377).
The initial account of the world’s largest pandemic was first published in 1986; mobility and mortality report of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clearly illustrated the trend. An editorial note used to show the analysis of the report stated that all the patients who were positive were exclusively prostitutes working as homosexuals. This suggested the aspects of the relationship between the disease and prostitution (Weinberg 377). In United States of America, the earliest identification of HIV/AIDS to prostitution continued to dominate the public perception and shaped the civil servants and government responses. Despite the varied evidence of the spread of the disease among the heterosexuals, some of the religious leaders still considered the disease as Gods punishment, to sin thus advocated for quarantining or tattooing of homosexuals and prostitutes (Hanenberg 70).
The combination of panic and denial of HIV/AIDS characterized by the United States response was consequently echoed to the entire world. Majority of African nations negatively denied the disease and deeply resented paying attention. Countries such as China argued that in their republic, there are no homosexuals, prostitutes and drug users thus they were free. In Germany, a recognized federal judge declared the necessity of tattooing and quarantines the infected individuals within their state. In the initial decade of the disease onset, majority of the world countries adopted restrictive laws related to the HIV/AIDS virus. The infection also spark a greater form of stigmatization where the infected were both physically and verbally assaulted. However, when reliable test kits were devised to help diagnosis of the disease much of such legislation soared (Hanenberg 71).
One of the most contentious threats to overcoming the HIV/AIDS pandemic is prostitution. The most vulnerable means of transmission of the disease among the prostitutes is through sexual intercourse, a model that has been considered to fuel the unique infection. Poor laws and negative societal norms have placed prostitutes at relatively disadvantaged position. Prostitutes are biologically susceptible to the HIV/AIDS since they have sex with several partners. During the process, some of them are exploited and used as sex objects by individuals who are already infected while others undergo vulnerable practices such as homosexuality, anal and oral sex. Women involved in this practice are usually vulnerable due to their biological susceptibility, gender inequality and poverty (Barrows 159).
Civil societies were the first groups to respond to this situation. The gay community, community activist, and people living with the disease addressed the society inability to act on the plight of individuals living with the virus. They advocated for change of policy, creation of new medical units and development of education initiatives to illuminate the public on matters pertaining to the disease. The Gay Men’s Health Crisis organization in United States of America and the ACT UP continuously drew unprecedented global attention on the various needs of individuals infected or affected by the pandemic. This led to the Launch of AIDs Support Organization in Uganda, a unit that was quite active and vital across Africa. The year 1986, WHO declaration on its devotion on the global control and prevention of the disease has brought a greater progress on the campaign against the HIV/AIDs virus. Driving the concept of the WHO, many countries were willing to take part in the mitigation without any political identification (Barrows 164).
To date, the state laws play an important role in the controlling the spread of the disease among prostitutes and the entire nation. The global comparative analyses of the law have suggested that legislation and litigation critically intersect the HIV/AIDS and prostitution. As discovered, a well-designed government regulation and legislation may greatly help create systemic variation that may support changes necessary for prevention and treatment of the disease. The legislation will also be quite vital in dispelling the propaganda and stigmatization related to the disease (Barrows 167).
The states’ eminent effort to protect vulnerable individuals from HIV/AIDS is considered as a great call for the recognition and respect for individual human rights and sexual rights under the law. Pursuant to these rights, prostitutes and vulnerable individuals are able to pursue reproductive health issues without any fear. They will be able to receive paternal healthcare, access to the relevant information related to their condition and procure necessary protective devices against the disease. The government legislation is considered vital in the provision of health care and range of services to the prostitutes and other vulnerable individuals. This legislation will advocate for the provision of prevention mechanisms such as male and female condoms, a critical and effective mechanism of HIV/AIDS prevention in such vulnerable areas. The provision of high quality and low cost condoms by the government to the prostitutes will enable them to carry out their business without a greater cohesion and prevent the spread of the disease to greater levels (Gable et al 1780).
The established women rights and the various state governments need to recognize the role of gender on the vulnerability of HIV/AIDS on prostitutes. Violation of women prostitutes should be an issue of the past. Women prostitutes should be encouraged to report incidences of gender violence such as rape, social stigma and gender bias that aims to contain the vulnerability of the disease in the society. Nations that prohibit the businesses of commercial sex workers need to continue as such legislation reduces HIV/AIDS with a greater percentage. However, mechanism such as discrimination, stigmatization and prosecution in the court of law should be greatly avoided. This principle drives the prostitutes underground thus denying them the opportunity to understand most of the matters pertaining to the risks, treatment, and protection option on the HGIV/AIDS (Hanenberg 74).
In conclusion, it is recommended that states and concerned international organizations should review their legal frameworks on issues pertaining to HIV/AIDS and Prostitution. This will ensure that all relevant laws and policies pertaining to the pandemic are adhered to and strengthened, which will help reduce the spread of the virus.
Barrows, Jeffrey. “AN ETHICAL ANALYSIS OF THE HARM REDUCTION APPROACH TO PROSTITUTION.” Ethics & Medicine 24.3 (2008): 159,166,131. ProQuest. 17 Mar. 2014 .
Gable, Lance,J.D., M.P.H., Lawrence O. Gostin J.D., and Hodge, James G, Jr,J.D., L.L.M. “HIV/AIDS, Reproductive and Sexual Health, and the Law.” American Journal of Public Health 98.10 (2008): 1779-86. ProQuest. 17 Mar. 2014
Hanenberg, R., and W. Rojanapithayakorn. “Changes in Prostitution and the AIDS Epidemic in Thailand.” AIDS Care 10.1 (1998): 69-79. ProQuest. 17 Mar. 2014.
Weinberg, Thomas S. “Men Who Sell Sex: International Perspective on Male Prostitution and HIV/AIDS.” Contemporary Sociology 29.2 (2000): 377-8. ProQuest. 17 Mar. 2014
Roles of HRM
Human resource management professionals refer to individuals who handle the management processes of the workforce or human resources of organizations. These professionals have a responsibility for attracting, selecting, training, assessing as well as rewarding employees (Kahnweiler & Kahnweiler, p.21). This paper identifies and discusses the basic roles of human resource management professionals. It also explains how their roles have changed over the years.
The basic roles of HRM professionals
It is extremely significant to note that the roles and responsibilities of Human resource management professionals vary greatly from organization to organization. In companies that are small, human resource professionals are usually hired to handle the HR needs of their companies. In organizations that are large, their duties are usually divided between entire departments or several employees (Sims, p.54). Human resource management professionals are involved in hiring employees. These professionals usually advertise for vacancies in order to attract the required people in their organizations. The professionals also interview job candidates in order to come up with the required people. The human resource professionals also terminate employees for various reasons.
Human resource professionals also work to keep their companies efficient and effective in terms of the right human resources. In this regard, the professionals coordinate promotions as well as reassignments. Human resource professionals play a highly significant role of keeping their organizations operating in a smooth and efficient manner (Harris et al, p.32). One way that the professionals ensure this is by having the right people in place who handle the right tasks. They also offer promotions to their current employees. Human resource professionals also manage the relations of their employees. When disputes arise between managers and their employees as well as between employees, they need to be solved fairly as well as equitably by the professionals. The professionals also administer benefits and pay of their employees.
How their roles have changed over the years
The roles of human resource professionals have changed over the years. These roles have shifted from personnel departments to human resources. This has been extremely significant in transforming the way that organizations view the human element. The change has been as a result of employment laws that have improved over the years (Kahnweiler & Kahnweiler, p.17). It has also come as a result of working conditions that have been improving over the years. In addition, the changing roles have been due to economic challenges that have been affecting many industries in the economy. The jobs of these professionals have had to change in order to keep up with various demands of their organizations on numerous levels.
Human resource professionals have become strategic partners in their organizations. The value of these professionals has been rising over the years in the eyes of organization leaders. Human resource professionals are now seen as true resources. In addition, human resource officers have been working in tandem with departmental managers as well as decision makers in forging workplaces for the future (Sims, p.4). Due to economic challenges that continue to bedevil various nations across the world, human resource professionals have been evolving in numerous ways that are unexpected. Instead of handling employment duties that are routine, human resource personnel have also been handling some heavy burden on behalf of their organizations. These include the recruitment, training as well as developing their employees in safe workplaces as possible.
In conclusion, it is extremely significant to realize that human resource professionals play a pivotal role in their organizations. These roles include hiring employees, terminating employees as well as coordinating reassignments and promotions. Other roles include managing the relations of their employees as well as administering benefits and pay. However, the roles of human resource professionals have been changing over the years. Human resource professionals have now become crucial decision makers in their organizations.
Harris, Hillary et al. International Human Resource Management, London: SAGE, 2013.
Kahnweiler, William & Kahnweiler, Jennifer. Shaping Your HR Role, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.
Sims, Ronald. Human Resource Management: Contemporary Issues, Challenges, and Opportunities, Chicago: IAP Press, 2007.
Obesity in Kuwait
Kuwait is an oil producing country that has experienced exponential growth over the past several decades due to its mineral fortunes. This has resulted in an increase in income levels among the locals and has in effect changed their lifestyles. One of the shortcomings of these changing lifestyles is the increase in obesity within the country. Current statistics indicate that at least 70% of the male Kuwait population above the age of 15 years is obese. In women, this figure is much higher and is pegged at 88% of the population. Collectively, obesity rates in Kuwait are ranked second in the world, following the United States. These figures are alarming since obesity is considered as a serious health and economic problem for any country.
Therefore, in this research, there will be several objectives that will be explored in a bid to understand the scope of the spread of obesity in Kuwait, its causalities, solutions being implemented or suggested to control its spread or increase, and possible outcomes of the proliferation of obesity within Kuwait. These research parameters will guide the content, scope, quantity, and quality of information that will be accessed and retrieved for the purposes of this research. Additionally, the research material will dwell on the magnitude of the spread of obesity within Kuwait by comparing current levels with previous year’s levels to ascertain whether it is increasing or reducing. These levels will be linked to various causalities, and each will be analyzed to ascertain its level of influence on people to embrace improper eating habits that cause obesity.
The quality of the solutions being implemented or suggested will also be analyzed and their viability ascertained. This can be done by comparison of the effectiveness of a certain solution and its implementation and successes in other countries. This research will also ascertain the ability of each solution to foster a change in attitudes and behaviors of Kuwaitis, and their acceptance of the solution as one of the means for bringing change. For instance, the government has launched massive campaigns to educate students and the public on obesity, its prevalence, and its preventative measures. The viability of this strategy will ascertain by comparison of its use in other countries, as well as its current impact on the eating and healthy habits of Kuwaitis.
In the analysis of the data, several research methodologies will be utilized. These research methodologies will adhere to research ethics that are important in enhancing the quality of the research, the privacy of the respondents, and promoting the credibility of the final research material. Choice of the research methodology will be carefully done to ensure that the data that will be generated is relevant and can be easily analyzed to generate pertinent results that can be used to achieve the research objectives. The data analysis techniques that will be used will mainly be based on the research methodology that has been chosen since different techniques apply to different research methodologies. One of the primary sources of data collection will be the use of secondary sources such as books, journals, peer reviewed articles, credible government and organizational statistics, newspaper, and the internet. These resources will be crucial since they represent a data volume whose credibility can be ascertained, as well as containing a rich source of relevant data and information that is pertinent to the research. Other research methodologies that could also be appropriate are such as interviews, surveys, and content analysis.
Police Code of Ethics
The police code of ethics is more public service based than crime fighter based. It states the way police officers should relate with the public more than how they should fight crimes. Very lenient terms are used in the few instances, whereby the fighting of crimes is addressed in the code. It forbids the police from using force, which in most cases is the only way out because most criminals do not cooperate with the police. It also states that the police should use their discretion most of the times (Westmarland, 2005). This makes the police appear willing to do what is best for the public and not what is best for eradicating crimes. The code emphasizes on the conduct of the police, which appears more as a public relations code. This is because it states the way the police should relate with the public and their colleagues (Neyroud & Beckley, 2001). This makes them appear more interested in the way the public views them than the way they dispense their duties. Allowing the police to use their discretion when dealing with crimes clearly shows that, the code is not clear on how they should deal with criminals. This is different from the way the code clearly outlines the dos and don’ts of police when relating with each other and the public.
The code can be improved by outlining how the police officers should handle criminals. The code should be more specific on what actions should be taken by a police officer than merely stating that they use their discretion. This creates a loophole that some police officers misuse by physically abusing suspects, claiming that is the only way they can get them to talk. The code should also determine the exact amount of force a police officer should use.
Westmarland, L. (2005). Police ethics and integrity: Breaking the blue code of silence. Policing and Society, 15(2), 145-165.
Neyroud, P., & Beckley, A. (2001). Policing, ethics and human rights (p. 156). Cullompton, Devon: Willan.