Media is the plural for medium, which means the channel through which information is conveyed. Mass media are forms of media that are used to convey information or news to a large audience by use of different forms of technology such as radio, television, internet, music, news papers and magazines. Mass media has several effects among the masses including reflecting the culture of a people as well as creating the culture. This is done by promoting moods and attitudes to the multitudes of what may be either important or unimportant.
Mass media plays a crucial role in the government. It can be used to either exalt or undermine accountability and transparency in the government. Balkin J.M (1998, n.p) says that politicians and other members of the government can use media to simulate the political virtues of transparency through media manipulation. This aspect is well achieved because most people do not have the chance to directly interact with the ruling government; they therefore make their opinions based on what the media portrays about the ruling government.
The media tends to rule out less entertaining stories to give more coverage to political aspects of the country such as infighting, elections, scandals as well as the private lives that these politicians live. In the long run the political tension or the political temperatures of the influence the discourse / themes and attitudes the people have towards the leadership of the country. For this reason, depending on the extent to which the government has control over the media, it is possible for the government of the day to continuously perpetrate its injustices and undoing without attention and skepticism from the public.
Trotsky, L. (2002, 5) defines fascism as term originating from Italy. It was a movement that was characterized by spontaneous movement of large masses of people with new leaders from the rank and file. It is a plebian movement in origin that was directed and financed by big capitalist powers. The government being the supreme organ of the state requiring everyone to conform to its principles also characterizes it. The ruling government of the state seeks to conquer the rest of the world thus requiring all the humans in the world to submit to that particular government. Moreover, fascism necessitates that anyone against the principles of the government to be done away with. It is criminal to question the government and this is seen as detrimental to the attitudes of the rest of the population since one may end up corrupting them. Fascism is effectively applied by the use of militarism to have everyone conform to the ruling government.
Governments that employ fascism have to control every organ of the state. They require patriotism, disregard human rights for the sake of the security of the country, the military is rendered supreme above all other needs of the country, sexism is highly upheld, and the government of the day uses the most common religion to manipulate the public ideologies. The corporate elite benefit more resulting to corruption and fraudulent elections. In addition, the government either directly or indirectly controls the mass media. During war, the mass media content is often censored.
This paper seeks to examine the state of mass media in Italy and Germany during Hitler and Mussolini’s leadership. It analyses the use of mass media by these leaders to perpetrate fascism and to what extent were mass media content censored for the sake of national security.
Despite the difference in geographical location between Benito Mussolini’s regime in Italy from 1922-1943 and Adolf Hitler’s regime in Germany from 1933-1945, these leaders share have a lot of similarities and a few differences with regard to their leaderships styles. The main similarity is that both used fascism as a principle to maintain their leadership. They established and maintained single party states through the warring periods and this was well executed by the ignorance of national discontentment. They both received undying support due to their ability to present a bright future for their countries. The aspect of social policy was used by these leaders to impose fascist ideologies to the masses and to retain their power throughout their leadership. They also applied fascism to control the larger population and marginalizing opposition parties or movements. (Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision, 2015, n.p)
The rise of dictatorial regimes played a major role in contributing to the beginning of the World War II. Italy and Germany succumbed to the fascist rule while Russia adopted totalitarianism. By 1939, only two major states in Europe, France and Great Britain remained Democratic. Several other European states and Latin American countries adopted authoritarianism where Japan adopted a militarist regime that led to its warring later on. Totalitarian regimes in Russia and German extended the functions and rule of the government. They expected active loyalty and commitment of citizens to the goals of the state regardless of what they were aimed at. Whether war, socialist society. They used modern mass propaganda techniques and high-speed communications to subdue the hearts and minds of their subjects. They sought to control political, social, economic, cultural, as well as intellectual aspects.
Burt, D. S. (2001, 302) writes a biography about Mussolini saying that Mussolini was an editor of the Socialist Party Newspaper and gained prominence as a leader of the revolutionary left wing party. When World War 1 broke out he turned to nationalism and after serving in the army, he formed a fascist group. He was later elected to parliament later marched on Rome and finally leading the king to making Mussolini the premier. Mussolini formed a dictatorship; eliminated opponents restricted the press and ended parliamentary government.
After Mussolini lived from hand to mouth for several years he took advantage of a political amnesty and embarked on a career in political journalism (Sarti, R. 2004, 429). He excelled as a journalist making him popular as a socialist revolutionary and opponent of party leader Fillipo Turati. After the 1911 protest by Mussolini against the Italian Turkish War, he was arrested and gained reputation as hardliner. He rose in 1912 as the head editor of the socialist newspaper Avanti. He later got uncomfortable with the legal tactics of the socialist party and hoped that war would provide a direct path to revolution. He late challenged the party position that Italy should stay out of European conflict that had broken out in august. He was later expelled from the party and he launched his own newspaper Il Popolo d’ Italia that ran the slogan ‘War Today, Revolution Tomorrow’ that demanded that Italy should intervene in the war. During the war he served as an artillery instructor was wounded and got back to his newspaper. It is from this point that he formed the Fascist Party (Sarti, R. 2004, 430).
Italy under Mussolini’s leadership
Fascism was born in Italy during Benito Mussolini’s rule by use of a fascist movement. He was a veteran of World War I and by this time established a new political group; ‘Fascio di Combattimento’ translated to mean ‘League of Combat’. This movement won support from middle-class industrialists who were fearful of working class agitation and large-scale landowners who were against agricultural strikes. The movement became more popularized when it became Mussolini’s national rhetoric and the fear that the middle class had toward socialism, communist revolution and disorder (Duiker, J. W. & Spielvogel, J., 2010, 617).
On 29th October 1922, Mussolini alongside other fascist threatened to march in Rome if they were not granted power. King Victor Emmanuel gave in and made Mussolini the prime minister of Italy. By 1926, Mussolini had already established the institutional framework for fascist dictatorship having been made the head of government with the power to legislate by decree. The police were given the mandate to arrest and confine anybody guilty of both political and nonpolitical offences without the due process of the law. All political and cultural organizations were then dissolved. By this same year, all anti-fascist movements were outlawed and the secret police force was established. By the time, the year came to an end Mussolini ruled as Italy’s ultimate ruler ‘Il Duce’ meaning “the leader’.
Mussolini tried to create a police state but it was not very effective. His attempts to also exercise control over all forms of mass media such as radio, newspapers, and cinema to promote propaganda to integrate the masses into the state were also not very fruitful. Fascists propaganda was disseminated through simple slogans such as “Mussolini is always right” that were plastered on walls all over Italy. The fascist also portrayed the family as the pillar of the state and women’s position were reserved to the kitchen. The popular slogan used for was “women into the home.” They were to be homemakers and produce babies. This was also seen as the perfect mission that women have in life. For this reason, women were not allowed to get employment outside their homes as this would affect their productivity and give them a sense of independence, which would in turn affect their physical and moral habits that were contrary to the principle of childbearing.
It worth noting that despite the suppression and use of propaganda in the creation of numerous fascist movements, Mussolini never achieved the totalitarian control that was experienced in Germany by Hitler or in Russia by Stalin. He was not able to completely destroy the old power structure. He was soon overshadowed by a much more powerful fascist movement to the north (Duiker, J. W. & Spielvogel, J., 2010, 617-618).
In a separate book, Spielvogel, J. (2014, 594) says the press laws during Mussolini’s leadership gave the government the right to suspend any publications that fostered disrespect to the Catholic Church, the monarchy or the state. He also says that Mussolini adopted the use of slogans all over the walls in Italy portraying Mussolini as being right always and the fact that women were destined to belong to the kitchen. He attempted to mould Italians into a fascist ideology by developing fascist organizations. The regime relied more and more in on the services of youth organizations known as the Young Fascista to indoctrinate to young people to fascist ideologies by enrolling them in Fascist youth groups that various activities among them marching drills, calisthenics, seaside and mountain summer camps as well as contest. This was met which mixed feelings where the Italian teenagers who did not like the military training or routine training simply refused to attend these sessions.
However, Mussolini failed to attain the degree of totalitarian rule that was experienced in Germany. Some institutions such the monarchy and military were never absorbed into the fascist state, they managed to retain their independence. Despite having boasted that he would help workers and peasants, he allied himself with the interests of the landowners and industrialists at the expense of the lower class people (Spielvogel, J. 2014, 594).
John McCannon explains that Mussolini used modern technology and bureaucracy to control every aspect of the subject’s lives. He compares Mussolini to other totalitarian leaders such as Stalin and Hitler terming Mussolini leadership as mild. Though he imposed, censorship controls over culture imprisoned and even killed political enemies and dissidents and used propaganda to create a cult of personality. (341)
Germany when Hitler’s leadership
In Germany fascism arose during Adolf Hitler’s rule. At first, Hitler attempted to seize power in Southern Germany in Beer Hall Putsch where he failed but brought him and the Nazi’s into national recognition and prominence. He rose to power at the end of World War 1 after serving in the Western Front and decided to get into politics. He joined German Worker Party, which was among the extreme nationalist parties and assumed party by the end of 1921, which he renamed National Socialist German Workers’ Party popularly known as Nazi Party. In two years the membership was at 55,000 including 15,000 in the militia
He later staged an armed uprising against the government in Munich in November 1923, the Beer Hall Putsch. The putsch was later crushed and Hitler was sentenced to prison where he wrote an autobiography named “My Struggle” that outlined facts about his movement and its underlying ideologies of extreme German nationalism, virulent anti-Semitism, and anti-communism. All these aspects were intertwined with the social Darwinian theory of struggle that stresses the right of superior nations to Lebensraum (living space) through expansion and the right of superior individuals to secure authoritarian leadership over the masses. During his imprisonment Hitler realized that the Nazi would come to power through constitutional means unlike the previous mode of overthrowing the ruling government.
William J. Duiker, Jackson Spielvogel 2010, 617-618He later reorganized the Nazi Party and competed for votes with other parties. By 1929 the Nazis had a national party organization. Three years later, the Nazis had 800,000 members thus becoming the largest party in Reichstag. Previously disturbed by unemployment among other factors Hitler promised to create a new Germany that was free of class differences and party infighting. He confirmed his appeal to national pride, national honor and traditional militarism was positively and warmly received by his listeners. The Germans were enthusiastic of his leadership and looked up to him as their savior and deliverer from their problems. For this reason, the right wing elites of Germany including the industrial magnates, aristocrats, and the military and higher bureaucrats were optimistic of Hitler’s leadership that would save Germany from their Communist takeover.
The then president Paul von Hindenburg was put under pressure and he agreed to allow Hitler become chancellor on January 30th 1933 and form a new government. Within two months Hitler organized on how the Nazis would take over and he was crowned on March 23. This was followed by the Nazis acting fast to bringing all the institutions into their control. The civil service was purged for Jews and democratic elements, concentration camps were established for the opponents of the new regime, trade unions dissolved and all other parties except the Nazi were abolished. By the end of 1933, Hitler and the Nazi had established the foundations for a totalitarian state. When Heidenburg died on 2nd August 1924, the office of Reich president was abolished and Hitler became the ultimate ruler of Germany. Having crashed the parliamentary state, Hitler was tasked to establish a total state with the goal of developing an Aryan racial state that was aimed at dominating Europe and d the whole world forever. (William J. duiker, Jackson Spielvogel 2010, 618)
McCannon, J. (2006, 341) also explains that despite the democracy that was characteristic of the German rule during Weimar regime, the straining economic conditions especially the fact that almost 40% of its population was unemployed brought it to an end thus popularizing the extremist parties: the Communists and the Nazis. A series of elections in 1932 made the Nazi Party the largest in Germany and in 1933; Hitler was appointed the chancellor of Germany. He further explains that Hitler became an absolute tyrant within months. In 1933, the Reichstag building was burned down and Hitler took advantage of this situation thereby declaring a state of emergency and passed the enabling act that suspended the Weimar Constitution and gave Hitler the power to rule by decree for four years. He also outlawed all other political parties especially the communist parties, took control of the press and mass media, banned labor unions, imposed a system of state capitalism, built concentration camps for political opponents and also established a secret police. He managed to end the unemployment crisis by a giant public works program and highway building and massive increase in arms production (McCannon, J. 2006, 341). The Jews were forced out of professions, their businesses were boycotted, and they were physically harassed. Before the World War II, the Nuremberg Laws of 1935 striped German Jews of their citizenship and forbade the Jews and German non- Jews to marry or have sexual relations of any kind (McCannon, J. 2006, 342)
Perry, M., Chase, M., Jacob, J., & Daly, J., (2014, 742) say that the Communist Russia, Nazist Germany and Fascist Italy used mass organization and mass media to control the minds of the people and regulate behavior. They conveyed the image of a virile leader, Mussolini had himself photographed bare-chested or in a uniform with a steel helmet. Other photographs showed him riding horses, driving fast cars, flying planes and plying with lions cubs. Elementary school textbooks depicted Mussolini as the savior of the nation. The press, radio, and cinema idolized life under cinema. They implied that fascism had eradicated crime, poverty and social tensions.
In 1935, Mussolini invaded Ethiopia and incorporated Ethiopia into the new Italian empire. He later sent his support to fascists in Spain hoping to expand his influence. Adolf Hitler was later impressed by Mussolini’s efforts and therefore established a relationship leading to signing of military alliance known as the pact of steel. Hitler also influenced him to discriminate Jews in Italy. Italy’s resources were stretched to capacity thus many Italians believed the alliance with Germany provided them a chance to regroup. Hitler’s’ invasion into Poland and the war with Britain and France forced Italy into war thus exposing weaknesses in its military. Greece and North America fell and the German intervention saved Mussolini from a coup de tat. Mussolini died when there were allied forces that forced Germany to move its forces to the eastern troop against the Soviet Union. Mussolini was forced to resign and he was arrested but the German forces rescued him. He attempted to escape alongside his mistress but he was captured on 27th April 1945 and they were executed the following day (Bio, 2015, n.p)
Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision, 2015. Compare And Contrast Hitler’s and Mussolini’s domestic policies. Available at:
Duiker, W. J., & Spielvogel, J., 2010. The Essential World History, volume 2. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
McCannon, J., 2006. Barron’s how to prepare for the AP world history examination. Hauppauge, N.Y., Barron’s.
Spielvogel, J., 2014. Western Civilization: A Brief History. 8th ed. Wardsworth Cengage Learning. Boston.
Trotsky, L., 2002. Fascism: what it is and how to fight it. Broadway, N.S.W., Resistance Books. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=mr44vcDDxrkC&pg=PA51&dq=Fascism:+what+it+is+and+how+to+fight+it.+Broadway,+N.S.W.,+Resistance+Books.&hl=en&sa=X&ei=5ZAmVZiwKcr3UpO5gMgP&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Fascism%3A%20what%20it%20is%20and%20how%20to%20fight%20it.%20Broadway%2C%20N.S.W.%2C%20Resistance%20Books.&f=false
Perry, M., Chase, M., Jacob, J., & Daly, J., 2014. Western civilization: Ideas politics and society, volume II: From 1600 .
Balkin, J.M., 1998. How Mass media simulate political Transparency. Writings Online. Yale University. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/jbalkin/articles/media01.htm
Sarti, R., 2004. Italy a reference guide from the Renaissance to the present. New York, NY, Facts on File. http://site.ebrary.com/id/10284762.
Burt, D. S., 2001. The biography book: a reader’s guide to nonfiction, fictional, and film biographies of more than 500 of the most fascinating individuals of all time. Westport, CT, Oryx Press. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=jpFrgSAaKAUC&pg=PA302&dq=newspaprs+in+italy+during+mussolinis+leadership&hl=en&sa=X&ei=P2kmVZTiAcn4UJfZg_AO&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=newspaprs%20in%20italy%20during%20mussolinis%20leadership&f=false
Bio., 2015. Benito Mussolini Biography. Dictator (1883-1945) [Online] Available at: http://www.biography.com/people/benito-mussolini-9419443 [Accessed 9 April 2
The Cause of King Tutankhamun’s Death
King Tutankhamun, popularly known as King Tut, remains one of the important historical figures in Egypt. Since discovery of the tomb by a British archaeologist, Howard Carter, in 1922, there have been controversies on the cause of death of this young king who took over the reign when only eight years old, going ahead to rule until his death at nineteen years. He took over the reign from Akhenaten, his father. However, his death marked the end of a dynasty because he had no surviving child who could have taken over the royal throne, leading to his close advisors taking over the Kingdom’s leadership. Various autopsy examinations over many years have led different archeologists and historians to develop different theories to the cause of death to this young king who ruled during a volatile time in ancient Egypt’s history. The latest CT scan over the dead body of the pharaoh has disproved popular theories of murder and the chariot accident. The answer of the mystery itself lies on the lineage of Tutankhamun, which tells us that his inherited diseases had led him to death.
According to Reeves (121-123), the importance of King Tutankhamun comes from the fact that his death marked an important transition from a dynasty to the rule of people who were not from royal lineage. Another reason could be seen in his death at an early age, just nineteen, considering that the ancient Egypt was more developed, and had better foods and other royal supplies that made people live longer. After the discovery of King Tut’s tomb, archeologists embarked on a journey to find out some of the reasons for his death. Buchanan (n.p) argues that the cause of the king’s death could not be established because his predecessors erased some of the important royal records on Tut’s lineage from the historical books. Therefore, the discovery of his dummy provided an opportunity for the archeologist to find out the some of the historical issues (Hawass, et al. 640).
Murder was one of the theories that earlier archeologists had advanced as the possible cause of death for the King Tut. This came from the examination of the dummy found in the 1922 discovery by Howard Carter. The backside of the skull was found to have bumps and marks that indicated an injury by a blunt object, most probably by a person with a sinister motive (Hoving 32-43). This theory was supported by the fact that King Tut was a young leader who must have relied most on the powerful advisors in order to run affairs of the Kingdom. The second possible cause of King Tut’s death is chariot fall that might have caused serious bodily harm that he might have later succumbed. According to Hoving (32-43), archeologist point to the broken bones in King Tut’s dummy as possible cause of his death. Haag (10-21) notes that the king may have fallen or run over by a chariot while on his knees, leading to serious bodily harm and his death. This theory has since been disputed by the fact that the broken bones may have been caused by the archeologists in the process of removing the remains from the discovered tomb. The body was seriously dismembered in the process of transferring it to the museum and examination centers, leading to the doubts whether the broken bones could have all been caused before the death (Hawass, et al. 640).
However, the recent CT scan on King Tut’s dummy finds out that his death may have been caused by a serious illness that is related to the family lineage. According to Neubert (43), a thorough CT scan on the preserved remains of King Tut has proven the fact that his parents were indeed a brother and sister. It is likely that he must have been born with a serious genetic disorder, something that affected his normal life operations. The genetical problem comes from the many artifacts that were found in King Tut’s tomb, in which, he either stood by a support or sat down while with his wife. None of the ancient artwork found in his grave shows that he stood normally, advancing the theory that he might have been born by a genetical problem from both parents. He had also been using walking sticks to aid his mobility (Hawass, et al. 640). He may have died from the complications that arose from the genetical disorder acquired from his birth.
In order for this theory to be valid, it is important to have advanced it with respect to previous probable causes of his death. One of the earlier theories alluded to the fact that he may have had an accident while riding a chariot or he may have been run over by a chariot (Hawass, et al. 646). The recent discovery doubts whether King Tut was able to ride a chariot by himself, given that he had a bodily disorder that affected his movement. Therefore, the only way he would ride a chariot was by using an aid and such movement would be highly regulated because he was the king of the Egyptian empire. The accident theory was advanced because of the many fractures that were discovered in his remains, something that (Andritsos 22) is believed was caused in the process of transferring the body from the tomb to other places. According to the CT scan and virtual autopsy, only one breakage may have happened before his death.
My opinion is that murder theory does not appear to be correct because of the argument that the head injury seen by the archeologists may have been caused by various factors other than a person by a sinister motive. The first explanation is that the scar at the back of the head may have been caused during the rigorous embalming process before the burial of his remains. The preservatives required that certain parts of the body be opened for administration, something that likely occurred with King Tut. On the same note, the removal of the body from the highly secured coffins may have caused the head injury. For instance, the body was discovered with the royal crown on the head. The process of removing this object by the archeologists may have caused the scar at the back of the head.
Therefore, I believe that as the recent CT scan has shown, King Tut may have never been murdered or had a chariot accident. The fact that his parents were close relatives may have led to a serious health disorder that was not curable by the available medicine. All the paintings and other artifacts show that he never walked unaided, indicating that he may have never ridden a chariot. Most of the body injuries that have been seen may have been caused in the process of transferring the body from the tomb. However, there is need for more research on some of the ancient literature in order to have a clear understanding the life during King Tut’s time. Nevertheless, no much can be done on the remains of the King since the modern investigations have been exhaustive.
Andritsos, John. Social Studies of Ancient Egypt: Tutankhamun. Australia, 2006.
Buchanan, Rose Troup. “King Tutankhamun did not die in chariot crash, virtual autopsy reveals.” The Independent. N.p., 20 Oct. 2014. Web. April 21, 2015<http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/king-tutankhamun-did-not-die-in-chariot-crash-virtual-autopsy-reveals-9806586.html>.
Neubert, Otto. Tutankhamun and the Valley of the Kings. London: Granada Publishing Limited, 1972.
Haag, Michael. The Rough Guide to Tutankhamun: The King: The Treasure: The Dynasty, London, 2005.
Hawass, Zahi et al. “Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun’s Family”. The Journal of the American Medical Association 303 (7): 2010, 638–647.
Hoving, Thomas. The Search for Tutankhamun: The Untold Story of Adventure and Intrigue Surrounding the Greatest Modern archeological find. New York: Simon & Schuster, 15 October 1978.
Reeves, C. Nicholas. The Complete Tutankhamun: The King, the Tomb, the Royal Treasure. London: Thames & Hudson, 1 November 1990.
Dubai Expo 2020
The world Expo event takes place after every five years, it is held in different countries around the world and millions of people attend this spectacular event. The major reason for attending is the exploration of the pavilions, the rich exhibitions and the cultural events that are showcased by the numerous participants who take part in the event. The first expo was held in the year 1851 and since then, there has been an immense demand in the creation of new economic links between the different nations around the world. The Expo has taken pride in being one of the largest and the most enduring global movements.
Dubai wins the bid to host the world expo
In late November 2013, Dubai was very lucky to win the bid to host the world expo in 2020. It will be the first time for the EXPO to be held in the Middle East, the Northern Africa and the South Asian regions commonly known as the MENASA region. The reason Dubai chose its theme is the fact that countries need to come together and share their ideas to have a better future for all the people. The primary goal of the Expo is to bring minds together to share the diverse ideas and take the future to a better path. Dubai came up with three sub themes, which will be discussed during the Expo, namely; mobility, sustainability and opportunity. These sub themes are perceived as challenges in global growth. In the sub themes, mobility will be sufficient for motivating the smart systems for the purpose of logistics and transportations, sustainability will provide lasting sources for energy and water, and opportunity will come up with new ways for the purpose of economic development. The country is planning to host the Expo in a 438-hectare site, which is located at the city’s edge. The constructions for the site begins next year and will end by October 2019.
Negative impacts of the Expo on the economy
Despite the positive outcomes that it will bring, the expo will have some negative impacts. One of the major drawbacks caused by the Expo will be the issue of inflation. It is now evident that the rental and selling prices of houses in Dubai are on the rise. The National bank of Qatar has warned that the Dubai market may be overheated due to the increased debt that will be motivated by the event. The demand for infrastructure will result to increased pressures on the regional supply chains, this will push up the cost for the raw materials and the fuelling real estate and the asset prices bubbles. Increase in cost of living will frustrate the competitiveness of the country’s economy.
Natural resources that will be depleted in Dubai as a result of the EXPO
With water resources becoming scarce in Dubai, the 2020 expo will act as a catalyst for the depletion of this important resource. Experts contend that there will be an acute water shortage in Dubai after 50 years, the reports have not paid attention to the Expo that will host millions and millions of people who will use water in large amounts, the 50-year projection may come down. The construction of the Expo avenue will need sand, this means that the remaining sand reservoirs in Dubai will be under threat. Though Dubai is surrounded by sand deserts, it is worth noting that this sand cannot be used for construction it has low shear strength.
Instability in the Middle East
The instability in the middle east might turn to be a threat to the visitors during the expo, if things do not get any better, tension in the region will make the visitors fear for their security and avoid attending the Expo, this will be detrimental to Dubai economy this is because, the country will not be in a position to achieve the targeted economic goal due to lower revenue income. The country will also lose some potential investors who will not be able to attend due to security.
Homer Depicts Hector as a Well-Round and an Ideal Prince
In the book of the Iliad, one can make a very strong argument that Iliad loves war. The various characters emerge in the light of competence or bravery in the battle. The war closely identifies with the glory of family love. Hector clearly shows that fighting among the front ranks will surely win his father’s love. Hector is depicted by Homer as a well-round and an ideal prince. Besides his loyalty to the Trojan, he loves his family and piety to his father; these personalities depict his humanity as a distinction between him and the other characters. Hector is presented by Homer as a defender of Troy. Hector attains his ultimate heroic glory when he risks his life so as to gain a lasting fame in battle. Hector is a sober person who maintains humanity, even in the battle. This paper will validate the complex character of Hector that state, “ He is the perfect portray of all the Traits.”
A man’s bravery is determined by his ability to withstand the pressure that comes from war. The author constantly uses the term “masculinity.” Masculinity is a man’s character to show strength. Homer tries to show that a Greek person is born a warrior and not a coward. The honor of the bravery, duty and humility are the definite determinant of a warrior in Greek culture. There is no bigger glory to a man than death in battle. A man who dies fighting for a noble cause is a hero to the society. It is quoted explicitly by Iliad that, “I know only cowards depart from battle. A real warrior stands his ground whether he is hit or hits another.”
Hector is Trojan king Priam’s eldest son. He was the chief warrior of the Trojan army. He is the mainstay of Troy. Hector is a loving son to his father, loving husband as well. He is described as a son of the god by the poet. No other Trojan nears his level of courage and bravery. He stands out as the undisputed future king of Trojan. He shows great responsibility towards the community in a great way. He shows a great sense of concern to the Trojan women and children alike. He is portrayed as an ideal prince who is selfless and goes out of his way for the sake of the society.
He, without knowing brings back Achilles to war. After Hector kills Patroclus, Achilles take sit upon himself to revenge this death by killing Hector. The poem shows that in his warrior attitude, Hector is illusioned by the prospects of a Trojan victory, not just his own. He fights everyone, including himself in the desire for a Trojan victory. It is a desirable attitude for a king, which should put his interest aside for the sake of others.
Hector emerges as a contrast to Achilles. He shows a great sense of responsibility to his family, father, and wife. Unlike, Achilles, who shows frustrations and anger, Hector is more composed and understanding. He analyzes the situation. He is dedicated to the service of others. He is a ‘model’ of a Homeric man (cliffs notes, pg 112-134). The author uses the literate concept of contrast in comparison to Hector and Achilles. However, both are warriors who lead their respective communities to war.
Helen, Paris’ wife, visits the Trojan court. This is surely a clear sign of disorder and shame. She is a wife yet no dowry has been paid for her. Hector does not blame Helen since he is a responsible man. He, however, sees her not being properly married as a sign of disgrace and a symbol of disorder. Andromache, who is Hector’s wife, on the other hand, is a responsible woman. She respects the law and shows a deep sense of responsibility. Her being taken captive and working as a slave leads to deep feeling of a case of the disorder. Hector fear that Andromache may be taken as a captive, showing that he sees the wrongs done by Paris through Helen.
The ideal prince nature of Hectoris is shown by his relationship with women and children. He fully knows that he must fight bravely like the father. But having been raised by a woman, he fully understands that he ought to fight for the honor of the mother. As a hero, Hector is not solely an extension of his father but also his mother. The mother pleads with him to avoid war, he, however, ignores this plea and opts to stay in the fields and fight Achilles. He carries in his heart the guilty of any thing wrong that may happen to his mother. .This guilty conscience shows a caring nature of a prince in him. Hector, however, takes, the greater plea of the family and the continuity of Trojan as a motivating factor in this fight. His victory, therefore, will be a victory not only for himself, but for his family and the entire Troy.
Homer depicted Hector as a leader who is so concerned with the success of Troy and its people. He reacts to Trojan issues with a heroic sense of order. He strongly believes on the social and cultural practices of Troy. He leaves the city in the full desire of victory and the obvious assumption of the support of Zeus for the Trojan cause. He becomes less responsive to the individuals than when he was within the walls of Troy. He isolates himself from the team and is determined to battle with Achilles until one of them is dead. Hector does not show fear of death. He believes in death for a noble cause.
Hector is a very optimistic person. He is so ambitious of success He promises his fellow Trojans of a victory after driving Achaeans back to their ships. He announced the plans for the Trojan army to remain on the plan. This was, however, a misunderstanding of the Zeus’ plan which was to give Trojans victory until they reach Greek. Hector goes ahead to win the battle. This leads to the assumption and the wish for mortality. Hector believes in victory at all costs. He unknowingly promises victory before the battle. This winning mentality only adds to his leadership ability. (Miller and Madeline, p.g 33-59).
Hector is a complicated character in the Iliad. He has a wider dimension of responsibilities to Troy, his family, and other codes of heroism. According to Homer and Jarnot, (p.g 91-104), he was used as an instrument by Zeus the god which set the tension in the experience. Much as he had numerous military powers than other warriors. He also emerges as a Homeric person. Hectors various interrelationships depict his ideal prince attribute. He is an all-around person who also plays the full part in his family life and military role as well. Homer develops Hector’s character using various literary means to show that he is a just a normal human being who is prone to error. He is vindicated by the proof that he was able to live up to his ideals of living life to death and achieving glory for Troy. The contradictory facets in his traits clearly show the being human traits (Homer and Jarnot, p.g 56).
Homer and Lisa Jarnot.The Iliad: Book Xxii, the Death of Hector. Toronto: pg 56: Book Thug, 2007. Print.
Miller, Madeline. The Song of Achilles. London: Bloomsbury Pub Ltd, 2011. Print: pg 33-59.
Nagle, D B, and Stanley M. Burstein.Readings in Greek History: Sources and Interpretations. New York [u.a.: Oxford Univ. Press, 2007. Print.
Shakespeare, William. Troilus and Cressida. S.I.: Filiquarian Pub., LLC, 2007. Print: 204-107.
Verne, Jules, Jules Verne, and Bruce Coville.Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea. New York: Scholastic, 2000. Print: 211-251
Virgil and Robert Fitzgerald. The Aeneid. New York: Vintage Books, 1990.pg 177, Internet resource.
Economics: The Employment Effects of the Minimum Wage
Over the years, economists have argued for the fact that the imposition of a minimum wage higher than the market wage would initiate a reduction in employment as well as bring about an increase in unemployment particularly among young and relatively unskilled workers. This is especially true to the workers the minimum wage aims at helping (Card et al. 491). Some economists, however, have claimed that there is no evidence of a significant employment-reducing impact attributed to the minimum wage especially on low-wage workers and that, in some cases; the hiking of minimum wage might even have caused an increase in employment. This paper will critically evaluate these competing arguments regarding the outcomes of the minimum wage on employment through focusing on the issues raised from each side of the argument (Card et al. 491).
To start with, the potential benefits associated with high minimum wage rates emanates from the higher wages for affected workers. Some of these workers come from poor backgrounds earning less income. Hence, when the minimum wage is high, it may discourage workers from using their low wages whereas the minimum wages are meant to help the low skill workers. The application of minimum wages was put in place with the intention of ensuring that a minimal standard of living, unintended consequences undermined its effectiveness. However, there has been increased evidence which shows that an increment in the minimum wage brought about by job destruction. Consequently, higher minimum wage leads to perfectly competitive employers cutting employment. In the United States, the minimum wage was developed during the Depression period where it has significantly increased from 25 cents to $ 7.25 per hour since 1938 (Card et al. 491). This increase has been criticized by some economists to bring about negative effects to the low skilled employees in terms of deteriorating businesses, increasing prices and is counterproductive for the poor working class people. Collectively, these effects bring about unemployment.
Most of the employees working under the minimum wage rate entail young people under the age of 25 years who represent about one fifth of the workers paid per hour. Most of the employed teenagers who get paid per hour, approximately 23 percent, were found to be earning a minimum wage or less as opposed to the workers above the age of 25 years (Card et al. 493). Some economists have argued that the competitive nature of low-wage industries suggested that the displacement of low-wage would bring about a more likely outcome. However, criticism over this argument occurred with responses that suggested that the competitive wage determination was inconsistent with existing business practices as reasoning about labor markets in terms of commodity markets would seem to be an important explanation for erroneous conclusions on matters such as the minimum wage (Card et al. 493). These aspects will form the basis of this paper through discussions on either side of the intensive debate regarding the minimum wage issue and its effects to employment. This discussion will occur through evidence based research conducted by economists on these effects of minimum wage (Card et al. 493).
Arguments against suggestions that increased minimum wage brings about unemployment
According to research in this area, an increment of about 10 percent in the minimum wage was found to reduce teenage unemployment by about three percent. This argument is described through the end-result of minimum wages through the employment elasticity, which describes the ratio of the percentage change in employment to the percentage change in the legislated wage. The ideology behind this reasoning occurs through the illustration that a 10 percent hike in the minimum wage lowers employment of the affected group by about 1 percent when the elasticity is -0.1 and by 3 percent when the elasticity is -3 (Neumark, 356). Evidence for industries such as the fast food has been used in the attempt explain the results associated with an increase in minimum wage rate to employment especially to young adults and teenagers. These studies have engaged in the comparison of the outcomes in the fast food industry to those in the bordering state of Pennsylvania where wage laws remained the same even after the New Jersey law brought about a rise to the minimum wage (Neumark, 356).
This study portrayed the fact that New Jersey minimum wage rate brought about increased employment as well as constructed a wage gap measure equal to the difference between the initial starting wage and the new minimum wage for restaurants involved in fast-foods in New Jersey and equal to zero for those in Pennsylvania (Neumark, 360). The increase in employment opportunities brought about significant results regarding growth on employment in New Jersey with an estimated elasticity of 0.73. These studies were coupled with the comparison of employment growth at stores based in New Jersey which were initially paying high wages but remained unaffected by the new law to changes in employment at lower wage stores. Apparently, the stores that remained unaffected by the minimum wage portrayed similar employment growth to those in Pennsylvania as opposed to the stores that had to increase the wages as well as their employment (Neumark, 360).
The reasoning behind this entails the fact that an increase in the minimum wage rate brings about a reduction in employment to the profit-maximizing employers as it involves extra costs to sustain the employees. However, for the employers incurring higher minimum wages, the employment of another employee would lead to the increase of wages for the other employees as the high costs would be diverted to the customers. Studies conducted with the comparison of 410 restaurants in New Jersey and Pennsylvania indicated an increment in the minimum wage rates from $ 4.2 to $ 5.05 occurred during a recession where unemployment rates in New Jersey had risen substantially (Neumark, 362). The effects obtained from the increase in minimum wage were thus not propagated by the rising economy. This is coupled with the fact that New Jersey comprises of a relatively small state within an economy that closely relates to its nearby states. In this case, the variation in wages within New Jersey allowed the comparison in experiences of high-wage as well as low-wage stores in New Jersey through testing the validity of the Pennsylvania control group (Neumark, 362).
Apparently, the challenge in the model applied to the competitive model is that it was wrong and some economists argued that there could be instances of monopsony in labor markets due to the frictions that tie workers to specific forms. These frictions indicated that in any instance when employers hired more workers, the cost of existing workers would also increase. Resultantly, employed based on the market may at times fall below the economically efficiently competitive level thus making the minimum wage to bring about higher chances of employment (Neumark, 339). In this case, the stores involved in high wages in New Jersey were largely unaffected by the minimum wage as the effects were brought about by worsening of the economies. This saw an increase in employment between 1991 and 1993 as the rise in unemployment would be expected to lower fast food employment in the absence of other factors. The basic ideology behind these findings indicates that firms in a low-wage region are more likely to respond to an increase in the minimum wage through having the owner pick up more hours on their own and cutting back on the employee overtime hours. On the other hand, large firms might also attempt to squeeze more work out of the managers under salaries as well as hiring more part-time workers with the aim of avoiding benefit obligations (Neumark, 339). Consequently, most employees may get to keep their jobs at the high mandated wages due to aspects such as trust or loyalty or simply due to the desire of avoiding the implications of restructuring business operations to account for fewer workers. This is prevalent because employment opportunities have a social dimension that does not rely on economic endeavors (Neumark, 339).
It is also important to note that low wages bring about effects to other sectors other than the employees as studies have indicated that workers at fast food restaurants such as McDonalds as well as other major restaurant chains, use federal and state programs at far higher rates that other workers. Most of these costs are met by the people in the society as an increase in the minimum wage shifts some of the burden to the private stakeholders (Neumark, 339).
Arguments for suggestions that increased minimum wages brings about unemployment
According to economic research conducted on the effects of the minimum wage, the employees within an organization who get to retain their jobs are simply made better off at the expense of unskilled workers who are mostly young adults who get laid off. The increase of the minimum wage rate brings about an attractive appeal to new entrants who seek the job opportunities even without the guarantee that they will get them (Neumark, 354). In instances where the minimum wage rate goes beyond the prevailing market wage, most workers lose their jobs or get limited working hours. This is especially true with evidence indicating that a 10 percent increase in the minimum wage rate may bring about a 3 percent decrease in employment of low-skilled workers. Economists arguing for this ideology have suggested that employers have the option of finding alternative ways of economizing on the higher-labor prices as factors such as the introduction of new technology as well as labor saving capital investment tend to replace the unskilled workers. The belief that there will be an increment in the minimum wage increases these substitutions thus bringing about more skilled workers and few job opportunities for the low-skilled workers (Neumark, 354).
Eventually, the minorities will be entitled to high unemployment rates due to the fact that participation rates will decline as workers affected by the minimum wage tend to drop out of the formal labor market. In this case, researchers have argued that the increase of minimum wage violates the principle of freedom through limitations to the range of options open to workers. These limitations prevent workers from getting involved or taking part in job opportunities offering less than the legal minimum. Additionally, they suggest that the minimum wage hinders employers from employing workers regardless of whether they would have brought in more advantages (Neumark, 354).
In this case, economists arguing for this perspective have indicated that if low-skilled workers lose the jobs, their income becomes zero. At this juncture, employers fail or rather hesitate to pay their employees higher minimum wages if they lack the ability to produce at least the same amount. Studies have also indicated that employers seek to benefit in terms of profits through higher minimum wages in which they employ workers with better skills and qualifications. This leads to other employees losing their jobs and remaining unemployed as there are no employers willing to employ them at the above market wage (Shouhai, 183). In addition, the increase of minimum wage leads to employers increasing the prices of their commodities in order to cover other expenses. However, in doing so, they push the obligation of meeting these expenses to the consumers who in turn buy less of the commodities or have less money to spend. Eventually, the employers are left with less money and as a means of recovering this money, the low-skilled workers are laid off and more skilled employers are brought in to meet the value of the minimum wage they receive through their output (Shouhai, 183). Basically, the whole concept behind this ideology implies that the most prominent employment effect brought about by minimum wage laws occurs through a decline in the hiring of new employees. This is prevalent through the way employers shift their focus to methods of saving labor of production (Shouhai, 183).
Studies conducted to determine whether an increase in minimum wage in New Jersey adversely affected the rate of employment in the fast food industry indicated that the increase in minimum wage rate brought about an increase in job opportunities for low-skilled workers. However, this argument was criticized by other economists who suggested that the study only focused on franchise restaurants such as McDonald’s without paying attention to smaller organizations that are significantly affected by the increase in the minimum wage (Shouhai, 183). The study was criticized for ignoring the employees who lost their jobs through focusing on those who retained their jobs on higher minimum wage. In response to the ideologies raised, proponents of the minimum wage suggested that deep focus should have been given to the workers lost their jobs in order to identify with the law of demand (Shouhai, 183). Evidence also indicates that the increase of the minimum wage from $5.15 in 2007 to $ 7.25 per hour brought about an increase in unemployment rates as it occurred during the recession period. It saw about 29 percent of black teenagers losing their jobs or lack employment opportunities as opposed to white teenagers. Conclusively, the increase in minimum wage brings about a decline in employment opportunities as most employers seek skilled workers who will bring in more skills and hence profits to the organization (Shouhai, 183).
The increase of minimum wage rates brings about imbalance in the labor market as employers seek to get the skilled employers whom they are willing to pay the given minimum wage with the hope that they will substantiate with an equivalent production. In this case, they lay off the unskilled workers who would have worked at lower minimum wages and thus render them unemployed (Card et al. 489). However, instead of laying them off, they should choose amongst the unskilled workers, retain them in their posts but reduce their benefits as well as working hours. Similarly, they may also choose to substitute more skilled workers with low-skilled workers with the aim of reducing the costs incurred (Card et al. 489). This should occur through the adoption of labor-labor substitution as a way of responding to higher minimum wage in the long run. Consequently, retaining low-skilled worker at higher minimum wages would bring about increased productivity among the workers and in turn reduce poverty (Card et al. 489).
Additionally, more emphasis on current research should be directed towards the workers who have lost their jobs as a result of increased minimum wage. This way economists and researchers would get different perspectives of the effects brought about increase in minimum wage. Although many studies have indicated that there is limited evidence regarding the effects of minimum wage, it is imminent that through the issues discussed in this paper portray distinct perspectives regarding minimum wages to employment (Card et al. 489). However, it depends on the employers in the market as they determine the employment opportunities they should offer based on the market trends as well as issues raised by government. Governments should thus intervene to offer minimum wage floors to organizations with an attempt to solve the unemployment menace. In addition, economic conditions and factors should be applied and deeply considered in order to initiate stronger effects in reducing unemployment brought about by minimum wage (Card et al. 489).
Card, David, Katz, Lawrence F. and Krueger, Alan B., “Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages: Panel Data on State Minimum Wage Laws: Comment,” Industrial and Labor Relations Review, April 1994, 47, 487-96, http://www.nber.org/papers/w4528
“Effects of Raising the Minimum Wage: Research and Key Lessons Journalist’s Resource.” Journalist’s Resource. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2015. <http://journalistsresource.org/studies/economics/jobs/the-effects-of-raising-the-minimum-wage#>.
“Evidence on Employment Effects of Minimum Wages and Subminimum Wage Provisions From Panel Data on State Minimum Wage Laws.” NBER. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2015.
Neumark, David. “The Employment Effects of Minimum Wages: Evidence from a Prespecified Research Design The Employment Effects of Minimum Wages.”Industrial Relations 1 (2001): 333-417. Print.
Shouhai, Ding. “Employment Effects of Minimum Wage Regulation and Cross Effect of the Employment Contracts Law.” Social Sciences in China 2 (2010): 171-249. Print.
Introducing Accounting Business in Oman
Description of the Potential Opportunity Identified
The favorable Oman business environment is the main factor for the continued growth is businesses performances and increasing business innovations (Kechichian 2010). With the increasing product innovation and significant inventions within the Oman service industry, individuals, small businesses, middle-sized firms, and large companies consider opportunities to outsource their accounting and bookkeeping services to a group of accountants with relevant skills in auditing (Bailey 2005). The Accounting and Bookkeeping Industry possess viable opportunities that can be explored for possible investment decisions. It is true that the Oman labor market keeps regular supply of experienced accountants and qualified tax editors who at times fail to get permanent employment in relevant organizations (Bailey 2005). By establishing a bookkeeping and tax audit business, the bulk of underemployed or unemployed accountants will be reduced and their unexplored skills or expertise converted into resourceful human capital.
Other than the favorable business environment, the corporate law in Oman is also a driving force for more business inventions in the sense that the law allows businesses to be run on unlimited corporate regulations (Bragg 2011). Currently, the cost of starting and running a business in Oman has reduced significantly following the government’s decisions to eliminate the bulk of formal registration requirements that for a long time has impeded growth in businesses (Gonzalez, Rand Corporation., Rand-Qatar Policy Institute, Rand Education & Labor and Population Programn2008). The more flexible corporate laws and other factors discussed in this paper may make it possible for a group of individuals to start and operate a bookkeeping and tax audit business.
Market analysis (Industry, Competitors and customers)
- In what industry does this idea come from?
The idea comes from the Oman bookkeeping and auditing industry, which provided services like recording commercial transactions on behalf of other firms and business organizations (Kelly, Barrow & Epstein 2011). In this service category, the business idea is more concentrated on the small and medium sized firms, which will account for over 50 percent of the company’s businesses. With the introduction of technology and internet services, the industry bookkeepers and consultants are expected to explore online services in order to improve their communication and interaction with customers (Marshall 2003). The available industry statistics and trends allow business planners to identify unexplored products, services and markets, and use every available opportunity to increase profitability. In other words, business positioning in the industry provides the basic plans that can be used to analyze the key factors influencing market operations, and how best the business management can counteract such factors and improve on the most needed bookkeeping services (Price, Waterhouse & Co 2006).
- Who would be the target market?
The business idea targets from small to medium-sized firms who require bookkeeping and tax auditing services. It is very true that target market is highly segmented into small, medium, and large firms each targeting the same services provided by the few available bookkeeping and auditing firms. Among the many firms, the company’s target firms are defined based on annual revenues, distance from the business location and expected expenses (Saba and Co 2009). On the side of revenues, the business targets those firms with revenues exceeding 300, 000 dollars. In addition, annual revenue of 300,000 dollars at the minimum count qualifies a business organization to be recognized for the services the accounting firm will be offering. As a start, the business will concentrate on organizations at close distances in order to reduce the cost of travelling, which may add to the initial costs of operation (Saba and Co 2009). The targeted business organizations should also be ready to part with close to 250 dollars for the basic accounting services; an amount that will be increasing based on the type of bookkeeping or auditing services required.
- Who are your competitors?
Even though the Oman market has few bookkeeping and auditing companies, the industry is known to attract the interest of many accountants and tax auditors. The fact that the industry is at its initial stages of growth is an indication that there are still opportunities to be explored, and since there are no restrictions to market entry, it is predictable that the market will continue to experience new entries (Taylor 2008). As at current, most business organizations and individuals concentrate on hiring professional accountants and auditors. Since exiting firms highly require bookkeepers, accountants and auditors, it is not by chance that nearly all graduates find their ways into the service industry each year and filling the job market (Taylor 2008). The increasing undergraduate and graduate employment in newly established firms is a challenge to the bookkeeping and auditing industry. At the same time, the high demand for the undergraduate and graduate students in various organizations make the increases labor costs making its hard for bookkeeping companies to maintain lower prices for the services they provided.
In general, the demands for business accounting services are known to be dependent on new business formations, the increasing complexities to existing businesses and the revenues earned over the periods of accounting (Taylor 2008). It is common to see clients scrambling to secure the services of the fewer accounting firms since these firms provide wide range of services that best serve the interest of clients. In most cases, large accounting firms are the main targets of these clients since they operate from many locations and can serve customers within the shortest time. The fact that large accounting firms have the advantage of providing many services at the same time make small firms to specialize and always struggle to provide superior services in order to compete effectively (Taylor 2008). Even after taking such a prolific step and investing specific accounting activities, large firms still gain competitive advantage because most business aiming at outsourcing their accounting services have more trust in large firms.
The business financial plan will be entirely financed by the positive cash flows from the projected operations. The business will also rely on outside investments and additional owners’ investment as other sources of finance. The fact that business is capital intensive does not limit owner’s intentions to increase the fixed costs, which must be recovered from sales of the services. The projected financial plan as presented by the one year cash flow below shows that the business idea is feasible and worth investing.
|Cash from Operations|
|Cash from Receivables||$105,612|
|Subtotal Cash from Operations||$214,662|
|Additional Cash Received|
|Sales Tax, VAT, HST/GST Received||$0|
|New Current Borrowing||$0|
|New Other Liabilities (interest-free)||$0|
|New Long-term Liabilities||$0|
|Sales of Other Current Assets||$0|
|Sales of Long-term Assets||$0|
|New Investment Received||$0|
|Subtotal Cash Received||$214,662|
|Expenditures from Operations|
|Subtotal Spent on Operations||$205,243|
|Additional Cash Spent|
|Sales Tax, VAT, HST/GST Paid Out||$0|
|Principal Repayment of Current Borrowing||$0|
|Other Liabilities Principal Repayment||$0|
|Long-term Liabilities Principal Repayment||$0|
|Purchase Other Current Assets||$0|
|Purchase Long-term Assets||$0|
|Subtotal Cash Spent||$205,243|
|Net Cash Flow||$9,418|
It is possible that the business can be established and expanded using the current balance reserves. It is also possible that with an increased marketing and set-up expenses, the business will register positive cash flow within the first quarter of its operations (International, 2013). Since the business will still be considered a new venture, the cash reserves can still be generated from subsequent operations to be used in acquiring additional service expansion so that the owners can get their dividends once the business has established.
The business will however start to break-even once there is an increase in marketing activities, business capacity to accommodate all the service requirements, improvement in employees and other stakeholders’ payroll and general benefits (International, 2013). At the break-even point, the business’s fixed costs and current costs will be in a position to finance all the activities, new expenses and also allow for maintenance of old business equipment like computers and software updates. The mentioned increased activities will move the break-even point higher meaning that the business will have to expand its services to meet the increasing fixed costs and other expenses as shown in the graph below.
Group evaluation of the business concept
The strength of the business venture lies on the availability of skilled and experienced employees with the relevant CPA knowledge. The extensive knowledge on issues of accounting, bookkeeping, and tax auditing is expected to allow the business to perform its activities and provide the most relevant accounting services (International Business Publications, USA 2012). The first requirement for any accounting business is compliance with the internationally recognized accounting standards, which according to the analysis conducted, are provided by various training institutions across the country.
The idea also recognizes the fact that the tax and bookkeeping business require relatively low start-up expenses, operating and overhead costs and this could result into higher profit margins (International Finance Corporation & World Bank 2014). From the analysis conducted, starting a bookkeeping and tax audit business is highly advantageous because the owners can still decide to make the businesses home-based. This means that the business does not necessarily require an office establishment or space to meet its operational needs (International Business Publications, USA 2012). On the same note, the business does not require expensive manufacturing operations or high maintenance costs. As a home-based service business, there is a reduction in the initial cost of establishment and subsequent rental costs. The owners are also assured of continuous operations even if the business fails to meet its expected monthly rental fees.
The third strength lies on the technological changes and the introduction of new accounting software that can be used to simplify the bulk of accounting and auditing work (International Finance Corporation & World Bank 2012). The software becomes an area of competitive advantage, especially if it is a proprietary and has features relevant to the basic accounting principles. The accounting software is an advantage to the business because most existing companies have not incorporate such software in their accounting systems.
Even though the business idea has numerous supportive strengths, it is also important to consider some of the weaknesses that may prevent the owners from meeting their profits objectives (Foster 2002). One of such weaknesses is that the business is highly seasonal and if affected by economic fluctuations. The business, especially on the part if tax preparation depends on the fix tax rates, which at some point may not correspond to market conditions. The tax adjustment methods will keep on shifting from time to time and this may affect the tax validity principles (International Business Publications, USA 2012). Such changes in tax evaluations systems may not be well understood by customers, and this may portray a bad image on the side of the accounting firm (Foster 2002). It is also important to understand that the tax auditing process require along tax time hour, and the available annual round-work may be limiting. The business may also find it hard to acquire and retain highly qualified staff within the short duration of tax season. This is because most of the accounting services tend to increase during year-end requiring higher number of personnel, and reduces during other periods of the year.
- Is the business concept feasible?
The success of a new business venture relies on certain factors like the market size (demographic description of a country), strategic location, and infrastructural development, the country’s economy, political and social systems. By accessing the most prolific factors like the market size, the competitive advantage, management ability, initial endorsement and the initial capital requirement of the business, we were able to determine that the business is feasible and worth investing.
On the side of market size, Oman has been slowly diversifying its economic operations into other sectors like banking, gas production, industrial processing, and tourism, which has been equally successful (Clark 2011). The numerous businesses cropping up within Oman constantly require related services like bookkeeping, financial accounting and tax auditing services, which they can outsource to another company or groups of professionals to meet their performance expectations. The fact that the country’s industrial sector is rapidly growing means that in the near future, the bookkeeping service industry will be among the highly performing industries in Oman (Clark 2011). In other words, Oman currently enjoys stable economic, political, and social systems, which offer a strong base for market expansion and improved service delivery.
On the side of competitive advantage, the Oman bookkeeping and accounting service industry holds unexplored opportunities and the few firms in the industry enjoy huge profits from extended operations and higher pricing (Business International Corporation 2005). Most clients find it hard to outsource their bookkeeping services to other firms or businesses because of the high costs involved. It is therefore important to note that an opportunity exists for the bookkeeping company to provide even better services to clients at relatively lower costs while maintaining regular contacts. With more efficient and effective services at relatively lower costs, the company is expected to gain a higher competitive advantage over existing firms.
The management roles and abilities are also important in determining the success of the business. Based on the service description of the business, the organizational management plan will consist of the position a senior manager, business administrative staff, customer service manager and an overall administrative staff (Al-Kharusi & Loughborough University 2003). The roles and responsibilities of the senior manager for the bookkeeping firm will include staff recruitment, controlling regular business operations and company finances as well as ensuring growth though remuneration. Apart from the senior manager, the customer service managers will play a crucial role in ensuring proper customer relations. This is because the business successful operations will retail around customer’s willingness to seek and pay for the bookkeeping and accounting services.
It is also important to note that bookkeeping business does not require high initial capital investment. The initial costs are those costs associated with the purchase of computers and related accounting software, the cost of establishing an online retail site where customers can bid for the services of the company as well as the cost of acquiring professional accountants and business managers (Al-Kharusi & Loughborough University 2003). On the part of professional accountants, the company can employ undergraduate interns and graduate students and still do better in its operations. Compared to the cost of employing a professional accountant, the cost of employing an undergraduate intern or a graduate student is lower. This means that even with the lower costs of operation, the company can still improve its bookkeeping services and meet the expectations of customers.
Apart from the above mentioned factors, the rapidly growing Oman population could also be an indication that the business idea is feasible (Jaumann 2010). Out of the 3.1 million people, about 570,000 people are experts in various fields. The huge proportion of the elite population provide endless workforce services to the labor market (Bizmanualz 2008). The country’s demographic information indicate that 54.7 percent of the population are between the age of 15-64 years indicating a lager section of the population in its most active years.
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Taylor, P. (2008). Book-keeping & accounting for the small business: How to keep the books and maintain financial control over your business. Oxford: How To Books.
All artwork depicts influence from the society where the artists thrive using the available materials and the existing technology. Before 1800, nobody had an idea of how to capture camera images permanently until Thomas Wedgwood came with an unsuccessful attempt to demonstrate a documented image, but the world of photography was opened for more innovations. Today’s photography has been transformed into a powerful means of communication as well as a means to make visual expression on human activities. Most graphic designers are motivated by the transformation of photography to become more creative in designing. Some of the famous photographers who have inspired my graphic designing techniques include Patrick Demarchelier, and Stephen Shore. The aspect of culture has made the history of photography exciting, as graphic designers struggle to come up with diverse designs as people move to modernity.
Since the invention of photographs in the nineteenth century, the impact of photography on art, science, and popular culture has been overwhelming. It has transformed how individuals read photographs, and how they link them to other media. Evolution of photography has enabled graphic designers to become more imaginative and intelligent in graphic designing, as they endeavor to understand how culture has changed through photography. Before the end of the nineteenth century, many photographic magazines emerged to illustrate aesthetic values for different cultures. Graphic design involves merging text and pictures in a professional manner to make an expression. Before photography, graphic designers could only work with people who were motionless and stationary objects. Emergence of photography made graphic designing easier, as designers can combine images with texts to produce their work. Nowadays, graphic designers can take a photo and rearrange it to create an ad or other display pictures. They can change the background to fit the right occasion, or customize it according to the clients’ needs.
Although George Bernard Shaw was a playwright and essayist, he was also an amateur photographer in Ireland in the early twentieth century. Shaw claimed that photography was more essential than portrait painting because it was imaginative and superb and none of his photographs resembled the other. His photography depicted that people change behaviors, expressions, fashion, and careers; hence, the only way to capture such changes was through photographs. He also carried out experiments on photography to demonstrate the advancement of photography during his lifetime. He liked to travel, and focused on aspects of development, such as electricity wires, to depict change. His collections have been placed online for people to access them.
The twentieth century photography illustrated a change in the world art, as it was utilized as a popular culture in many countries in the world. Photography developed to outwit painting, as the right tool of marking time. Although paintings could depict feelings and emotions, they lacked originality, as some colors did not match with the reality. An individual may not recognize the difference in photo shoot, but how the photographer brings out feelings in a photo is what a designer works on. A camera was just an instrument for taking photographs, and unless a competent person used it, it could not create the type of images that individuals would prefer. As people approached modernity, photography advanced towards global culture and away from futurism. The graphic designers had to embrace modernity with no particular culture.
Patrick Demarchelier has remained among the world’s best fashion photographers in the twenty-first century, who has successfully managed to develop numerous iconic portraits, and photographed covers for many high-ranking publications and fashion houses. Demarchelier’s portraits are communicative due to his ability to bring innate appreciation of his portraits as subjects. The portraits of Princess Diana can confirm how honest and engaging Demarchelier’s photography has been to photography enthusiasts. Demarchelier’s work can illustrate different eras and occasions even without change of equipment, as the graphic designing is what matters in setting the background of a photograph. By checking different covers of magazines, a person can notice the difference in eras of photography. Working in the fashion industry has enabled Demarchelier to experience the growth of fashion, as people from different cultures dress differently in different occasions. He always looks forward for new experiences, as the old experiences are stored for future references.
The emergence of social media has seen photography reaching a new height where billions of photographs are exchanged every year through Facebook, Instagram, Flickr, and Twitter. The issue of originality has been put into question, as graphic designers endeavor to create different tastes from a single image through Photoshop. Photoshop has dismissed the notion that “the camera cannot lie”, as graphic designers exploit the use of colors to alter the original photographs to their desired taste. Creativity response has been amazing, and for graphic designers, it is a matter of intellectuality, rather than originality, that determine how competitive a photographer can sustain his/her images. The use of paper photos has gone, and the culture of keeping photo album in the house is also gone. Some people claim that social media has come to destroy photography, but for graphic designers, it is the best opportunity for marketing ourselves to corporate, as well as to individuals.
In recent years, photography has experienced a rapid revolution owing to constant technological innovations, which has ensured that that the digital era will remain exhilarating for several years to come. Demarchelier has been able to experience change of photography from late twentieth century to the twenty-first century where photography shifted to the Internet, and where the ads relied more on photographs than painting. The new era of technology has benefited graphic designers, as it has changed the ways they used to work. Computers have become essential tools for developing graphics and fashions that meet the trend. Graphic designers have embraced technology to modify their artworks so that the society can accept it. Technology has opened up areas that were not accessible and now, even the remote regions can have access to artworks and photographs through Internet access.
In conclusion, the history of photography has contributed largely in the graphic design profession, and culture, as people move from traditional black and white photographs to digitized images. This has made graphic designers’ work much easier, as they do not necessarily have to create drawings on their work. The digital revolution has made many people to have access to all manners of photography, as more tools are being invented to take high-quality images. The new digital era has benefited graphic designers, as it has changed the ways they perceive their work. Emergence of social media have not reduced photography, but interfered with quality and meanings to different cultures. As more people turn to technology and Internet for high-quality photography, graphic designers are assured that their profession will continue to evolve, and the future will be bright.
Chesterton, G. K. George Bernard Shaw. New York: Cosimo Classics, 2007.
Edwards, Elizabeth. The Camera As Historian: Amateur Photographers and Historical Imagination, 1885-1918. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2012.
Leveque, Elise. “Is Social Media Destroying the Art of Photography?” Social Media Today, Last modified February 6, 2013. http://www.socialmediatoday.com/content/social-media-destroying-art-photography.
Lezano, Daniel. The Photography Bible: A Complete Guide for the 21st Century Photographer. Newton Abbot: David and Charles, 2012.
Schaub, Grace, and George Schaub. 20th Century Photographers: Interviews on the Craft, Purpose, and the Passion of Photography. Abingdon: CRC Press,2015.
 Elizabeth Edwards, The Camera As Historian: Amateur Photographers and Historical Imagination, 1885-1918. (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2012), 217.
 G. K. Chesterton, George Bernard Shaw. (New York: Cosimo Classics, 2007), 103.
 Grace Schaub and George Schaub. 20th Century Photographers: Interviews on the Craft, Purpose, and the Passion of Photography. (Abingdon: CRC Press, 2015), 68.
 Elise Leveque, “Is Social Media Destroying the Art of Photography?” Social Media Today, Last modified February 6, 2013. http://www.socialmediatoday.com/content/social-media-destroying-art-photography.
 Daniel Lezano, The Photography Bible: A Complete Guide for the 21st Century Photographer. (Newton Abbot: David and Charles, 2012), 7.
Negative parenting is one of the factors that contribute immensely in terms of negative impacts in children, which continue to their adulthood. The purpose of the present study is to determine the causes and impacts of negative parenting and to determine ways that can be used to resolve the problems of negative parenting. Causes have been identified as parental incarceration, single parenting, parental depression, and teenage parenting. These result in negative parenting which lead to emotional problems such as depression in children, low self-esteem, attention deficiency, and anger control issues. These problems can be addressed through talking, counseling, and positive role modeling by parents.
Parenting is the responsibility as well as duty of parents towards their children. The process of parenting involves the support and promotion of a child from his or her infancy all through into adulthood. Promoting and supporting the child is in different aspects such physical support, emotional support, social support, financial and also help through intellectual growth. Parenting does not only end on normal biological relationship. In most cases, the people who are responsible for parenting are the biological parents of the child, but in some circumstances, some other personalities can assume the responsibility. For instance, if parents of an infant are deceased and then the eldest sibling will assume the responsibility of parenthood or if there is not, then uncle or any other member of the close family can take over parenthood responsibilities to the infant.
However, the law can be approached to settle any kind of concern about an infant’s custodian or guardian. The society too can have a role in guiding the child to almost close to parenthood (Kathryn et.al 2003). Some children can also be legally adopted; the foster parents are therefore liable for the child and should uphold good parenting as per the law. A parent or guardian who manages to exhibit or practice good parenting skills becomes a good parent (Melissa et.al, 2011).
In most cases, parenting takes a positive form, which is different from the negative parenting that is the focus of this paper. While positive parenting leads to the provision of support and promotion of children towards smooth transition through the various developmental stages. Negative parenting involves the transfer of negative values to children, which is often associated with rough handling of children, expression of negative emotions towards the children, and involvement of children in activities that are endangering to their lives and to their development. Child abuse is also a form of negative parenting. It has been established that negative parenting results in several negative impacts on children, which are often exhibited through display of aggressive tendencies, development into abusive adults or adults incapable of free expression of their emotions. Parenting styles have been described using theories for many years.
Diana Baumrind developed the most common theory of parenting. According to this theory, four types of parenting exist. These include authoritarian parenting, authoritative parenting, permissive (permissive indulgent) parenting and neglectful (permissive uninvolved) parenting. From the descriptions accorded to these styles, negative parenting can be described by the permissive and neglectful parenting (Greenwood, 2015). The permissive parenting style involves the excessive display of affection towards the children with limited restrictions. Children whose parents practice permissive parenting exhibit signs of late maturity, reluctance in accepting responsibility and impulse control problems. The uninvolved form of parenting is characterized by disinterest towards the child, no warmth or even child rejection. The children who experience the neglectful parenting exhibit depressive tendencies, delinquency and poor academic performance (Greenwood, 2015).
The purpose of the present study is to collect information relating to negative parenting, to analyze and represent this information and to find out the impacts of negative parenting on the children and how these impacts can be averted. The following questions will offer guidance in carrying out the study.
- What are the causes associated with negative parenting?
- What impacts does negative parenting have on children during their development?
- How can the impacts of negative parenting be addressed in children?
Various factors have been linked to negative parenting over the years. One of the aspects that have been identified as leading to increased cases of negative parenting is parental incarceration. This is whereby a child’s parent or parents are taken into the custody of law enforcement agencies and confined for corrective action. According to the US Department of Health and Social Services, parental incarceration results in several negative outcomes, which are also linked to negative parenting (DHHS, n.d). One of the effects of parental incarceration is a reduction in family income. This is because for two parent families, the reliance of both parents’ incomes is replaced by the dependence on the remaining parent’s income. This means that the remaining parent has to work harder towards the accomplishment of financial obligations towards the children. This implies that in most cases, the attention accorded to the children is reduced as stress due to the separation as well as financial obligations take centre place. The parenting style thus changes from the more positive forms towards the adoption of permissive uninvolved parenting, which leads to depression and anxiety in children. The separation of parents also results in increased family strains and potential neglect of the children (Gogolinski, 2012).
It has been established that single parenting also contributes to negative parenting tendencies. Single parents tend to contend with high levels of social stress, as well as financial stress (Laura et al., 2007). These factors make the parents more vulnerable to practicing permissive uninvolved parenting. On the other hand, some of the single parents, especially mothers become too attached to their children, leading to the exhibition of excess affection towards them without restrictive measures even in situations that may result in danger towards their children. Moreover, single parents are also linked to immense negative behaviors such as drug use and irresponsible sexual behavior. These contribute to ineffective role modeling for their children (Barnett, 2008). The children are thus exposed to the potential impacts of negative parenting. Besides single parenthood, teenage parenthood also contributes to negative parenting in several ways.
The tendency for child rejection is prevalent among teenage parents due to some factors. A high number of teenage pregnancies are unplanned and unexpected (Nauert, 2011). This makes it difficult for the young parents to accept responsibility for parenthood due to unpreparedness. Moreover, most of the teenage relationships that result in parenthood also end up in separations leading to single parenting. The impact of this is also an increase in negative parenting tendencies (Nauert, 2011). Teenagers also engage in irresponsible behaviors due to immaturity hence the children of teenage parents are more prone to rejection as well as to exposure to negative behavior. Consequently, they also find themselves in situations that are indicative of negative parenting.
Another factor that is cited as causing negative parenting is parental depression. Dallaire et al (2011) found out that there is a correlation between parental depression and the use of harsh/ negative parenting behaviors. The relationship between parental depression and parenting habits was found to be stronger with destructive parenting tendencies than with the constructive tendencies. This can be said to be true since depressed parents tend to display negative emotions such as anger towards their children. Parenting under depression and/ or any other significant negative pressure also contributes to child depression.
Negative parenting behaviors such as expression of negative emotions leads to depression among the children. Children experiencing negative parenting are more at risk of experiencing depression as compared to children that go through constructivist parenting. The implications of negative parenting are more adverse in terms of resulting in depression among the children. Dallaire et al (2011) carried out a study in which it was realized that the contribution of parents to depression in children was more enhanced whereby uninvolved and permissive parenting was practiced. Apart from the depression in children, negative parenting has also been confirmed to result in delinquency among children.
As has been stated previously, negative parenting results in poor role modeling among parents. Inappropriate sexual behavior and drug use are some of the characteristics associated with poor parenting. These activities also aid in the inculcation of negative behaviors among the children under the care of those parents. Consequently, children under the care of such irresponsible parenting often engage in criminal activity and are also more prone to drug use and sexual irresponsibility. The implication of this is that such children are also more vulnerable to juvenile incarceration hence reduced productivity in the society. Moreover, irresponsible parents also fail to offer moral and emotional support to their children hence making them more susceptible to emotional break down and depression. Such children display anti-social behavior (Steven et.al, 2000).
The impacts of irresponsible/ negative parenting on juvenile delinquency are therefore immense and an important concern in child development. This impact is even made worse in cases where the said parent is a single parent. This is because in this case, the level of supervision accorded to the child is limited due to the extensive duties that the parent has in taking care of the children. Financial strains also increase the time demand on the parents resulting in higher vulnerability to negative behaviors. Because of the lack of supervision and demand for financial well being, children may be compelled to join criminal behaviors which increase the chances of incarceration. Some of these behaviors may have been copied from the parents who act as negative role models (Laura et al., 2007). In some cases, the parents also have a tumultuous relationship with their children.
Among children in the pre-school years, strained relationships between the parents and their children has been seen to result in negative behaviors such as explosiveness, aggression and defiance. These behaviors are often projections of the children’s experiences with their parents and can be averted through positive reinforcement activities such as awards for positive behaviors. Some of the children have undergone experiences which involved watching their parents fighting. This results in anti-social behavior among the children. Besides this, they may also grow into violent adults due to the misconception that violence is a normal form of emotional expression (Rand et.al, 2003).
Other children are left traumatized due to extremely violent experiences which can result in psychological disorders in their latter years. Such children face many challenges in their adulthood or in their general lives (Claire & Rosie, 2006). For instance, a child who experiences abuse or beating at home performs poorly in academics as he or she has reduced capacity to concentrate due to trauma. Moreover, their self-esteem will be impacted negatively as they tend to hold the belief that they are not good enough at anything and be presumptuous that whatever they do, they are most likely to be rewarded with serious punishment. These same children might also develop violent behaviors and may be incapable of anger management or can develop short temperedness. These tendencies towards violence and short temperedness can get the children in trouble with both school administrations and law enforcement agencies (Danielle et.al, 2006).
The purpose of the research is to analyze the consequences of negative parenting on the children. The sections below will include the research design used to get data, the population, the instruments used, the hypothesis, the methods of data collection and finally data analysis.
The type of research conducted is a descriptive study. The research design used will be a survey. This research design was chosen because it analyzes the research question comprehensively and also a wide range of information is acquired from the participants. The descriptive approach to research is also suitable for obtaining theoretical information such as that desired in the present study. The descriptive study is effective in the establishment of cause – effect relationships such as that which forms the subject of the present study.
The society has a role of parenthood and bringing up the child uprightly (Kathryn et al., 2003). Failure to bring up the children effectively has an effect on the child’s life hence finding themselves as victims of drug abuse (Steven et al., 2000). Such factors propagated the need to conduct the research so as help come up with solutions that may help change the negative behavior of the children. The primary stakeholders in the research will be the researcher, parents, and the children.
The population of the research will include any person who can express themselves effectively on critical issues. The population, therefore, will consider people from the age of 15 to 40 years. The population will be broken down into different age groups, 15-20, 21-25, 26-30, 31-35 and 36-40, to ensure that all ages are represented. The population does not have any differences in terms of providing information because they will be describing their personal childhood experiences and how they viewed the parenting role of their parents.
Negative parenting has negative impacts on the lives of the children.
The instrument used to collect data was a survey. A sample of the survey will first be distributed to 20 people in order to evaluate the ease of filling the questions and the time they would take to answer the question. The survey asks the participant the type of parenting they experienced when they were young and related issues concerning negative parenting. The information provided in the survey by the participants will be crucial in answering the research question.
Data will be collected in one town but will consider the ages of the participants first. In collecting the data, the consent of the participant will be required because the ethical code does not permit the researcher to forceful get information from a person. The answers provided in the survey will be anonymous hence, the identity of the participant will be hidden. The participant will be proven to be of sound mind before they participate in the research. This will enhance the validity of the information given. The survey questions will be distributed randomly. The data provided will be analyzed based on the experiences of the people in their childhood and the type of parenting they were exposed to affects their current lives. The information, therefore, will answer the research question adequately.
Apart from the survey, secondary data will be used. Laura et al (2007), states that parents who portray a good image make the children want to look up to them. Parents who always fight facilitate the growth of anti-social behavior in their children (Rand et al, 2003). According to Claire and Rosie (2006), children who face scenes of violence are likely to be traumatized. Children may also get into violent behaviors that may lead them trouble in school (Danielle et al., 2006). The consequences of negative parenting can be resolved by the use of counseling sessions (Sandra, 2011). The research will also aim at providing a recommendation. Michael et al (2013), Melissa et al (2011) and Tamara et al (2014) provide the solutions of becoming better parents.
The data to be acquired from the survey will relate to the information from the secondary data. The integration of the two forms of data collection methods will help in coming up with a comprehensive conclusion about the research question. The data will be classified into two groups, the positive impacts, and the adverse impacts. The inconsistencies that may occur will be dealt with by relying on the information that has more responses.
The findings relating to this study were obtained from two major sources. The secondary data was used as the basis for the formulation of the survey questions and also to provide a strong theoretical foundation for the study. From the study, it was confirmed that negative parenting is often triggered by factors such as parental incarceration, single parenthood, teenage parenthood and parental depression. These factors motivate negative parenting in various ways and also result in diverse impacts on the children’s future. While these causes have been clearly identified and discussed by various studies, other causes can also be described based on the experiences of various individuals who are now adults. Other factors that have widely been cited include: poverty, lack of education and the parents’ own childhood experiences. Poverty mainly contributes leads to negative parenting through compulsion to engage in negative behaviors such as criminal activity.
These activities result in negative role modeling which is a characteristic of negative parenting. On the other hand, lack of education makes the parents unaware of the demands of parenting hence giving their children less than they deserve. As has been earlier said, negative childhood experiences lead to the development of negative adults who may be incapable of controlling their anger, may be short tempered of may have acquired abusive tendencies. This only results in their ineffectiveness as parents. While these factors contribute in varying degrees to negative parenting, obtaining help for both parents and their children ca go a long way in averting the impacts of negative parenting, which have been recognized to be adverse.
From the data collected during the survey using the questionnaire, the following table shows the responses to various questions. The answer columns indicate the percentage of respondents who answered yes or no to a particular question respectively.
|1||Would you describe your childhood as a negative experience?||32||68|
|2||What kind of negative experience did you have?
o Harsh parenting
o Careless parenting
o unfair treatment between you and your siblings
o Other (sexual abuse, neglect and exposure to in criminal activity)
|3||Do you feel your negative childhood still affects you today?||24||76|
|4||Did your parents try to resolve what they did with you?||28||4|
|5||Have you read about how a negative childhood can affect people in adulthood?||84||16|
|6||Did you try to resolve your problems by self awareness?||30||70|
|7||Did you try to resolve your problems through counseling?||2||98|
|8||Did you try to resolve your problems by talking to your parents?||11||89|
From the survey results, it was established that 32 percent of the respondents experienced what they considered to be negative parenting. This figure is slightly high compared to what was expected. The main reason that can be used to explain this is that since there was no way to exactly measure the level of harshness or freedom that was to be considered as negative parenting, there was the potential for discrepancies to exist between respondent perceptions. For instance, what one considered to be harsh parenting could have been another person’s idea of carelessness in parenting.
Among the identified forms of negative parenting, most of the respondents who reported having had negative experiences said they had experienced unfair treatment between the siblings. This type of treatment is often associated in families where some of the children are living with their stepparents. Other forms of negativity that were reported included harsh parenting, careless parenting, and specific forms of negative parenting. Some of the experiences that were mentioned by the respondents include sexual abuse, exposure to criminal activity and negative role modeling. The impacts of these forms of negative parenting are varied although the respondents were not requested to give the specific effects their parenting had had on their lives. The information on the forms of negative parenting is however considered accurate since it was dependent on the respondents’ real life situations. Most of the respondents who had reported experiencing negative parenting also reported that they have been affected by their experiences in their present lives.
As observed through the survey results, most of those who reported having had negative parenting experiences tried in at least one way to address their problems. Some of the ways used included taking to parents, seeking for counseling and attaining self- awareness. On the other hand, some of the parents also reached out to their children through talking. While the effectiveness of these approaches has not been established, some other methods have been confirmed to be effective towards dealing with negative parenting. Talking with the children and seeking counseling help are among the ways that have been confirmed as effective. It is however the role of the parents to initiate help for their children. Other ways of resolving these issues include: use of group therapy techniques and engagement in hobbies or other activities that may be of interest to the children. Increased social activity also helps in addressing issues relating to negative parenting.
From the results obtained during this study, various recommendations can be made for parents whose children have undergone negative parenting and who intend to improve their children’s lives through dealing with the negative impacts associated with the negative parenting experiences. First, parents should engage the use of education to improve their children’s lives. This can be achieved through collaboration with educators who see the children on a daily basis. The parents who engage in negative parenting due to their lack of education should also be informed about the impacts of their behaviors on the children’s development.
Secondly, parents should also keep close relationships with their children through communication and keeping contact with their children’s friends. It is critical for parents to understand their children’s friend and to know them well so that they can be able to identify negative changes in their children when they occur (Tamara et al., 2014). The engagement in communication is not restricted to the child or to the child friends alone. On the contrary, parent should also engage their children’s teachers and house helps where they are present to monitor the behaviors of those children in their parents’ absence. Positive role modeling is also called for in parenting to avoid the inculcation of vices into the lives of the children (Michael et al., 2013). Engagement in positive reinforcement behaviors also contributes to the development of positive behavior in children.
As a conclusion, it can be said therefore that the study has been effective in the achievement of its intended objectives. The research questions have been answered conclusively. The causes of negative parenting have been identified as including parental depression, teenage pregnancy, parental incarceration, and single parenting. The negative parenting tendencies such as harsh parenting, uninvolved parenting, and neglect have also been established to result in various negative impacts on the children. These impacts can best be alleviated through positive role modeling and counseling.
Barnett, M. (2008). Economic disadvantage in complex family systems: Expansion of family stress models. Clin Child Fam psychol Rev, 11, 145-161. Retrieved from http://psych.colorado.edu/~willcutt/pdfs/Barnett_2008.pdf
Claire, H., & Rosie, E. (2006). Behavioral Problems in 2-Year Olds: Links with Individual Differences in Theory of Mind, Executive Function and Harsh Parenting. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(5), 488-497.
Danielle, D., Ashley, P., David, C., Jeffrey, C., Farrah, J., Beth, L., & Alanna, B. (2006). Relation of Positive and Negative Parenting to Children’s Depressive Symptoms. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35(2), 313-322.
Department of Health and Human Services DHHS (n.d). The effects of parental incarceration on children. Retrieved from http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/08/mfs-ip/incarceration&family/ch4.shtml
Gogolinski, T. (2012). Effects of differences in parenting styles on couple distress and children’s perceptions of family support. Thesis. University of Maryland.
Greenwood, B. (2015). The Baumrind theory of parenting styles. Retrieved from http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/baumrind-theory-parenting-styles-6147.html
Kathryn, A., Judith, D., Alison, P., & Robert, P. (2003). Non Shared Environmental Influences On Individual Differences In Early Behavioral Development: A Monozygotic Twin Differences Study. Child Development, 74(3), 933-43.
Laura, M., Erin, R., Nicole, C., Ardis, O., Rex, F., Christina, M., Deborah, J., Cecelia, G., & Michael, Z. (2007) Harsh Discipline and Child Problem Behaviors: The Roles of Positive Parenting and Gender. Journal of Family Violence, 22(4), 187-196.
Melissa, H., Danielle, D., Jenna, G., Linda, L., Irwin, S., & Sharlene, W. (2011). Positive Parenting During Childhood Moderates The Impact Of Recent Negative Events On Cortisol Activity In Parentally Bereaved Youth. Psychopharmacology, 214(1), 231- 238.
Michael, E., Eric, J., Jaclyn, M., Benjamin, A., & Charles, S. (2013). Harsh Childhood Environmental Characteristics Predict Exploitation And Retaliation In Humans. Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society, 280 (1750), 2012-2104.
Nauert, R. (2011). Negative Parenting Style Contributes to Child Aggression. Psych Central. Retrieved on April 28, 2015, from http://psychcentral.com/news/2011/10/27/negative-parenting-style-contributes-to-child-aggression/30813.html
Rand, C., Tricia, N., Kee, K.,& Laura, S. (2003). Angry and Aggressive Behavior across Three Generations: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31(2), 143-160.
Sandra, L. (2011). My Chinese American Problem-And Ours: The National Convulsion Over Tiger Moms Has Led Parents To Hate Or Fear People Like Me. They Should Feel Sorry For Us Instead. (Critical essay). The Atlantic, 307(3), 83(7).
Steven, P., Alfred, D., Stephen, A., & Peggy, C. (2000). Harsh Physical Discipline in Childhood and Violence in Later Romantic Involvements: The Mediating Role of Problem Behaviors. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62(2), 508-519.
Tamara, D., Randi, P., & Kimberly, R. (2014). The Impact of Children’s Language Ability on Parent Cognitions and Harsh Discipline Practices. Infant and Child Development, 23(4), 388-401.
For your MRP 6, you need to include the following sections:
-Table of Contents
This means you need to make sure you add the sections I outlined above. In addition.your sections should be more than one paragraph long. If you have a section that is only one paragraph, go back and make sure it is detailed and robust enough, and probably add at least one more paragraph to it.
Also, make sure your Introduction is for the whole paper and not just the Methods section. Make sure your Table of Contents is for your whole paper, not just your Lit Review.
Take Roman Numerals completely out of the body of your paper.
This addresses the most widespread issues I saw in the papers.
-Table of Contents (To be for the whole paper)
Added at the beginning of the paper
-Abstract – Added
-Literature Review – Completed and combined with the other parts that were done earlier
-References – Added
Short sections – all short sections have been revised and made more robust
Introduction – Written for the whole paper
Roman numerals – taken out of the whole paper completely
- Would you describe your childhood as a negative experience?
- What kind of negative experience did you have?
- Harsh parenting
- Careless parenting
- unfair treatment between you and your siblings
- Do you feel your negative childhood still affects you today?
- Did your parents try to resolve what they did with you?
- Have you read about how a negative childhood can affected people in adulthood?
- Did you try to resolve your problems by self-awareness?
- Did you try to resolve your problems with ask counseling?
- Did you try to resolve your problems by talk with your parents?
Introduction: Evolution of Money and Trade
Money is any valuable item that is that is legally recognized by a given jurisdiction as medium of exchange and store of value for goods and services. Money has evolved over the centuries from commodity money to digital cash. Today, money has been coupled with technology –its supply and use is dependent on computation technology.
In the infant years of trade, goods were exchanged for other goods, in a system called barter trade. At the time, money was in the form of commodities. With time, precious, rare and attractive items took the role of medium of exchange and store of value. These items included beads and cowry shells. After a period, valuable metals replaced these precious items. The most common precious metal used was gold. It is from these valuable metals that coins were made, and later paper money got onboard.
The origin of money is not very clear. The philosopher Aristotle points the duality of utility of any object as accounting for the origin of money: the use for which it was made, and the conception of it as a product to barter. He argues that the assignment of more value to an item than it is really worth is a consequence of gradual psychological trust among the traders and the authority overseeing the economy. The anthropologist Graeber disputes Aristotle, arguing instead that on the account that, in his opinion, Aristotle has not evidential backing for his claims. Contrary to Aristotle, Graeber argues that money started out as a record of debt in the quantification of ‘I owe you’ before acquiring the rest of the functions of money as they are known today.
Whatever the right recount is, money has transformed from commodity money to modern money, which is cash and coins. From the earliest twentieth century backwards, goods and services were bought and sold in cash. Money was also saved in cash.
In the early 19th century, digital cash entered the economic scene. Initially, firms used credit cards. Then cheques came in. Transactions started to be done in credit cards and check, a replacement of the traditional cash.
The development of the computer meant that bank accounts would now be computerized. There was no need for storing cash anymore. All one needed was to have an account with the bank with the number and name indicated and the amount one has in one’s account. Later in 1996, a monetary value system for the entire globe was set up. The system allows the use of money in any country for any purpose.
Currently, there exists a variety of systems of digital cash.
Forms of Digital Cash and Forms of Payment
This paper is about digital cash. Digital cash is money that allows for payment of goods and services through electronic means. Berentsen defines digital cash as the different electronic means of payment enabled to help consumers pay for goods and services.
Some of the most common electronic forms of payment include credit cards, debit cards, smart cards, e-wallets and peer-to-peer method.
A debit card allows a client to spend the money that the client has as indicated in his/her current account without interacting with the money physically. Whenever the customer makes pays for a good or service, there is a transfer of money from the bank account of customer to the vender’s through internet banking.
A credit card runs up money that the client will be required to pay in the future. The amount the banker fixes on a client’s credit card depends on the financial track of the client with the bank. All parties involved in the transaction using a credit card are expected to comply with the security procedures and protocol.
A smart card differs from a credit card in the sense that a smart card has a microprocessor embedded in it and it uses electronic cash. The cash is transferred, during a transaction, from the client’s card to the vendor’s device. A Visa Smartcard allows customers to transfer electronic money from their bank accounts to their cards, and use the card to make payments on the internet, besides various retailers.
E-Wallets are a form of payment in which a financial institution partners with a member e-Commerce site, in which a customer can make payment with a click of on a member site.
In peer-to-peer method, the digital cash is conveyed through email. The sender is required to set up an account before he/she can request to make a payment. The sender then can transfers the digital cash into the receiver’s account using a credit card. The receiver is notified by an email, upon which he/she can transfer the money into hi/her bank account.
The “Minting” of Electronic Coins
An account of how digital coins, or digital cash, are made is outlined in OMahony et al.
Every digital coin has an associated serial number. The serial number is produced by the client’s electronic wallet. The serial numbers generated are random and large to prevent replications. The bank signs the serial number. The serial numbers are not open to the bank hence the bank cannot tell the identity of the owner of the phone. Different coin denominations are given different values.
An electronic coin contains a serial number, a key from which value, currency and expiry date can be told, and a signature coded with one of the secret keys the bank uses.
General Cycle of Transaction in Digital Cash
The system based on digital cash is made of three parties: the client, the vendor and the bank. Any client, if qualified, can procure a digital coin from a bank or any other financial institution. The client, or the payee, can then change ownership of the digital coin as a payment for a vendor’s goods and/or services, or simply as a means of sending money to a relative or friend. The vendor or receiver of the digital cash may then deposit the coin in the bank for storage, saving or whatever reason. Owing to the anonymity of the payee, the bank cannot identify the transaction that the coin was involved in. Neither can the vendor tell the client from the digital coin.
Mu et al states that besides the normal digital cash, there are two other forms of digital cash: the divisible digital cash and fair digital cash. The divisible digital cash allows for the division of a single digital coin into smaller units, each of which can be used as a digital coin by itself. The sum of the values of all the coins is equal to the value of the coin that was divided into them. Unconditional privacy of the payer is restricted under fair digital cash. The normal digital cash fully facilitates the anonymity of the client, unless the bank and the vender unless they break the theoretical assumptions that underlie it.
Three kinds of executions in a digital cash transaction: deposit, withdrawal and payment. Money is deposited when one puts the money he owns into a bank account. Withdrawal is done when one moves money from ones account into one’s wallet or to another account or as payment. Payment is said to have been done when one transfers one’s ownership of money to another person as a resettlement for one’s reception of goods and/or services. The three participants in a digital cash system are a payer, a financial nexus and a payee.
Security and Privacy of Digital Cash
In terms of the use of digital cash, security means the ability of digital cash to avoid being copied and/or being reused. Two security problems that the use money presents is counterfeiting and, as a result of the possibility of money being counterfeited, authentication. Besides avoiding forgery and double spending, it is a requirement that digital cash has the properties that prevent digital coins from being traced, and that there be an assurance that the payer or client remains anonymous.
To accomplish security and privacy, digital cash or a digital coin must possess the following features: unforgeability, untraceability, anonymity, double spending detection and fairness. They are the properties of digital cash.
Properties of Digital Cash
Forgery is one of the plainest problems with payment. Forgery is achieved in paper cash through either creation of an authentic-looking copy of the paper cash or double spending.
To safeguard digital currency against copied, reliance is placed on the authentification of user identity and consistency of the message. This is successfully achieved by the use of encryption.
As for double spending, the bank keeps account of all electronic coins spent. This prevents multiple spending when the payment is done online. However, as for offline payment, one has to notice that multiple spending has taken place.
Consequent to the possibility of forgery, measures of evaluating the authenticity of before and during a transaction have to be put in place. With digital cash, the measures include identification of the user; surety that a copy of the transaction message remains the same throughout; and a warranty that the transaction would not be denied later.
Digital cash or a digital coin has the property that once it has been used, its path in form of the transactions that it has been gone through cannot be traced. This means that given a digital coin, there is no way of telling who has ever owned the electronic coin, from its ‘minting’ to its current owner.
The identity of the owner of the electronic coin should remain hidden. It means that given any digital coin, whoever ever owns it should not be able to be told from that digital coin.
Privacy means not just the anonymity for the paying party, but also intractability of the payment, in such a way that the intermediary cannot identify whom the money that was used for that particular payment belonged to.
Similarly, digital cash has this anonymity: traceability to the paying individual is strictly speaking impossible. In spite of the inability to identify the payer from a transaction, the transaction intermediary is assured of that the digital cash is authentic.
This property of anonymity has its downsides. Issues like illegal buying, money laundering, extortion, and forgery that are more serious than paper cash.
Digital cash does not depend on the locations of the parties who do the transaction, unlike paper cash. Transfer of digital cash is done through the internet or mobile networks, other than in cases where plastic money such as credit cards is involved, in which case proximity is needed. Otherwise it can be done anywhere at any time. A portability advantage of plastic money over paper cash is that one can move around with as much money as one likes, unlike paper cash. There are some products that cost a lot of money and that would mean moving around with bags of cash, which would not be convenient.
Transfer occurs when a payer decides to pass ownership of money to a payee as a settlement for goods and/or services provided by the payee, and the payees accepts the money as such. Digital cash can easily be transferred at by phone or desktop computer upon an agreement between the two parties.
Usually goods and services come in varying prices. These prices are usually different that the available denominations of money. However, even in the rare cases where prices happen to be the equal to a multiple and/or sum of the available denominations, the coincidence that they payer has that combination of cash at that particular time is also very rare. Hence, any payment will require that change be possible to make.
While use of paper cash may subject users to such complexity, use of digital cash overcomes this inconvenience. Digital cash come in very small denominations like cents or even smaller. This provision makes it possible to make any quantity of transactions online.
Encryption: The Digital Wallet
Encryption is a method of preventing data from being accessed by an unauthorized person. When data is encrypted, one needs to have a secret key to decrypt it, or access its content. That data being talked about here is computer data.
Digital money exists as computer data. To achieve digital coin security, the data that is the digital coin needs to be encrypted. The method of encryption is the same as for any other computer data. An encrypted digital coin or digital cash is called cryptocurrency. A cryptocurrency is just another name for digital currency since almost all digital currencies are encrypted.
There are two most known methods of encryption: symmetric key encryption and public key encryption. In the case of symmetric key encryption, the keys used to encrypt and decrypt data are identical. For that matter, the parties involved in a transaction need to have the very same key before a transaction or transfer of money can be accomplished successfully. On the other hand, in the case of public key encryption, the encryption key is release into the public domain for anyone to encrypt and decrypt digital cash. However, not everything is revealed. The decryption key that allows one to read messages is reserved for the recipient only.
Encryption is achieved through the application of some complex computer algorithms. Encryption is responsible for the security and privacy of digital cash.
Pros and Cons of Digital Cash
Digital money is convenient and portable. It is not convenient to move around with paper notes and coins. They could be lost or stolen in which case a different person would use them. Furthermore, there are products that cost a lot of money, which, in the absence of digital money, would mean walking around with loads of cash in bags. In such a situation, digital money is effective in terms of portability.
Digital cash is convenient for making payments over long distances. In fact, it has played a part in the development of online businesses. Payments and transfers can be made across vast geographical regions and overseas at the click of a mouse, helping save time and the cost of transportation.
As was seen earlier, digital cash has the properties of anonymity, privacy and untraceability, all of which in most cases the parties involved in a transaction may need.
Wide acceptance and use of digital cash could disrupt the financial system. Money supply needs to be regulated by banks, financial institutions and governments through their central banks. While there can be control on credit cards, debit cards, and some form of digital cash can be checked and controlled, there are other forms like the Bitcoin cannot be regulated. In the case of a potential economic catastrophe that would be prevented by regulating money supply, digital cash would make the economy collapse.
Digital cash can also encourage and achieve illegal activities. Some of the activities include money laundering, funding of terrorist activities and online fraud. Some of the available digital cash allow for transactions or transfer of money without involving any intermediary. This means the buyer and the seller remain anonymous. Crime cannot be identified, leave alone the unavailability of clues that would facilitate forensic investigation.
It is feared a widespread adoption of digital money is a threat to the banking system-the use of digital money could collapse the banking system. The banking system not only provides employment to the people working in the banking sector; it also lends money for business startups and business development, which is a major contributor to economic growth. The collapse of the system would mean an economic recession. Digital cash can also be used to evade taxation. This behavior hinders the development of the economy.
In addition to the pros and cons, the use of digital cash, or more specifically digital card technology, is not without challenges. Prasad et al. identifies technology and infrastructure, and security as two of the major challenges. They argue that governments would be confronted with the big task of developing and implementing the necessary infrastructure model, besides the need to be ahead in implementing and maintaining new technologies. On the part of security, governments and financial institutions will need to put in robust measures to defend themselves against cyber attacks. If these attacks do not lead to theft of digital cash, they may lead to the collapse of the country, banks, or institution’s digital cash system.
Companies that Offer Digital Cash Services
Several companies offer digital money transfer services. A popular player is Paypal. Mobile service providers have also entered the digital cash transfer service business. An example is a service called Mpesa offered by Safaricom, which is one of the mobile service providers in East Africa.
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Asthma in Corona, Queens
Corona, Queens, NY 11368 had a total population of 2,230,722 as at 2010. The state’s median income between the years 2006 and 2010 was approximately $ 55,291. The total composition of the population by race was 19.1% black American, 22.9 Asian, 27.5 Hispanic, 29.7 white and 0.8% others.
Poverty in Corona, Queens is defined in terms of the people that live below the established poverty level by the federal government. Very high poverty is defined as those who live above 30 percent while low poverty is defined as those who live below 10 percent. In 2010, 30.5 percent to 72.4 percent of black Americans were classified to be living under conditions of high poverty with only 1.1 to 3.7 percent described as living under conditions of low poverty. 39.9 to 72.4 percent of the Hispanic lived under very high poverty compared to 6.5 to 12.8 percent of the population who lived under low poverty. On the other hand, the non-Hispanic whites classified, as living under very high poverty were 60.4 to 84.1 percent compared to 1.4 to 13.6 percent who lived under very low poverty. The populations classified to live under conditions of very high poverty rates reported 25.4 to 37.6 percent fair general health status while those under very low poverty reported 8.8 to 15.4 percent. At least 23.1 to 27.3 percent of those who lived under conditions of very high poverty reported to have no insurance while those living under very low poverty reported a 5.5 percent to 12.7 percent with no health insurance.
My major is nursing and most of the concerns raised by nursing practitioners are the spread of communicable diseases, specifically asthma. The data used for this report is very important given the fact that Asthma can be prevented through adequate measures (Xu, Town, Balluz, Bartoli, Murphy, Chowdhury & Crawford, 2013). It has been observed that Asthma treatments costs too much money to the people, and thus its control will be very useful in controlling the costs. Among the populations that lived under conditions of high poverty, 14.1 to 29.4 percent had been diagnosed with Asthma while about 3.6 to 8.4 percent of the population living under conditions of very low poverty reported to have Asthma. An estimated 0 to 25.6 percent of adults living under very low poverty and 70.3 to 100 percent living under very high poverty reported to have visited an urgent health care and emergency room for treatment. Generally, the highest percentage of those who reported cases of Asthma infections was smokers at 14.1 percent to 29.3 percent for persons under the category of very high poverty. A much higher percentage of 18.5 to 32.1 percent had drinking related cases in the last 30 days. This clearly indicates that most of the Asthma infections were caused by acute smoking and drinking habits. This is a major implication to nursing practice given the fact that majority of the people are young adults. Generally, the population is not doing well in eradicating cases of Asthma as compared to other states.
The main determinants of nursing health include lifestyles, such abuses of drugs (McGlynn, Asch, Adams, Keesey, Hicks, DeCristofaro & Kerr, 2003). Others include the frequency in which an individual attends a health facility for screening and treatment, and thus prevent development of chronic forms of the disease. Thus, the social determinants of health imply that the societal lifestyle is one of the most influential factors in health status.
H1: Lifestyle determines the status of nursing health.
H2: Nursing screening frequency is positively related to individual health in Asthma.
McGlynn, E. A., Asch, S. M., Adams, J., Keesey, J., Hicks, J., DeCristofaro, A., & Kerr, E. A. (2003). The quality of health care delivered to adults in the United States. New England journal of medicine, 348(26), 2635-2645.
Xu, F., Town, M., Balluz, L. S., Bartoli, W. P., Murphy, W., Chowdhury, P. & Crawford, C. A. (2013). Surveillance for certain health behaviors among States and selected local areas—United States, 2010. MMWR Surveill Summ, 62(1), 1-247.