Media is the plural for medium, which means the channel through which information is conveyed. Mass media are forms of media that are used to convey information or news to a large audience by use of different forms of technology such as radio, television, internet, music, news papers and magazines. Mass media has several effects among the masses including reflecting the culture of a people as well as creating the culture. This is done by promoting moods and attitudes to the multitudes of what may be either important or unimportant.
Mass media plays a crucial role in the government. It can be used to either exalt or undermine accountability and transparency in the government. Balkin J.M (1998, n.p) says that politicians and other members of the government can use media to simulate the political virtues of transparency through media manipulation. This aspect is well achieved because most people do not have the chance to directly interact with the ruling government; they therefore make their opinions based on what the media portrays about the ruling government.
The media tends to rule out less entertaining stories to give more coverage to political aspects of the country such as infighting, elections, scandals as well as the private lives that these politicians live. In the long run the political tension or the political temperatures of the influence the discourse / themes and attitudes the people have towards the leadership of the country. For this reason, depending on the extent to which the government has control over the media, it is possible for the government of the day to continuously perpetrate its injustices and undoing without attention and skepticism from the public.
Trotsky, L. (2002, 5) defines fascism as term originating from Italy. It was a movement that was characterized by spontaneous movement of large masses of people with new leaders from the rank and file. It is a plebian movement in origin that was directed and financed by big capitalist powers. The government being the supreme organ of the state requiring everyone to conform to its principles also characterizes it. The ruling government of the state seeks to conquer the rest of the world thus requiring all the humans in the world to submit to that particular government. Moreover, fascism necessitates that anyone against the principles of the government to be done away with. It is criminal to question the government and this is seen as detrimental to the attitudes of the rest of the population since one may end up corrupting them. Fascism is effectively applied by the use of militarism to have everyone conform to the ruling government.
Governments that employ fascism have to control every organ of the state. They require patriotism, disregard human rights for the sake of the security of the country, the military is rendered supreme above all other needs of the country, sexism is highly upheld, and the government of the day uses the most common religion to manipulate the public ideologies. The corporate elite benefit more resulting to corruption and fraudulent elections. In addition, the government either directly or indirectly controls the mass media. During war, the mass media content is often censored.
This paper seeks to examine the state of mass media in Italy and Germany during Hitler and Mussolini’s leadership. It analyses the use of mass media by these leaders to perpetrate fascism and to what extent were mass media content censored for the sake of national security.
Despite the difference in geographical location between Benito Mussolini’s regime in Italy from 1922-1943 and Adolf Hitler’s regime in Germany from 1933-1945, these leaders share have a lot of similarities and a few differences with regard to their leaderships styles. The main similarity is that both used fascism as a principle to maintain their leadership. They established and maintained single party states through the warring periods and this was well executed by the ignorance of national discontentment. They both received undying support due to their ability to present a bright future for their countries. The aspect of social policy was used by these leaders to impose fascist ideologies to the masses and to retain their power throughout their leadership. They also applied fascism to control the larger population and marginalizing opposition parties or movements. (Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision, 2015, n.p)
The rise of dictatorial regimes played a major role in contributing to the beginning of the World War II. Italy and Germany succumbed to the fascist rule while Russia adopted totalitarianism. By 1939, only two major states in Europe, France and Great Britain remained Democratic. Several other European states and Latin American countries adopted authoritarianism where Japan adopted a militarist regime that led to its warring later on. Totalitarian regimes in Russia and German extended the functions and rule of the government. They expected active loyalty and commitment of citizens to the goals of the state regardless of what they were aimed at. Whether war, socialist society. They used modern mass propaganda techniques and high-speed communications to subdue the hearts and minds of their subjects. They sought to control political, social, economic, cultural, as well as intellectual aspects.
Burt, D. S. (2001, 302) writes a biography about Mussolini saying that Mussolini was an editor of the Socialist Party Newspaper and gained prominence as a leader of the revolutionary left wing party. When World War 1 broke out he turned to nationalism and after serving in the army, he formed a fascist group. He was later elected to parliament later marched on Rome and finally leading the king to making Mussolini the premier. Mussolini formed a dictatorship; eliminated opponents restricted the press and ended parliamentary government.
After Mussolini lived from hand to mouth for several years he took advantage of a political amnesty and embarked on a career in political journalism (Sarti, R. 2004, 429). He excelled as a journalist making him popular as a socialist revolutionary and opponent of party leader Fillipo Turati. After the 1911 protest by Mussolini against the Italian Turkish War, he was arrested and gained reputation as hardliner. He rose in 1912 as the head editor of the socialist newspaper Avanti. He later got uncomfortable with the legal tactics of the socialist party and hoped that war would provide a direct path to revolution. He late challenged the party position that Italy should stay out of European conflict that had broken out in august. He was later expelled from the party and he launched his own newspaper Il Popolo d’ Italia that ran the slogan ‘War Today, Revolution Tomorrow’ that demanded that Italy should intervene in the war. During the war he served as an artillery instructor was wounded and got back to his newspaper. It is from this point that he formed the Fascist Party (Sarti, R. 2004, 430).
Italy under Mussolini’s leadership
Fascism was born in Italy during Benito Mussolini’s rule by use of a fascist movement. He was a veteran of World War I and by this time established a new political group; ‘Fascio di Combattimento’ translated to mean ‘League of Combat’. This movement won support from middle-class industrialists who were fearful of working class agitation and large-scale landowners who were against agricultural strikes. The movement became more popularized when it became Mussolini’s national rhetoric and the fear that the middle class had toward socialism, communist revolution and disorder (Duiker, J. W. & Spielvogel, J., 2010, 617).
On 29th October 1922, Mussolini alongside other fascist threatened to march in Rome if they were not granted power. King Victor Emmanuel gave in and made Mussolini the prime minister of Italy. By 1926, Mussolini had already established the institutional framework for fascist dictatorship having been made the head of government with the power to legislate by decree. The police were given the mandate to arrest and confine anybody guilty of both political and nonpolitical offences without the due process of the law. All political and cultural organizations were then dissolved. By this same year, all anti-fascist movements were outlawed and the secret police force was established. By the time, the year came to an end Mussolini ruled as Italy’s ultimate ruler ‘Il Duce’ meaning “the leader’.
Mussolini tried to create a police state but it was not very effective. His attempts to also exercise control over all forms of mass media such as radio, newspapers, and cinema to promote propaganda to integrate the masses into the state were also not very fruitful. Fascists propaganda was disseminated through simple slogans such as “Mussolini is always right” that were plastered on walls all over Italy. The fascist also portrayed the family as the pillar of the state and women’s position were reserved to the kitchen. The popular slogan used for was “women into the home.” They were to be homemakers and produce babies. This was also seen as the perfect mission that women have in life. For this reason, women were not allowed to get employment outside their homes as this would affect their productivity and give them a sense of independence, which would in turn affect their physical and moral habits that were contrary to the principle of childbearing.
It worth noting that despite the suppression and use of propaganda in the creation of numerous fascist movements, Mussolini never achieved the totalitarian control that was experienced in Germany by Hitler or in Russia by Stalin. He was not able to completely destroy the old power structure. He was soon overshadowed by a much more powerful fascist movement to the north (Duiker, J. W. & Spielvogel, J., 2010, 617-618).
In a separate book, Spielvogel, J. (2014, 594) says the press laws during Mussolini’s leadership gave the government the right to suspend any publications that fostered disrespect to the Catholic Church, the monarchy or the state. He also says that Mussolini adopted the use of slogans all over the walls in Italy portraying Mussolini as being right always and the fact that women were destined to belong to the kitchen. He attempted to mould Italians into a fascist ideology by developing fascist organizations. The regime relied more and more in on the services of youth organizations known as the Young Fascista to indoctrinate to young people to fascist ideologies by enrolling them in Fascist youth groups that various activities among them marching drills, calisthenics, seaside and mountain summer camps as well as contest. This was met which mixed feelings where the Italian teenagers who did not like the military training or routine training simply refused to attend these sessions.
However, Mussolini failed to attain the degree of totalitarian rule that was experienced in Germany. Some institutions such the monarchy and military were never absorbed into the fascist state, they managed to retain their independence. Despite having boasted that he would help workers and peasants, he allied himself with the interests of the landowners and industrialists at the expense of the lower class people (Spielvogel, J. 2014, 594).
John McCannon explains that Mussolini used modern technology and bureaucracy to control every aspect of the subject’s lives. He compares Mussolini to other totalitarian leaders such as Stalin and Hitler terming Mussolini leadership as mild. Though he imposed, censorship controls over culture imprisoned and even killed political enemies and dissidents and used propaganda to create a cult of personality. (341)
Germany when Hitler’s leadership
In Germany fascism arose during Adolf Hitler’s rule. At first, Hitler attempted to seize power in Southern Germany in Beer Hall Putsch where he failed but brought him and the Nazi’s into national recognition and prominence. He rose to power at the end of World War 1 after serving in the Western Front and decided to get into politics. He joined German Worker Party, which was among the extreme nationalist parties and assumed party by the end of 1921, which he renamed National Socialist German Workers’ Party popularly known as Nazi Party. In two years the membership was at 55,000 including 15,000 in the militia
He later staged an armed uprising against the government in Munich in November 1923, the Beer Hall Putsch. The putsch was later crushed and Hitler was sentenced to prison where he wrote an autobiography named “My Struggle” that outlined facts about his movement and its underlying ideologies of extreme German nationalism, virulent anti-Semitism, and anti-communism. All these aspects were intertwined with the social Darwinian theory of struggle that stresses the right of superior nations to Lebensraum (living space) through expansion and the right of superior individuals to secure authoritarian leadership over the masses. During his imprisonment Hitler realized that the Nazi would come to power through constitutional means unlike the previous mode of overthrowing the ruling government.
William J. Duiker, Jackson Spielvogel 2010, 617-618He later reorganized the Nazi Party and competed for votes with other parties. By 1929 the Nazis had a national party organization. Three years later, the Nazis had 800,000 members thus becoming the largest party in Reichstag. Previously disturbed by unemployment among other factors Hitler promised to create a new Germany that was free of class differences and party infighting. He confirmed his appeal to national pride, national honor and traditional militarism was positively and warmly received by his listeners. The Germans were enthusiastic of his leadership and looked up to him as their savior and deliverer from their problems. For this reason, the right wing elites of Germany including the industrial magnates, aristocrats, and the military and higher bureaucrats were optimistic of Hitler’s leadership that would save Germany from their Communist takeover.
The then president Paul von Hindenburg was put under pressure and he agreed to allow Hitler become chancellor on January 30th 1933 and form a new government. Within two months Hitler organized on how the Nazis would take over and he was crowned on March 23. This was followed by the Nazis acting fast to bringing all the institutions into their control. The civil service was purged for Jews and democratic elements, concentration camps were established for the opponents of the new regime, trade unions dissolved and all other parties except the Nazi were abolished. By the end of 1933, Hitler and the Nazi had established the foundations for a totalitarian state. When Heidenburg died on 2nd August 1924, the office of Reich president was abolished and Hitler became the ultimate ruler of Germany. Having crashed the parliamentary state, Hitler was tasked to establish a total state with the goal of developing an Aryan racial state that was aimed at dominating Europe and d the whole world forever. (William J. duiker, Jackson Spielvogel 2010, 618)
McCannon, J. (2006, 341) also explains that despite the democracy that was characteristic of the German rule during Weimar regime, the straining economic conditions especially the fact that almost 40% of its population was unemployed brought it to an end thus popularizing the extremist parties: the Communists and the Nazis. A series of elections in 1932 made the Nazi Party the largest in Germany and in 1933; Hitler was appointed the chancellor of Germany. He further explains that Hitler became an absolute tyrant within months. In 1933, the Reichstag building was burned down and Hitler took advantage of this situation thereby declaring a state of emergency and passed the enabling act that suspended the Weimar Constitution and gave Hitler the power to rule by decree for four years. He also outlawed all other political parties especially the communist parties, took control of the press and mass media, banned labor unions, imposed a system of state capitalism, built concentration camps for political opponents and also established a secret police. He managed to end the unemployment crisis by a giant public works program and highway building and massive increase in arms production (McCannon, J. 2006, 341). The Jews were forced out of professions, their businesses were boycotted, and they were physically harassed. Before the World War II, the Nuremberg Laws of 1935 striped German Jews of their citizenship and forbade the Jews and German non- Jews to marry or have sexual relations of any kind (McCannon, J. 2006, 342)
Perry, M., Chase, M., Jacob, J., & Daly, J., (2014, 742) say that the Communist Russia, Nazist Germany and Fascist Italy used mass organization and mass media to control the minds of the people and regulate behavior. They conveyed the image of a virile leader, Mussolini had himself photographed bare-chested or in a uniform with a steel helmet. Other photographs showed him riding horses, driving fast cars, flying planes and plying with lions cubs. Elementary school textbooks depicted Mussolini as the savior of the nation. The press, radio, and cinema idolized life under cinema. They implied that fascism had eradicated crime, poverty and social tensions.
In 1935, Mussolini invaded Ethiopia and incorporated Ethiopia into the new Italian empire. He later sent his support to fascists in Spain hoping to expand his influence. Adolf Hitler was later impressed by Mussolini’s efforts and therefore established a relationship leading to signing of military alliance known as the pact of steel. Hitler also influenced him to discriminate Jews in Italy. Italy’s resources were stretched to capacity thus many Italians believed the alliance with Germany provided them a chance to regroup. Hitler’s’ invasion into Poland and the war with Britain and France forced Italy into war thus exposing weaknesses in its military. Greece and North America fell and the German intervention saved Mussolini from a coup de tat. Mussolini died when there were allied forces that forced Germany to move its forces to the eastern troop against the Soviet Union. Mussolini was forced to resign and he was arrested but the German forces rescued him. He attempted to escape alongside his mistress but he was captured on 27th April 1945 and they were executed the following day (Bio, 2015, n.p)
Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision, 2015. Compare And Contrast Hitler’s and Mussolini’s domestic policies. Available at:
Duiker, W. J., & Spielvogel, J., 2010. The Essential World History, volume 2. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
McCannon, J., 2006. Barron’s how to prepare for the AP world history examination. Hauppauge, N.Y., Barron’s.
Spielvogel, J., 2014. Western Civilization: A Brief History. 8th ed. Wardsworth Cengage Learning. Boston.
Trotsky, L., 2002. Fascism: what it is and how to fight it. Broadway, N.S.W., Resistance Books. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=mr44vcDDxrkC&pg=PA51&dq=Fascism:+what+it+is+and+how+to+fight+it.+Broadway,+N.S.W.,+Resistance+Books.&hl=en&sa=X&ei=5ZAmVZiwKcr3UpO5gMgP&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Fascism%3A%20what%20it%20is%20and%20how%20to%20fight%20it.%20Broadway%2C%20N.S.W.%2C%20Resistance%20Books.&f=false
Perry, M., Chase, M., Jacob, J., & Daly, J., 2014. Western civilization: Ideas politics and society, volume II: From 1600 .
Balkin, J.M., 1998. How Mass media simulate political Transparency. Writings Online. Yale University. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/jbalkin/articles/media01.htm
Sarti, R., 2004. Italy a reference guide from the Renaissance to the present. New York, NY, Facts on File. http://site.ebrary.com/id/10284762.
Burt, D. S., 2001. The biography book: a reader’s guide to nonfiction, fictional, and film biographies of more than 500 of the most fascinating individuals of all time. Westport, CT, Oryx Press. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=jpFrgSAaKAUC&pg=PA302&dq=newspaprs+in+italy+during+mussolinis+leadership&hl=en&sa=X&ei=P2kmVZTiAcn4UJfZg_AO&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=newspaprs%20in%20italy%20during%20mussolinis%20leadership&f=false
Bio., 2015. Benito Mussolini Biography. Dictator (1883-1945) [Online] Available at: http://www.biography.com/people/benito-mussolini-9419443 [Accessed 9 April 2
The Cause of King Tutankhamun’s Death
King Tutankhamun, popularly known as King Tut, remains one of the important historical figures in Egypt. Since discovery of the tomb by a British archaeologist, Howard Carter, in 1922, there have been controversies on the cause of death of this young king who took over the reign when only eight years old, going ahead to rule until his death at nineteen years. He took over the reign from Akhenaten, his father. However, his death marked the end of a dynasty because he had no surviving child who could have taken over the royal throne, leading to his close advisors taking over the Kingdom’s leadership. Various autopsy examinations over many years have led different archeologists and historians to develop different theories to the cause of death to this young king who ruled during a volatile time in ancient Egypt’s history. The latest CT scan over the dead body of the pharaoh has disproved popular theories of murder and the chariot accident. The answer of the mystery itself lies on the lineage of Tutankhamun, which tells us that his inherited diseases had led him to death.
According to Reeves (121-123), the importance of King Tutankhamun comes from the fact that his death marked an important transition from a dynasty to the rule of people who were not from royal lineage. Another reason could be seen in his death at an early age, just nineteen, considering that the ancient Egypt was more developed, and had better foods and other royal supplies that made people live longer. After the discovery of King Tut’s tomb, archeologists embarked on a journey to find out some of the reasons for his death. Buchanan (n.p) argues that the cause of the king’s death could not be established because his predecessors erased some of the important royal records on Tut’s lineage from the historical books. Therefore, the discovery of his dummy provided an opportunity for the archeologist to find out the some of the historical issues (Hawass, et al. 640).
Murder was one of the theories that earlier archeologists had advanced as the possible cause of death for the King Tut. This came from the examination of the dummy found in the 1922 discovery by Howard Carter. The backside of the skull was found to have bumps and marks that indicated an injury by a blunt object, most probably by a person with a sinister motive (Hoving 32-43). This theory was supported by the fact that King Tut was a young leader who must have relied most on the powerful advisors in order to run affairs of the Kingdom. The second possible cause of King Tut’s death is chariot fall that might have caused serious bodily harm that he might have later succumbed. According to Hoving (32-43), archeologist point to the broken bones in King Tut’s dummy as possible cause of his death. Haag (10-21) notes that the king may have fallen or run over by a chariot while on his knees, leading to serious bodily harm and his death. This theory has since been disputed by the fact that the broken bones may have been caused by the archeologists in the process of removing the remains from the discovered tomb. The body was seriously dismembered in the process of transferring it to the museum and examination centers, leading to the doubts whether the broken bones could have all been caused before the death (Hawass, et al. 640).
However, the recent CT scan on King Tut’s dummy finds out that his death may have been caused by a serious illness that is related to the family lineage. According to Neubert (43), a thorough CT scan on the preserved remains of King Tut has proven the fact that his parents were indeed a brother and sister. It is likely that he must have been born with a serious genetic disorder, something that affected his normal life operations. The genetical problem comes from the many artifacts that were found in King Tut’s tomb, in which, he either stood by a support or sat down while with his wife. None of the ancient artwork found in his grave shows that he stood normally, advancing the theory that he might have been born by a genetical problem from both parents. He had also been using walking sticks to aid his mobility (Hawass, et al. 640). He may have died from the complications that arose from the genetical disorder acquired from his birth.
In order for this theory to be valid, it is important to have advanced it with respect to previous probable causes of his death. One of the earlier theories alluded to the fact that he may have had an accident while riding a chariot or he may have been run over by a chariot (Hawass, et al. 646). The recent discovery doubts whether King Tut was able to ride a chariot by himself, given that he had a bodily disorder that affected his movement. Therefore, the only way he would ride a chariot was by using an aid and such movement would be highly regulated because he was the king of the Egyptian empire. The accident theory was advanced because of the many fractures that were discovered in his remains, something that (Andritsos 22) is believed was caused in the process of transferring the body from the tomb to other places. According to the CT scan and virtual autopsy, only one breakage may have happened before his death.
My opinion is that murder theory does not appear to be correct because of the argument that the head injury seen by the archeologists may have been caused by various factors other than a person by a sinister motive. The first explanation is that the scar at the back of the head may have been caused during the rigorous embalming process before the burial of his remains. The preservatives required that certain parts of the body be opened for administration, something that likely occurred with King Tut. On the same note, the removal of the body from the highly secured coffins may have caused the head injury. For instance, the body was discovered with the royal crown on the head. The process of removing this object by the archeologists may have caused the scar at the back of the head.
Therefore, I believe that as the recent CT scan has shown, King Tut may have never been murdered or had a chariot accident. The fact that his parents were close relatives may have led to a serious health disorder that was not curable by the available medicine. All the paintings and other artifacts show that he never walked unaided, indicating that he may have never ridden a chariot. Most of the body injuries that have been seen may have been caused in the process of transferring the body from the tomb. However, there is need for more research on some of the ancient literature in order to have a clear understanding the life during King Tut’s time. Nevertheless, no much can be done on the remains of the King since the modern investigations have been exhaustive.
Andritsos, John. Social Studies of Ancient Egypt: Tutankhamun. Australia, 2006.
Buchanan, Rose Troup. “King Tutankhamun did not die in chariot crash, virtual autopsy reveals.” The Independent. N.p., 20 Oct. 2014. Web. April 21, 2015<http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/king-tutankhamun-did-not-die-in-chariot-crash-virtual-autopsy-reveals-9806586.html>.
Neubert, Otto. Tutankhamun and the Valley of the Kings. London: Granada Publishing Limited, 1972.
Haag, Michael. The Rough Guide to Tutankhamun: The King: The Treasure: The Dynasty, London, 2005.
Hawass, Zahi et al. “Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun’s Family”. The Journal of the American Medical Association 303 (7): 2010, 638–647.
Hoving, Thomas. The Search for Tutankhamun: The Untold Story of Adventure and Intrigue Surrounding the Greatest Modern archeological find. New York: Simon & Schuster, 15 October 1978.
Reeves, C. Nicholas. The Complete Tutankhamun: The King, the Tomb, the Royal Treasure. London: Thames & Hudson, 1 November 1990.
Economics: The Employment Effects of the Minimum Wage
Over the years, economists have argued for the fact that the imposition of a minimum wage higher than the market wage would initiate a reduction in employment as well as bring about an increase in unemployment particularly among young and relatively unskilled workers. This is especially true to the workers the minimum wage aims at helping (Card et al. 491). Some economists, however, have claimed that there is no evidence of a significant employment-reducing impact attributed to the minimum wage especially on low-wage workers and that, in some cases; the hiking of minimum wage might even have caused an increase in employment. This paper will critically evaluate these competing arguments regarding the outcomes of the minimum wage on employment through focusing on the issues raised from each side of the argument (Card et al. 491).
To start with, the potential benefits associated with high minimum wage rates emanates from the higher wages for affected workers. Some of these workers come from poor backgrounds earning less income. Hence, when the minimum wage is high, it may discourage workers from using their low wages whereas the minimum wages are meant to help the low skill workers. The application of minimum wages was put in place with the intention of ensuring that a minimal standard of living, unintended consequences undermined its effectiveness. However, there has been increased evidence which shows that an increment in the minimum wage brought about by job destruction. Consequently, higher minimum wage leads to perfectly competitive employers cutting employment. In the United States, the minimum wage was developed during the Depression period where it has significantly increased from 25 cents to $ 7.25 per hour since 1938 (Card et al. 491). This increase has been criticized by some economists to bring about negative effects to the low skilled employees in terms of deteriorating businesses, increasing prices and is counterproductive for the poor working class people. Collectively, these effects bring about unemployment.
Most of the employees working under the minimum wage rate entail young people under the age of 25 years who represent about one fifth of the workers paid per hour. Most of the employed teenagers who get paid per hour, approximately 23 percent, were found to be earning a minimum wage or less as opposed to the workers above the age of 25 years (Card et al. 493). Some economists have argued that the competitive nature of low-wage industries suggested that the displacement of low-wage would bring about a more likely outcome. However, criticism over this argument occurred with responses that suggested that the competitive wage determination was inconsistent with existing business practices as reasoning about labor markets in terms of commodity markets would seem to be an important explanation for erroneous conclusions on matters such as the minimum wage (Card et al. 493). These aspects will form the basis of this paper through discussions on either side of the intensive debate regarding the minimum wage issue and its effects to employment. This discussion will occur through evidence based research conducted by economists on these effects of minimum wage (Card et al. 493).
Arguments against suggestions that increased minimum wage brings about unemployment
According to research in this area, an increment of about 10 percent in the minimum wage was found to reduce teenage unemployment by about three percent. This argument is described through the end-result of minimum wages through the employment elasticity, which describes the ratio of the percentage change in employment to the percentage change in the legislated wage. The ideology behind this reasoning occurs through the illustration that a 10 percent hike in the minimum wage lowers employment of the affected group by about 1 percent when the elasticity is -0.1 and by 3 percent when the elasticity is -3 (Neumark, 356). Evidence for industries such as the fast food has been used in the attempt explain the results associated with an increase in minimum wage rate to employment especially to young adults and teenagers. These studies have engaged in the comparison of the outcomes in the fast food industry to those in the bordering state of Pennsylvania where wage laws remained the same even after the New Jersey law brought about a rise to the minimum wage (Neumark, 356).
This study portrayed the fact that New Jersey minimum wage rate brought about increased employment as well as constructed a wage gap measure equal to the difference between the initial starting wage and the new minimum wage for restaurants involved in fast-foods in New Jersey and equal to zero for those in Pennsylvania (Neumark, 360). The increase in employment opportunities brought about significant results regarding growth on employment in New Jersey with an estimated elasticity of 0.73. These studies were coupled with the comparison of employment growth at stores based in New Jersey which were initially paying high wages but remained unaffected by the new law to changes in employment at lower wage stores. Apparently, the stores that remained unaffected by the minimum wage portrayed similar employment growth to those in Pennsylvania as opposed to the stores that had to increase the wages as well as their employment (Neumark, 360).
The reasoning behind this entails the fact that an increase in the minimum wage rate brings about a reduction in employment to the profit-maximizing employers as it involves extra costs to sustain the employees. However, for the employers incurring higher minimum wages, the employment of another employee would lead to the increase of wages for the other employees as the high costs would be diverted to the customers. Studies conducted with the comparison of 410 restaurants in New Jersey and Pennsylvania indicated an increment in the minimum wage rates from $ 4.2 to $ 5.05 occurred during a recession where unemployment rates in New Jersey had risen substantially (Neumark, 362). The effects obtained from the increase in minimum wage were thus not propagated by the rising economy. This is coupled with the fact that New Jersey comprises of a relatively small state within an economy that closely relates to its nearby states. In this case, the variation in wages within New Jersey allowed the comparison in experiences of high-wage as well as low-wage stores in New Jersey through testing the validity of the Pennsylvania control group (Neumark, 362).
Apparently, the challenge in the model applied to the competitive model is that it was wrong and some economists argued that there could be instances of monopsony in labor markets due to the frictions that tie workers to specific forms. These frictions indicated that in any instance when employers hired more workers, the cost of existing workers would also increase. Resultantly, employed based on the market may at times fall below the economically efficiently competitive level thus making the minimum wage to bring about higher chances of employment (Neumark, 339). In this case, the stores involved in high wages in New Jersey were largely unaffected by the minimum wage as the effects were brought about by worsening of the economies. This saw an increase in employment between 1991 and 1993 as the rise in unemployment would be expected to lower fast food employment in the absence of other factors. The basic ideology behind these findings indicates that firms in a low-wage region are more likely to respond to an increase in the minimum wage through having the owner pick up more hours on their own and cutting back on the employee overtime hours. On the other hand, large firms might also attempt to squeeze more work out of the managers under salaries as well as hiring more part-time workers with the aim of avoiding benefit obligations (Neumark, 339). Consequently, most employees may get to keep their jobs at the high mandated wages due to aspects such as trust or loyalty or simply due to the desire of avoiding the implications of restructuring business operations to account for fewer workers. This is prevalent because employment opportunities have a social dimension that does not rely on economic endeavors (Neumark, 339).
It is also important to note that low wages bring about effects to other sectors other than the employees as studies have indicated that workers at fast food restaurants such as McDonalds as well as other major restaurant chains, use federal and state programs at far higher rates that other workers. Most of these costs are met by the people in the society as an increase in the minimum wage shifts some of the burden to the private stakeholders (Neumark, 339).
Arguments for suggestions that increased minimum wages brings about unemployment
According to economic research conducted on the effects of the minimum wage, the employees within an organization who get to retain their jobs are simply made better off at the expense of unskilled workers who are mostly young adults who get laid off. The increase of the minimum wage rate brings about an attractive appeal to new entrants who seek the job opportunities even without the guarantee that they will get them (Neumark, 354). In instances where the minimum wage rate goes beyond the prevailing market wage, most workers lose their jobs or get limited working hours. This is especially true with evidence indicating that a 10 percent increase in the minimum wage rate may bring about a 3 percent decrease in employment of low-skilled workers. Economists arguing for this ideology have suggested that employers have the option of finding alternative ways of economizing on the higher-labor prices as factors such as the introduction of new technology as well as labor saving capital investment tend to replace the unskilled workers. The belief that there will be an increment in the minimum wage increases these substitutions thus bringing about more skilled workers and few job opportunities for the low-skilled workers (Neumark, 354).
Eventually, the minorities will be entitled to high unemployment rates due to the fact that participation rates will decline as workers affected by the minimum wage tend to drop out of the formal labor market. In this case, researchers have argued that the increase of minimum wage violates the principle of freedom through limitations to the range of options open to workers. These limitations prevent workers from getting involved or taking part in job opportunities offering less than the legal minimum. Additionally, they suggest that the minimum wage hinders employers from employing workers regardless of whether they would have brought in more advantages (Neumark, 354).
In this case, economists arguing for this perspective have indicated that if low-skilled workers lose the jobs, their income becomes zero. At this juncture, employers fail or rather hesitate to pay their employees higher minimum wages if they lack the ability to produce at least the same amount. Studies have also indicated that employers seek to benefit in terms of profits through higher minimum wages in which they employ workers with better skills and qualifications. This leads to other employees losing their jobs and remaining unemployed as there are no employers willing to employ them at the above market wage (Shouhai, 183). In addition, the increase of minimum wage leads to employers increasing the prices of their commodities in order to cover other expenses. However, in doing so, they push the obligation of meeting these expenses to the consumers who in turn buy less of the commodities or have less money to spend. Eventually, the employers are left with less money and as a means of recovering this money, the low-skilled workers are laid off and more skilled employers are brought in to meet the value of the minimum wage they receive through their output (Shouhai, 183). Basically, the whole concept behind this ideology implies that the most prominent employment effect brought about by minimum wage laws occurs through a decline in the hiring of new employees. This is prevalent through the way employers shift their focus to methods of saving labor of production (Shouhai, 183).
Studies conducted to determine whether an increase in minimum wage in New Jersey adversely affected the rate of employment in the fast food industry indicated that the increase in minimum wage rate brought about an increase in job opportunities for low-skilled workers. However, this argument was criticized by other economists who suggested that the study only focused on franchise restaurants such as McDonald’s without paying attention to smaller organizations that are significantly affected by the increase in the minimum wage (Shouhai, 183). The study was criticized for ignoring the employees who lost their jobs through focusing on those who retained their jobs on higher minimum wage. In response to the ideologies raised, proponents of the minimum wage suggested that deep focus should have been given to the workers lost their jobs in order to identify with the law of demand (Shouhai, 183). Evidence also indicates that the increase of the minimum wage from $5.15 in 2007 to $ 7.25 per hour brought about an increase in unemployment rates as it occurred during the recession period. It saw about 29 percent of black teenagers losing their jobs or lack employment opportunities as opposed to white teenagers. Conclusively, the increase in minimum wage brings about a decline in employment opportunities as most employers seek skilled workers who will bring in more skills and hence profits to the organization (Shouhai, 183).
The increase of minimum wage rates brings about imbalance in the labor market as employers seek to get the skilled employers whom they are willing to pay the given minimum wage with the hope that they will substantiate with an equivalent production. In this case, they lay off the unskilled workers who would have worked at lower minimum wages and thus render them unemployed (Card et al. 489). However, instead of laying them off, they should choose amongst the unskilled workers, retain them in their posts but reduce their benefits as well as working hours. Similarly, they may also choose to substitute more skilled workers with low-skilled workers with the aim of reducing the costs incurred (Card et al. 489). This should occur through the adoption of labor-labor substitution as a way of responding to higher minimum wage in the long run. Consequently, retaining low-skilled worker at higher minimum wages would bring about increased productivity among the workers and in turn reduce poverty (Card et al. 489).
Additionally, more emphasis on current research should be directed towards the workers who have lost their jobs as a result of increased minimum wage. This way economists and researchers would get different perspectives of the effects brought about increase in minimum wage. Although many studies have indicated that there is limited evidence regarding the effects of minimum wage, it is imminent that through the issues discussed in this paper portray distinct perspectives regarding minimum wages to employment (Card et al. 489). However, it depends on the employers in the market as they determine the employment opportunities they should offer based on the market trends as well as issues raised by government. Governments should thus intervene to offer minimum wage floors to organizations with an attempt to solve the unemployment menace. In addition, economic conditions and factors should be applied and deeply considered in order to initiate stronger effects in reducing unemployment brought about by minimum wage (Card et al. 489).
Card, David, Katz, Lawrence F. and Krueger, Alan B., “Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages: Panel Data on State Minimum Wage Laws: Comment,” Industrial and Labor Relations Review, April 1994, 47, 487-96, http://www.nber.org/papers/w4528
“Effects of Raising the Minimum Wage: Research and Key Lessons Journalist’s Resource.” Journalist’s Resource. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2015. <http://journalistsresource.org/studies/economics/jobs/the-effects-of-raising-the-minimum-wage#>.
“Evidence on Employment Effects of Minimum Wages and Subminimum Wage Provisions From Panel Data on State Minimum Wage Laws.” NBER. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2015.
Neumark, David. “The Employment Effects of Minimum Wages: Evidence from a Prespecified Research Design The Employment Effects of Minimum Wages.”Industrial Relations 1 (2001): 333-417. Print.
Shouhai, Ding. “Employment Effects of Minimum Wage Regulation and Cross Effect of the Employment Contracts Law.” Social Sciences in China 2 (2010): 171-249. Print.
Negative parenting is one of the factors that contribute immensely in terms of negative impacts in children, which continue to their adulthood. The purpose of the present study is to determine the causes and impacts of negative parenting and to determine ways that can be used to resolve the problems of negative parenting. Causes have been identified as parental incarceration, single parenting, parental depression, and teenage parenting. These result in negative parenting which lead to emotional problems such as depression in children, low self-esteem, attention deficiency, and anger control issues. These problems can be addressed through talking, counseling, and positive role modeling by parents.
Parenting is the responsibility as well as duty of parents towards their children. The process of parenting involves the support and promotion of a child from his or her infancy all through into adulthood. Promoting and supporting the child is in different aspects such physical support, emotional support, social support, financial and also help through intellectual growth. Parenting does not only end on normal biological relationship. In most cases, the people who are responsible for parenting are the biological parents of the child, but in some circumstances, some other personalities can assume the responsibility. For instance, if parents of an infant are deceased and then the eldest sibling will assume the responsibility of parenthood or if there is not, then uncle or any other member of the close family can take over parenthood responsibilities to the infant.
However, the law can be approached to settle any kind of concern about an infant’s custodian or guardian. The society too can have a role in guiding the child to almost close to parenthood (Kathryn et.al 2003). Some children can also be legally adopted; the foster parents are therefore liable for the child and should uphold good parenting as per the law. A parent or guardian who manages to exhibit or practice good parenting skills becomes a good parent (Melissa et.al, 2011).
In most cases, parenting takes a positive form, which is different from the negative parenting that is the focus of this paper. While positive parenting leads to the provision of support and promotion of children towards smooth transition through the various developmental stages. Negative parenting involves the transfer of negative values to children, which is often associated with rough handling of children, expression of negative emotions towards the children, and involvement of children in activities that are endangering to their lives and to their development. Child abuse is also a form of negative parenting. It has been established that negative parenting results in several negative impacts on children, which are often exhibited through display of aggressive tendencies, development into abusive adults or adults incapable of free expression of their emotions. Parenting styles have been described using theories for many years.
Diana Baumrind developed the most common theory of parenting. According to this theory, four types of parenting exist. These include authoritarian parenting, authoritative parenting, permissive (permissive indulgent) parenting and neglectful (permissive uninvolved) parenting. From the descriptions accorded to these styles, negative parenting can be described by the permissive and neglectful parenting (Greenwood, 2015). The permissive parenting style involves the excessive display of affection towards the children with limited restrictions. Children whose parents practice permissive parenting exhibit signs of late maturity, reluctance in accepting responsibility and impulse control problems. The uninvolved form of parenting is characterized by disinterest towards the child, no warmth or even child rejection. The children who experience the neglectful parenting exhibit depressive tendencies, delinquency and poor academic performance (Greenwood, 2015).
The purpose of the present study is to collect information relating to negative parenting, to analyze and represent this information and to find out the impacts of negative parenting on the children and how these impacts can be averted. The following questions will offer guidance in carrying out the study.
- What are the causes associated with negative parenting?
- What impacts does negative parenting have on children during their development?
- How can the impacts of negative parenting be addressed in children?
Various factors have been linked to negative parenting over the years. One of the aspects that have been identified as leading to increased cases of negative parenting is parental incarceration. This is whereby a child’s parent or parents are taken into the custody of law enforcement agencies and confined for corrective action. According to the US Department of Health and Social Services, parental incarceration results in several negative outcomes, which are also linked to negative parenting (DHHS, n.d). One of the effects of parental incarceration is a reduction in family income. This is because for two parent families, the reliance of both parents’ incomes is replaced by the dependence on the remaining parent’s income. This means that the remaining parent has to work harder towards the accomplishment of financial obligations towards the children. This implies that in most cases, the attention accorded to the children is reduced as stress due to the separation as well as financial obligations take centre place. The parenting style thus changes from the more positive forms towards the adoption of permissive uninvolved parenting, which leads to depression and anxiety in children. The separation of parents also results in increased family strains and potential neglect of the children (Gogolinski, 2012).
It has been established that single parenting also contributes to negative parenting tendencies. Single parents tend to contend with high levels of social stress, as well as financial stress (Laura et al., 2007). These factors make the parents more vulnerable to practicing permissive uninvolved parenting. On the other hand, some of the single parents, especially mothers become too attached to their children, leading to the exhibition of excess affection towards them without restrictive measures even in situations that may result in danger towards their children. Moreover, single parents are also linked to immense negative behaviors such as drug use and irresponsible sexual behavior. These contribute to ineffective role modeling for their children (Barnett, 2008). The children are thus exposed to the potential impacts of negative parenting. Besides single parenthood, teenage parenthood also contributes to negative parenting in several ways.
The tendency for child rejection is prevalent among teenage parents due to some factors. A high number of teenage pregnancies are unplanned and unexpected (Nauert, 2011). This makes it difficult for the young parents to accept responsibility for parenthood due to unpreparedness. Moreover, most of the teenage relationships that result in parenthood also end up in separations leading to single parenting. The impact of this is also an increase in negative parenting tendencies (Nauert, 2011). Teenagers also engage in irresponsible behaviors due to immaturity hence the children of teenage parents are more prone to rejection as well as to exposure to negative behavior. Consequently, they also find themselves in situations that are indicative of negative parenting.
Another factor that is cited as causing negative parenting is parental depression. Dallaire et al (2011) found out that there is a correlation between parental depression and the use of harsh/ negative parenting behaviors. The relationship between parental depression and parenting habits was found to be stronger with destructive parenting tendencies than with the constructive tendencies. This can be said to be true since depressed parents tend to display negative emotions such as anger towards their children. Parenting under depression and/ or any other significant negative pressure also contributes to child depression.
Negative parenting behaviors such as expression of negative emotions leads to depression among the children. Children experiencing negative parenting are more at risk of experiencing depression as compared to children that go through constructivist parenting. The implications of negative parenting are more adverse in terms of resulting in depression among the children. Dallaire et al (2011) carried out a study in which it was realized that the contribution of parents to depression in children was more enhanced whereby uninvolved and permissive parenting was practiced. Apart from the depression in children, negative parenting has also been confirmed to result in delinquency among children.
As has been stated previously, negative parenting results in poor role modeling among parents. Inappropriate sexual behavior and drug use are some of the characteristics associated with poor parenting. These activities also aid in the inculcation of negative behaviors among the children under the care of those parents. Consequently, children under the care of such irresponsible parenting often engage in criminal activity and are also more prone to drug use and sexual irresponsibility. The implication of this is that such children are also more vulnerable to juvenile incarceration hence reduced productivity in the society. Moreover, irresponsible parents also fail to offer moral and emotional support to their children hence making them more susceptible to emotional break down and depression. Such children display anti-social behavior (Steven et.al, 2000).
The impacts of irresponsible/ negative parenting on juvenile delinquency are therefore immense and an important concern in child development. This impact is even made worse in cases where the said parent is a single parent. This is because in this case, the level of supervision accorded to the child is limited due to the extensive duties that the parent has in taking care of the children. Financial strains also increase the time demand on the parents resulting in higher vulnerability to negative behaviors. Because of the lack of supervision and demand for financial well being, children may be compelled to join criminal behaviors which increase the chances of incarceration. Some of these behaviors may have been copied from the parents who act as negative role models (Laura et al., 2007). In some cases, the parents also have a tumultuous relationship with their children.
Among children in the pre-school years, strained relationships between the parents and their children has been seen to result in negative behaviors such as explosiveness, aggression and defiance. These behaviors are often projections of the children’s experiences with their parents and can be averted through positive reinforcement activities such as awards for positive behaviors. Some of the children have undergone experiences which involved watching their parents fighting. This results in anti-social behavior among the children. Besides this, they may also grow into violent adults due to the misconception that violence is a normal form of emotional expression (Rand et.al, 2003).
Other children are left traumatized due to extremely violent experiences which can result in psychological disorders in their latter years. Such children face many challenges in their adulthood or in their general lives (Claire & Rosie, 2006). For instance, a child who experiences abuse or beating at home performs poorly in academics as he or she has reduced capacity to concentrate due to trauma. Moreover, their self-esteem will be impacted negatively as they tend to hold the belief that they are not good enough at anything and be presumptuous that whatever they do, they are most likely to be rewarded with serious punishment. These same children might also develop violent behaviors and may be incapable of anger management or can develop short temperedness. These tendencies towards violence and short temperedness can get the children in trouble with both school administrations and law enforcement agencies (Danielle et.al, 2006).
The purpose of the research is to analyze the consequences of negative parenting on the children. The sections below will include the research design used to get data, the population, the instruments used, the hypothesis, the methods of data collection and finally data analysis.
The type of research conducted is a descriptive study. The research design used will be a survey. This research design was chosen because it analyzes the research question comprehensively and also a wide range of information is acquired from the participants. The descriptive approach to research is also suitable for obtaining theoretical information such as that desired in the present study. The descriptive study is effective in the establishment of cause – effect relationships such as that which forms the subject of the present study.
The society has a role of parenthood and bringing up the child uprightly (Kathryn et al., 2003). Failure to bring up the children effectively has an effect on the child’s life hence finding themselves as victims of drug abuse (Steven et al., 2000). Such factors propagated the need to conduct the research so as help come up with solutions that may help change the negative behavior of the children. The primary stakeholders in the research will be the researcher, parents, and the children.
The population of the research will include any person who can express themselves effectively on critical issues. The population, therefore, will consider people from the age of 15 to 40 years. The population will be broken down into different age groups, 15-20, 21-25, 26-30, 31-35 and 36-40, to ensure that all ages are represented. The population does not have any differences in terms of providing information because they will be describing their personal childhood experiences and how they viewed the parenting role of their parents.
Negative parenting has negative impacts on the lives of the children.
The instrument used to collect data was a survey. A sample of the survey will first be distributed to 20 people in order to evaluate the ease of filling the questions and the time they would take to answer the question. The survey asks the participant the type of parenting they experienced when they were young and related issues concerning negative parenting. The information provided in the survey by the participants will be crucial in answering the research question.
Data will be collected in one town but will consider the ages of the participants first. In collecting the data, the consent of the participant will be required because the ethical code does not permit the researcher to forceful get information from a person. The answers provided in the survey will be anonymous hence, the identity of the participant will be hidden. The participant will be proven to be of sound mind before they participate in the research. This will enhance the validity of the information given. The survey questions will be distributed randomly. The data provided will be analyzed based on the experiences of the people in their childhood and the type of parenting they were exposed to affects their current lives. The information, therefore, will answer the research question adequately.
Apart from the survey, secondary data will be used. Laura et al (2007), states that parents who portray a good image make the children want to look up to them. Parents who always fight facilitate the growth of anti-social behavior in their children (Rand et al, 2003). According to Claire and Rosie (2006), children who face scenes of violence are likely to be traumatized. Children may also get into violent behaviors that may lead them trouble in school (Danielle et al., 2006). The consequences of negative parenting can be resolved by the use of counseling sessions (Sandra, 2011). The research will also aim at providing a recommendation. Michael et al (2013), Melissa et al (2011) and Tamara et al (2014) provide the solutions of becoming better parents.
The data to be acquired from the survey will relate to the information from the secondary data. The integration of the two forms of data collection methods will help in coming up with a comprehensive conclusion about the research question. The data will be classified into two groups, the positive impacts, and the adverse impacts. The inconsistencies that may occur will be dealt with by relying on the information that has more responses.
The findings relating to this study were obtained from two major sources. The secondary data was used as the basis for the formulation of the survey questions and also to provide a strong theoretical foundation for the study. From the study, it was confirmed that negative parenting is often triggered by factors such as parental incarceration, single parenthood, teenage parenthood and parental depression. These factors motivate negative parenting in various ways and also result in diverse impacts on the children’s future. While these causes have been clearly identified and discussed by various studies, other causes can also be described based on the experiences of various individuals who are now adults. Other factors that have widely been cited include: poverty, lack of education and the parents’ own childhood experiences. Poverty mainly contributes leads to negative parenting through compulsion to engage in negative behaviors such as criminal activity.
These activities result in negative role modeling which is a characteristic of negative parenting. On the other hand, lack of education makes the parents unaware of the demands of parenting hence giving their children less than they deserve. As has been earlier said, negative childhood experiences lead to the development of negative adults who may be incapable of controlling their anger, may be short tempered of may have acquired abusive tendencies. This only results in their ineffectiveness as parents. While these factors contribute in varying degrees to negative parenting, obtaining help for both parents and their children ca go a long way in averting the impacts of negative parenting, which have been recognized to be adverse.
From the data collected during the survey using the questionnaire, the following table shows the responses to various questions. The answer columns indicate the percentage of respondents who answered yes or no to a particular question respectively.
|1||Would you describe your childhood as a negative experience?||32||68|
|2||What kind of negative experience did you have?
o Harsh parenting
o Careless parenting
o unfair treatment between you and your siblings
o Other (sexual abuse, neglect and exposure to in criminal activity)
|3||Do you feel your negative childhood still affects you today?||24||76|
|4||Did your parents try to resolve what they did with you?||28||4|
|5||Have you read about how a negative childhood can affect people in adulthood?||84||16|
|6||Did you try to resolve your problems by self awareness?||30||70|
|7||Did you try to resolve your problems through counseling?||2||98|
|8||Did you try to resolve your problems by talking to your parents?||11||89|
From the survey results, it was established that 32 percent of the respondents experienced what they considered to be negative parenting. This figure is slightly high compared to what was expected. The main reason that can be used to explain this is that since there was no way to exactly measure the level of harshness or freedom that was to be considered as negative parenting, there was the potential for discrepancies to exist between respondent perceptions. For instance, what one considered to be harsh parenting could have been another person’s idea of carelessness in parenting.
Among the identified forms of negative parenting, most of the respondents who reported having had negative experiences said they had experienced unfair treatment between the siblings. This type of treatment is often associated in families where some of the children are living with their stepparents. Other forms of negativity that were reported included harsh parenting, careless parenting, and specific forms of negative parenting. Some of the experiences that were mentioned by the respondents include sexual abuse, exposure to criminal activity and negative role modeling. The impacts of these forms of negative parenting are varied although the respondents were not requested to give the specific effects their parenting had had on their lives. The information on the forms of negative parenting is however considered accurate since it was dependent on the respondents’ real life situations. Most of the respondents who had reported experiencing negative parenting also reported that they have been affected by their experiences in their present lives.
As observed through the survey results, most of those who reported having had negative parenting experiences tried in at least one way to address their problems. Some of the ways used included taking to parents, seeking for counseling and attaining self- awareness. On the other hand, some of the parents also reached out to their children through talking. While the effectiveness of these approaches has not been established, some other methods have been confirmed to be effective towards dealing with negative parenting. Talking with the children and seeking counseling help are among the ways that have been confirmed as effective. It is however the role of the parents to initiate help for their children. Other ways of resolving these issues include: use of group therapy techniques and engagement in hobbies or other activities that may be of interest to the children. Increased social activity also helps in addressing issues relating to negative parenting.
From the results obtained during this study, various recommendations can be made for parents whose children have undergone negative parenting and who intend to improve their children’s lives through dealing with the negative impacts associated with the negative parenting experiences. First, parents should engage the use of education to improve their children’s lives. This can be achieved through collaboration with educators who see the children on a daily basis. The parents who engage in negative parenting due to their lack of education should also be informed about the impacts of their behaviors on the children’s development.
Secondly, parents should also keep close relationships with their children through communication and keeping contact with their children’s friends. It is critical for parents to understand their children’s friend and to know them well so that they can be able to identify negative changes in their children when they occur (Tamara et al., 2014). The engagement in communication is not restricted to the child or to the child friends alone. On the contrary, parent should also engage their children’s teachers and house helps where they are present to monitor the behaviors of those children in their parents’ absence. Positive role modeling is also called for in parenting to avoid the inculcation of vices into the lives of the children (Michael et al., 2013). Engagement in positive reinforcement behaviors also contributes to the development of positive behavior in children.
As a conclusion, it can be said therefore that the study has been effective in the achievement of its intended objectives. The research questions have been answered conclusively. The causes of negative parenting have been identified as including parental depression, teenage pregnancy, parental incarceration, and single parenting. The negative parenting tendencies such as harsh parenting, uninvolved parenting, and neglect have also been established to result in various negative impacts on the children. These impacts can best be alleviated through positive role modeling and counseling.
Barnett, M. (2008). Economic disadvantage in complex family systems: Expansion of family stress models. Clin Child Fam psychol Rev, 11, 145-161. Retrieved from http://psych.colorado.edu/~willcutt/pdfs/Barnett_2008.pdf
Claire, H., & Rosie, E. (2006). Behavioral Problems in 2-Year Olds: Links with Individual Differences in Theory of Mind, Executive Function and Harsh Parenting. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(5), 488-497.
Danielle, D., Ashley, P., David, C., Jeffrey, C., Farrah, J., Beth, L., & Alanna, B. (2006). Relation of Positive and Negative Parenting to Children’s Depressive Symptoms. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35(2), 313-322.
Department of Health and Human Services DHHS (n.d). The effects of parental incarceration on children. Retrieved from http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/08/mfs-ip/incarceration&family/ch4.shtml
Gogolinski, T. (2012). Effects of differences in parenting styles on couple distress and children’s perceptions of family support. Thesis. University of Maryland.
Greenwood, B. (2015). The Baumrind theory of parenting styles. Retrieved from http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/baumrind-theory-parenting-styles-6147.html
Kathryn, A., Judith, D., Alison, P., & Robert, P. (2003). Non Shared Environmental Influences On Individual Differences In Early Behavioral Development: A Monozygotic Twin Differences Study. Child Development, 74(3), 933-43.
Laura, M., Erin, R., Nicole, C., Ardis, O., Rex, F., Christina, M., Deborah, J., Cecelia, G., & Michael, Z. (2007) Harsh Discipline and Child Problem Behaviors: The Roles of Positive Parenting and Gender. Journal of Family Violence, 22(4), 187-196.
Melissa, H., Danielle, D., Jenna, G., Linda, L., Irwin, S., & Sharlene, W. (2011). Positive Parenting During Childhood Moderates The Impact Of Recent Negative Events On Cortisol Activity In Parentally Bereaved Youth. Psychopharmacology, 214(1), 231- 238.
Michael, E., Eric, J., Jaclyn, M., Benjamin, A., & Charles, S. (2013). Harsh Childhood Environmental Characteristics Predict Exploitation And Retaliation In Humans. Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society, 280 (1750), 2012-2104.
Nauert, R. (2011). Negative Parenting Style Contributes to Child Aggression. Psych Central. Retrieved on April 28, 2015, from http://psychcentral.com/news/2011/10/27/negative-parenting-style-contributes-to-child-aggression/30813.html
Rand, C., Tricia, N., Kee, K.,& Laura, S. (2003). Angry and Aggressive Behavior across Three Generations: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31(2), 143-160.
Sandra, L. (2011). My Chinese American Problem-And Ours: The National Convulsion Over Tiger Moms Has Led Parents To Hate Or Fear People Like Me. They Should Feel Sorry For Us Instead. (Critical essay). The Atlantic, 307(3), 83(7).
Steven, P., Alfred, D., Stephen, A., & Peggy, C. (2000). Harsh Physical Discipline in Childhood and Violence in Later Romantic Involvements: The Mediating Role of Problem Behaviors. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62(2), 508-519.
Tamara, D., Randi, P., & Kimberly, R. (2014). The Impact of Children’s Language Ability on Parent Cognitions and Harsh Discipline Practices. Infant and Child Development, 23(4), 388-401.
For your MRP 6, you need to include the following sections:
-Table of Contents
This means you need to make sure you add the sections I outlined above. In addition.your sections should be more than one paragraph long. If you have a section that is only one paragraph, go back and make sure it is detailed and robust enough, and probably add at least one more paragraph to it.
Also, make sure your Introduction is for the whole paper and not just the Methods section. Make sure your Table of Contents is for your whole paper, not just your Lit Review.
Take Roman Numerals completely out of the body of your paper.
This addresses the most widespread issues I saw in the papers.
-Table of Contents (To be for the whole paper)
Added at the beginning of the paper
-Abstract – Added
-Literature Review – Completed and combined with the other parts that were done earlier
-References – Added
Short sections – all short sections have been revised and made more robust
Introduction – Written for the whole paper
Roman numerals – taken out of the whole paper completely
- Would you describe your childhood as a negative experience?
- What kind of negative experience did you have?
- Harsh parenting
- Careless parenting
- unfair treatment between you and your siblings
- Do you feel your negative childhood still affects you today?
- Did your parents try to resolve what they did with you?
- Have you read about how a negative childhood can affected people in adulthood?
- Did you try to resolve your problems by self-awareness?
- Did you try to resolve your problems with ask counseling?
- Did you try to resolve your problems by talk with your parents?
Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Energy
There are numerous advantages and disadvantages of wind energy. Wind energy refers to the energy that is extracted from the air flow through the use of sails or wind turbines to produce electrical or mechanical energy. It is the energy that is generated through the conversion of wind currents into a different type of energy through the use of wind turbines. Complex mechanisms that involve earth rotation, sun heat capacity, polar ice caps and oceans cooling effect, gradients of temperature between sea and land as well as the physical effects that obstacles like mountains generate winds.
Wind force is converted by turbines into rotational force or torque. This is then used in propelling electric generators producing electricity. The power stations for this energy are called wind farms and they basically aggregate output from different wind turbines via a central point of connection to an electricity grid. There are both off-shore and on-shore projects of wind energy all over the world.
- Clean source of fuel
Wind energy does not entail air pollution like other power plants that depend on fossil fuels’ combustion such as natural gas and coal. The turbines that are used in the production of wind energy do not produce emissions which lead to greenhouse gases or acid rain. Thus, wind energy is considered pollution-free.
- Domestic energy source
Most places have abundant supply of wind. This means that this energy can be produced and supplied to households reducing dependence on non-renewable energy sources. Generally, wind energy has enormous potential. It is twenty times more than the actual needs of the human population.
- Cost effective
Wind energy is among the lowest-priced renewable forms of energy that are available today. It costs between six and four cents per kilowatt-hour. However, this depends on wind resource as well as project financing in a given project.
- Wind energy is economical for rural areas
It is possible to build wind turbines in the existing ranches or farms. This makes wind energy very economical for rural areas where there are ideal wind sites. Ranchers and farmers can continue their production activities in the ranches or farms since wind turbines will take only a portion of the land.
Provided that the sun is shining and wind blowing, the produced energy is possible to harness and send to the power grid.
Unreliability is the major disadvantage of wind energy. In most areas, the blowing wind is of low strength. This makes it incapable of supporting wind farms or wind turbines. Such places cannot rely on wind energy alone. It has to be supplemented with geothermal, solar or hydro-electric energy.
- Less electricity
Generally, wind turbines produce less electricity when compared to fossil fuels. This means that more turbines are required to ensure that wind energy makes a significant impact where it is relied on.
- Noise pollution
Wind turbines cause noise pollution especially where they are set up for commercial energy production purposes. The noise that they produce is similar to that of the engine of small jets. This noise can be a problem to those who live near the wind turbines. However, it is not a problem to those living away from the turbines because they will not hear the noise.
- High initial investment
Wind power has to compete with the conventional power sources in terms of costs. On the basis of the energetic level of a wind site, a wind farm can either be costly or cost competitive. Although there has been a decrease in the wind power cost over the years, the initial investment cost is higher than that of buying fossil-fueled generators.
The contemporary world should consider different sources of energy. More people, institutions and governments are looking for environmental-friendly energy sources that they can exploit. Considering the merits and demerits of wind energy is important because global warming and other environmental problems could be due to the modern energy-craving lifestyles. Perhaps, exploiting renewable energy sources more can help in dealing with environmental problems.
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