Understanding human sexuality involves explaining the different components of love and relationships. Love can be expressed through emotions, understanding, and commitment between different individuals or groups of people. Various components of love can be used to explain the kinds of love that exist in the social, religious, or cultural environments. Although love is a complex component, understanding its various constituents including commitment and the triangle, helps in explaining its ability to influence human life.
Love, commitment, and intimacy are all components that make up the relationships between different people. Love encompasses a wide range of positive emotional states arising from kinship or having close personal bonds. Commitment refers to the decision of being loyal, giving promise, and having a strong belief to accomplish or support the performance of any task. Additionally, intimacy relates to close friendship or familiarity between individuals, such as friends, families, and colleagues.
Sternberg’s Triangular theory of love explains love using three terms, which are intimacy, passion, and commitment/decision. Intimacy refers to the feelings of bonding and connectedness and the emotions that lead to experiencing the warmth of being at ease with another person (Yarber et al., 2016). On the other hand, passion refers to a strong feeling that leads to physical attraction, romance, and sexual consummation and other arousal forms that one experiences in a love relationship. Commitment refers to the decision one makes to be loyal or having a healthy attitude to support someone and maintain a relationship. The triangle is used metaphorically to explain the mentioned components of love as one component that can lead to another or both components.
The three components of love, when combined in different ways, generate eight different kinds of love. These kinds of love include non-love, infatuation, empty love, romantic love, liking, compassionate, fatuous, and consummate love. Non-love refers to the absence of the three elements of love leading to no connection of love in a relationship. Infatuation refers to passion without intimacy and commitment in a relationship, empty love is the decision to be committed to a person without intimacy or passion component. Romantic love involves the combination of passion and intimacy components of love. Additionally, liking love involves only the intimacy component without commitment and passion components (Sorokowski et al., 2017). Compassionate love refers to a combination of intimacy and commitment without passion. Fatuous love results from a combination of commitment and passion without intimacy, whereas consummate love involves a complete love combing all the three components of love.
Differences in the amount of love in a relationship represent the different areas of the love triangle. More love yields to a greater area of the love triangle. Additionally, variance in the balance of the components of love is represented by the distinct triangle shapes. The theory of love and the geometry of love are valid in explaining the importance of different components of love. Passion, commitment, and intimacy cannot be used extensively to describe love in relationships, as the elements may depend on the different conceptions of love. On the contrary, these elements are acquired from the experience of other people or reading from stories of people in the media (Brannan et al., 2018). Additionally, the models of relationships between people depend on the culture of love exhibited in the present environment.
Different types of love exist, and they include agape, erotic, affectionate, familiar, playful, obsessive, enduring, and self-love with each type having distinct features. Agape love refers to a selfless, kind, and unconditional love that is free from desires of love, notwithstanding the shortcoming of others. Erotic love involves passionate, physical, and romantic love and is associated with lust and sexual intimacies. Additionally, people fear this love as it leads to obsession and infatuation of selfish personal pleasures (Lomas, 2018). Affectionate love involves friendship without sexual acts and often exists between people considered as equals. Familiar love involves a strong kinship and familiarity bond between individuals. Playful love consists of the infatuation feelings of love and the physical presence of the person for which one feels this love excites the body. Obsessive love involves the strong, uncontrollable, and possessive feelings of being desperately connected to another person or object. Enduring love, on the other hand, refers to a love that has matured, aged, and developed over time. Finally, self-love refers to the love of caring for and showing affection to oneself without being self-obsessed and jealous.
Drawing our love triangle provided a chance for my partner and I to evaluate our love relationship. We assessed the components of love and we compared against each other’s finding to determine the kind of love we have. We matched our triangles and came up with an equilateral triangle based on our religious, cultural, and economic environment. Balancing these elements has led us to build a consummate love and ensure to support each other’s dreams, hence develop a lasting love.
Sternberg’s triangle theory of love explains the different components of love and how they give rise to different types of relationships. These components are used to describe basic kinds of love and types of love relationships. Additionally, the theory enables individuals to analyze their love and determine ways to improve their relationships.
Brannan, D., & Mohr, C. D. (2018). 7.5: Love, Friendship, and Social Support.
Lomas, T. (2018). The flavours of love: A cross‐cultural lexical analysis. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 48(1), 134-152.
Sorokowski, P., Sorokowska, A., Butovskaya, M., Karwowski, M., Groyecka, A., Wojciszke, B., & Pawłowski, B. (2017). Love influences reproductive success in humans. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 1922.
Yarber, W. L., & Sayad, B. W. (2016). Human sexuality: Diversity in contemporary America (9th Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education. (ISBN: 0077861949, 780077861940
Biological and Humanistic Approaches to Personality
The ebook provides an overview to personality through many theories and approaches. Personality indicates what constitutes the differences among people. According to Engler (2013), the formation of personality is based on the inherited characteristics. The genetic aspects can be divided into three aspects that include introversion-extroversion. In spite of the genetic makeup, personality can be influenced by external factors that include the environment. The discussion will provide relevant comparison between the humanistic and biological frameworks on personality. The study of Abraham Maslow is also relevant in understanding the formation of personalities. Maslow’s need hierarchy provides the influences of needs to understand the nurturing of personality. Biology has an extensive influence on the development of personalities in people. It will also investigate the relationship between Maslow’s model arguments and the biological factors. Further, analysis of the humanistic theory and biological factors indicates the differences that exist between the theories. The paper will investigate the biological and human approaches towards the formation of personality.
The growth needs can lead to a greater extent of improving the personality of people in their workplace. Maslow’s framework shows the implication of personality formation on the growth needs. Maslow believes that people are usually aware of their drives and motives considering the environments around them. Thus, Maslow focused on understanding the positive implications towards people. Depending on the different levels of Maslow’s hierarchy, it is evident that needs could be achieved after formation of relevant personalities. The growth needs seek to cover the intrinsic values in individuals for personal growth and development. The growth needs provide relevant correlations for people who are focused on new cultures in the society. The growth needs are correlated with personal growth and development in their life and careers. Personality contributions focus on the respect of systematic satisfaction of the different level of needs as implied by Maslow. Therefore, the order of the growth needs among the workers can lead to strong personality formation.
Researchers have investigated the biological factors that include the formation of personality. The influence of biology on the personalities of people is revealed by in born personality traits. Children are usually born with certain personalities. These inborn personalities are influenced by genetic makeup of the persons. The genetic foundations can lead to differences in the person’s physiology. Furthermore, the biological influences on the formation of personality interact with the environmental factors to influence development. Biological factors are also based on environmental choices, such as, a child growing up in certain cultures and circumstance. This makes children adapt to certain ways reflecting their immediate environment (Miner, 2002). In addition, dispositions may include the personality of the people based on the biological factors. Since these dispositions influence the personal experiences on the environment, they stimulate the formation of personalities in a certain way. Therefore, the structure of the biological factors is crucial in the development of personality and can be influenced by the immediate environments.
There exists a strong correlation between biology and the Maslow’s model. Maslow facilitates the revelation of the different needs that make people’s personalities. Each level of need is based on the selection criteria. According to the theory, people are influenced by their personalities in order to make satisfactory decisions. Thus, the quality of the personalities indicates how better the persons can satisfy their needs. According to Engler (2013), the biological model reveals that brains are the focus in the formation of personalities. Maslow’s theory relates the brain’s states with the hierarchical needs based on personality development process. Each person is biologically complex and different.
Biological aspects insist that the characteristics of the people from their personalities. The concepts of human psychology provide that value of person is based on their self determination. Abraham argued that personality development can be determined by various biological factors. These include diseases or genetics. These biological factors can influence the brain in forming a person’s personality. The structure of the brain plays a significant role in the development of personality. Abraham’s theory concepts incorporate the biological implications to promote personal development. This relates to Maslow’s model of human motivation (Miner, 2002). Generally, the biological factors relate to Maslow’s model of personality development because the biological factors that include brains, heredity and physical features are required at the growth level. This confirms the relations between biology and the concepts of Maslow’s model of personality development.
The biological factors can be said to be not similar from the humanistic concepts and frameworks. The humanistic theories focus on the selection of own actions and behaviors unlike the biological factors. In contrast, biological concepts are different from the humanistic frameworks, as they focus on a person’s internal aspects including the brains and the genes that people cannot control. Psychological understanding is usually based on people’s observations. The humanistic frameworks are not based on beliefs that people are good, but the thinking process (Miner, 2002). Biological understanding acts on the beliefs that personality is controlled by the genetic makeup. They do not use thinking and feelings in making their adjustments. Therefore, the concepts of biology and humanistic theories may be incompatible. In most occasions, the theories rely on past events and occurrences to assert the knowledge while biological factors use the present genetics to determine the formation of the personality. Researchers who support the biological theory argue for the genes as the main determinant of personality (Schultz, & Schultz, 2012). Generally, the biological factors are complex and need clear elaboration while the humanistic theories are simple.
There are different factors that influence the definition of personality. The factors that lead to the formation of personality can be biological or humanistic. The influences of growth needs can lead to personality development. However, the biological factors assist in the formation of personality. The biological factors could interact with the environmental factors to influence personality growth. Biological factors are also based on environmental choices such as varied childhood settings. Based on the arguments of Abraham, personality development can be determined by various biological facts. These include physical characteristics and genetics. These biological factors can influence the brain in forming a person’s personality. In most occasions, the concepts of biology and humanistic theories may be incompatible. For example, biological factors use the present genetics to determine the formation of the personality while, the humanistic theories uses past information. These indicate that the humanistic concepts and biological frameworks are different.
Engler, B. (2013). Personality theories. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Miner, B. J. (2002). Organizational behavior: foundations, theories, and analyses. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schultz, D., & Schultz, S. (2012). Theories of personality. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning
Definition of the term hypnosis has been highly contested, with argument about whether it is a process or product of a process. The most recent definition was formulated by APA division 30 and defines hypnosis as a “A state of consciousness involving focused attention and reduced peripheral awareness characterized by an enhanced capacity for response to suggestion (Elkins et al., 2015, p. 382). Another definition describes hypnosis as “an altered state of consciousness in which a person is able to bypass certain aspects of reality, tolerate logical inconsistency, experience distortions of perception and memory as real, and feel a compulsion to follow cues from an outside source” (Covino & Bottari, 2001, p. 340). Hypnosis has had a checkered history despite its moderate acceptance in the modern times. Its practice dates back to the pre-medieval times. Egypt had healing temples in the 5th B.C that were used for rituals that involved curative sleep and suggestions. It was then adopted by people in Greece and the Roman Empire. Another commonly referred healer, using similar techniques is Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1814) who called his method animal magnetism. In the middle ages, there were physicians who used the magnetic healing. Later in 1874, it was found that imagination was used to induce hypnotic trance and Mesmer’s method of healing was despised (Whorwell, 2005)
In the 19th century, resurgence in the research of mesmerism referring to hypnotic process led to its application in reducing pain in surgical procedures. James Braid who lived between 1795 and 1860 has been known as the originator of modern hypnosis (Whorwell, 2005). He rejected the magnetism idea in mesmerism and argued that trance had the healing and analgesic effects. In 1829, there is evidence of use of mesmerism by Doctor Chapelian to relieve pain in Madame Plantin who was undergoing breast cancer surgery (Montgomery, Schnur, & Kravits, 2012). In the twentieth century, hypnosis has been more comprehensively studied. The field of behavioral medicine has been created after realizing the role of behavior in health, health care and disease prevention. Behavioral medicine combines psychosocial knowledge with biomedical knowledge in order to come up with novel techniques of preventing diseases, diagnosing, disease management and therapy. Interest has increased in the use of hypnosis in the recent past (Fisher, 2011). Hypnotic induction refers to the procedure of hypnotizing people. Hypnotizable people are able to experience hypnosis. Therapeutic use of hypnosis is called hypnotherapy. Hypnotherapy has resulted from identified clinical benefits of hypnosis in health care and psychology (Elkins et al., 2015). Also, the method has been found useful in patients who are refractory to drugs as an alternative to pharmaceutical treatment. The method is a cost-effective clinical therapy that saves on medicine. The following is an examination of four articles that indicate the efficacy of hypnotherapy in managing various illnesses.
Hypnotherapy intervention has been explored for management and relieve of symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Lindfors et al. (2012) carried out a research entitled “Effects of Gut-Directed Hypnotherapy on IBS in Different Clinical Settings-Results from Two Randomized, Controlled Trials”. Previous studies that had been performed from highly specialized gastroenterology centers and gut-directed hypnotherapy found hypnosis to be effective for patients who are refractory to IBS drugs. Lindfors et al. (2012) carried out a randomized, controlled study to find out relative efficacy for gut-directed hypnotherapy carried outside a specialized hospital setting. In the research, Lindfors and colleagues chose participants who were patients diagnosed with IBS using Rome II criteria and they were also supposed to be refractory to pharmacological treatment. The patients were required to be not using antidepressants or psychotropic drugs. They were trained on self-hypnosis in order to have mental and muscular control and also control of symptoms by distraction or enabling focus. Hypnosis was done according to the method used by University Hospital of South Manchester in the1980s. For study 1 carried out in highly specialized gastroenterology center, 45 patients received gut-directed hypnotherapy from specialists while the another group of 45 acted as control and were subjected to supportive therapy in the waiting list. In study 2, 25 patients received the same therapy but from a small county hospital, while 23 acted as control by waiting for one year (Lindfors et al., 2012).
Efficacy was measured through assessment of quality of life using nine dimensions of health for study 1 and SF-36 with 36 items for study 2. Depression and anxiety were evaluated using Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale that uses Likert scale for each of the 7 items. Third component was measurement of the severity of gastrointestinal symptoms at 3 months and after a year using questionnaires. Excluding the control groups, the results indicated significant improvements in patients after 3 months for both studies. However, more improvement in severity was observed in study 1 carried out in a specialized gastroenterological center (p < 0.05) compared to study 2 (P= 0.017) even after one year follow-up. The researchers concluded that gut-directed hypnotherapy is effective for treatment of refractory IBS but efficacy is dependent on whether therapy is carried out in a highly specialized health institution (Lindfors et al., 2012). Thus, hypnosis can be used to manage IBS and better when such patients are under specialized or skilled hypnotherapists. Given that discomfort or pain is the main cause of distress, leading to anxiety and depression, psychological intervention is viable for IBS symptoms.
IBS is a functional disorder that affects the gastrointestinal tract. It causes abnormal functioning of the gut leading to persistent abdominal pain and distress, bloating, alteration of bowel working leading to constipation or diarrhea or both. Patients may also experience non-colonic symptoms including nausea, backache, lethargy and bladder symptoms. It is a common disorder that has a worldwide prevalence ranging from ten to fifteen percent of the population. Majority of the victim are female who constitute 70 percent of people diagnosed with the disease. Currently, diagnosis of IBS is based on the symptoms as described in the Rome III criteria as “Abdominal pain or abdominal discomfort at least 3 days a month in the last 3 months, where at least 2 of the following were also true: The pain/discomfort was relieved by defecation and/or the start of the pain/discomfort was associated with altered stool frequency and/or the start of the pain/discomfort was associated with altered stool form (appearance)” (Freeman, 2010). The disease greatly lowers the quality of life of the patient. IBS patients have been treated with pharmacological drugs that are specific to bowel symptoms and gender. The drugs include antidepressants, laxatives, antispasmodics, and bulking agents. Also dietary changes are used, for example, fiber-rich diet for constipating patients. Nonetheless, both pharmacological and usual relieve methods such as colon cleansing, are not good enough for alleviating the IBS symptoms (Freeman, 2010).
Asthma is among disorders that are refractive to pharmacological treatment, and whose symptoms have high psychological association. Zobeiri et al. (2009) in a study called “Self-hypnosis in attenuation of asthma symptoms severity”, the researchers tested efficacy of self-hypnosis in treatment of asthma or improvement in lung function. Asthmatic patients (n=40) were randomly selected and diagnosed using spirometric findings. The patients had mild to moderately severe asthma and had been on agonist and corticosteroids dugs for the last one month. The patients were randomly divided into two equal groups, where one was self-hypnotized and the other acted as control group. Relaxation through use of imagery was taught to the patients as well as relieving of dyspnoea through imagery. The control group did not use hypnotherapy and used only pharmaceutical drugs. Severity was measured using Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Forced Expiratory Volume for one second (FEY1) using spirometry at the beginning and the end of one month and symptoms. Loss of breath (dyspnoea) was measured using Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale (MRC scale) ranging from 0-4, at three intervals for ten days. Median changes in FVC, FEV1% and FEV1 were assessed for the two groups by comparing the variance using Kruskal-Wallis test. Lessening of dyspnoea symptoms and reduction in suffering was detrmined using logistic regression. The results of the 29 patients who completed the randomized trial indicated that median change in loss of breath (dyspnoea) was higher in the group that used self-hypnosis than for the control group (p=0.004). The results indicated no significant changes in FEY, FVC and FEV% in each group and between them. The researchers concluded that self-hypnosis improves symptoms but does not appear to alter lung function in asthmatic patients for short durations (Zobeiri et al., 2009).
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory illness that affects of respiratory system due to various factors including allergens, environmental, genetic, infectious and psychological aspects. Psychological stressors are effective in triggering asthmatic symptoms. There have also been clinical studies associating stress with asthma. Initially, asthma had been thought to be caused by psychological factors only. Pharmaceutical drugs have been used to treat but long term use of the drugs has side effects and psychogenic causes of asthma can exacerbate the disease (Zobeiri et al., 2009). Thus, alternative complementary remedies are sought after. Hypnosis has been used to manage asthma but efficacy of hypnotherapy has been contested. In some patients, asthma can be triggered by a mere look at photo of an allergen. Strong emotions are also recognized to precipitate asthma in some people. It is therefore logical to conclude that psychological stress and suggestions stimulate asthma. Therefore, due to the ability of hypnosis to induce relaxation and think on suggestions, it can be a suitable remedy for asthma. Due to limited clinical trials, there is no adequate evidence to support use of hypnosis to support the observed benefits and generalize to the public.
Asthma involves obstruction of the airway and bronchitis mainly caused by reactivity of the smooth muscle. Studies on pathophysiology of inflammation in asthma have found a number of cells involved including mast cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and epithelial cells. Thus, therapies are intended to reduce inflammation. There are various inflammatory mediators; lipids secretion in the mucus, secretion of chemokines and cytokines along the airway cause chronic inflammation. Emotions can precipitate asthma reaction, and studies have confirmed anxiety and depression to be prevalent among asthmatic patients (Kumari & Rana, 2012). Thus psychological approaches can involve alterations of the emotions that cause pathogenesis of the symptoms. Also, research can be done on how the biochemical released can be inhibited using psychological methods such as hypnosis.
Migraine is another disease caused by psychological stressors and, therefore, behavioral therapy can be exploited through hypnosis. In a 1975 research entitled “Migraine and hypnotherapy”, Anderson, Basker, and Dalton carried out a controlled study among 47 migraine patients, aged 14 years and above in order to compare the results of pharmacological treatment (n= 24) and hypnotherapy (n= 23). The participants had at least a year of migraine distress. Medication included prochlorperazine and ergotamine. The 23 were subjected to six sessions of hypnotic therapy by skilled hypnotherapists using the 1971 Hartland’s model after 10 to 14 days. The patients were hypnotized to alleviate anxiety, tension and apprehension. A suggestive therapy was induced whereby they were required to visualize head and neck arteries that were pulsating and swollen contracting and easing the discomfort. The patients were trained on self-hypnosis to reduce migraines and instructed to practice hypnosis daily. Outcomes were measured based on the number of people and frequency of migraine attacks and the severity of the migraines. The patients were assessed for a year (Anderson, 1975).
The hypnosis group had a lower frequency of migraines and blinding attacks per month compared to the group under medication with p < 0.0005 and p < 0.005 respectively. The hypnosis group had a monthly average of 0.5 migraines while the group under medicines had 2.9. Pharmaceutical treatment lowered the recurrence of grade 4, severe migraines more significantly compared to hypnosis. In the last three months of the tear, 10 patients, constituting 43.5% of the patients under hypnosis experienced a reduction in recurrence of migraines compared to only 3 patients after one year follow up. A difference of p< 0.39 was observed significant to conclude that hypnosis had higher efficacy in reducing migraine attacks compared to pharmaceutical treatments (Anderson, 1975).
The name migraine originates from the Greek word ‘hermikrania’ meaning ‘half the head’. It is a symptomatology characterized by sporadic headaches causing unilateral, pulsating moderate pain or severe. It has symptoms of nausea, irritability, constipation or diarrhea, photophobia and vomiting. Chronic migraines have been associated with psychological conditions such as depressive personality, environmental stress, compulsiveness, hostility, feelings of vulnerability and inadequacy. Interactions between physiological and psychological factors occur when psychosomatic factors trigger neurological, biochemical and vascular responses. Factors such as depression and anxiety can trigger serotonin imbalance. Body organs are stimulated by the brain following information gathered from external environment. Stimulation of organs occurs in a negative feedback loop regulated from the brain. A falter causes disorganization leading to psycho-physiological imbalance (Rothrock, 2008). Hypnotherapy can be exploited through various routes of interaction that cause migraine. Self-hypnosis can be used to self-manage stress and anxiety. Also, depression can be alleviated by relaxation techniques of hypnosis that would change secretion of serotonin. Physiological factors can be controlled through hypnotic relaxation. Vasoconstriction and vasodilatation can be controlled through hypnotizing.
Studies show that hypnotherapy is an efficient means of controlling pain in women undergoing breast cancer surgery. In 2007, Montgomery et al. undertook a study called “A randomized clinical trial of a brief hypnosis intervention to control side effects in breast surgery patients”. 200 patients were randomly selected averaging at 48.5 years of age and who were waiting to go through a lumpectomy or excisional biopsy. The patients were divided into two groups. One group underwent through a hypnosis session of 15 minutes guided by a trained psychologist while the other group received only a compassionate listening session for control of attention. The participants were not blinded. Use of analgesics was assessed together with recording of side effects and self-reports of pain using a visual analog scale (Montgomery et al., 2007).
The results indicated that the pre-hypnotized patients required lesser analgesic than those in the control group ( propofol, mean of 64.01 mg Vs 96.64 mg, confidence interval (CI) = 3.95 to 10.68 and lidocaine 24.23ml Vs 31.09ml). Comparative analysis of the outcomes of the two groups using self-reports was analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The six outcomes were recorded from a visual analysis scale (VAS) that ranged from 1 to 100. The following were the means and mean differences for each outcome measured between hypnosis and the control groups.
|VAS Measure||Means Hypnosis||Mean
|Mean Difference||95 % Confidence Interval|
Figure 1. Table of Summary of MANOVA results of VAS outcomes from Montgomery et al., 2007
The results indicate that the hypnosis groups experienced less severity of each symptom than the control group. There was no significant difference in the use of midazolam, fentanyl, and recovery room analgesics. The results indicated that patients in the hypnosis group required less propofol and lidocaine, reported less pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, nausea, fatigue, discomfort, and emotional upset (Montgomery et al., 2007).
Surgical procedures cause physical and psychological stress leading to somatic discomfort and feelings of anxiety before, after and in the course of surgery. Hypnosis can supplement psychological interventions in order to alleviate anxiety and as an appendage to analgesics. It can help the patients to cope with pain experienced during surgery. Thus, it can be used for palliative care in cancer patients, and also to relieve the symptoms associated with surgical invasions. In addition, self-hypnosis can be trained to cancer patients for clinical management of the various symptoms of cancer. Relieving pain experienced during surgery is vital in improving the quality of life of cancer patients. Therefore, hypnosis can act as a suitable non-pharmacological intervention.
In conclusion, the role of hypnotherapy in treating various illnesses is being discovered by modern researchers. One of the roles includes improving skin conditions by hypnosis due to the ability to reduce stress (Shenefelt, 2000). Another role is in digestion system where pains of IBS, peptic ulcers can be relieved through hypnosis. Patients are able to control pain as well as control bowel functioning. Asthma, a common inflammatory disease involving psycho-physiological interactions can also be treated by altering emotions. It is also a novel tool for stress management that would prevent extents of depression. Prevention of diseases is vital for public health and hypnosis offers remedy for controlling addictions such as smoking. Although there lacks enough information on hypnosis, application of hypnosis started long time ago. It is therefore important that as researchers look into ways of exploiting hypnosis for therapeutic use, parallel studies on its occurrence in the body and brain should be investigated. The phenomenon of creating a single state of mind needs to be understood and how psychological and social factors such as imagination and potent responses to suggestion. The role-playing effect during hypnotic induction indicates a social process and learning.
Hypnotherapy has been found to work for a number of diseases and disorders especially by lessening symptoms and alleviating pain. The Joint commission requires hospitals to assess pain experienced by patients. Ensuring that patients experience minimum pain as possible has been the clinical practice. Coping with pain has been a notable benefit of hypnotherapy. Thus, hypnosis introduces a solution to the various painful ailments and an aid to clinicians. A limitation in its use is due to hypnosis being not possible all people. Psychotic patients are among the contraindication group. Also, the ability to hypnotize is limited to some specialized psychologists and traditional specialists. Thus, it means that health care workers will require training and understanding of the process for them to apply the method. Nurses are involved in care giving and thus there is need for increased training of medical hypnosis. Training is necessary because appropriate suggestions need to be given for the subject to imagine and form imagery that causes hypnosis. Reduction of chronic pain can conceal a serious ailment when people use hypnosis as an exercise or routine relaxation. Besides, false memories can be generated during hypnosis that needs to be erased from the mind.
Anderson, J. A. D., Basker, M. A., & Dalton, R. (1975). Migraine and hypnotherapy. International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis, 23, 48–58.
Covino, N. A., & Bottari, M. (2001). Hypnosis, behavioral theory, and smoking cessation. Journal of dental education, 65(4), 340-347.
Elkins, G. R., Barabasz, A. F., Council, J. R., & Spiegel, D. (2015). Advancing research and practice: The revised APA Division 30 definition of hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 57(4), 378-385.
Fisher, E. B., Fitzgibbon, M. L., Glasgow, R. E., Haire-Joshu, D., Hayman, L. L., Kaplan, R. M., & Ockene, J. K. (2011). Behavior matters. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 40(5), e15-e30.
Freeman, K. (2010). Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Retrieved April 21, 2016, from http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/gastroenterology/irritable-bowel-syndrome/
Hofbauer, R. K., Rainville, P., Duncan, G. H., & Bushnell, M. C. (2001). Cortical representation of the sensory dimension of pain. Journal of Neurophysiology, 86 (1), 402-411.
Kumari, K., & Rana, A. C. (2012). A review on epidemology, pathopysiology and management of asthma. J. Appl. Pharm. Sci, 2, 55-64.
Lindfors, P., Unge, P., Arvidsson, P., Nyhlin, H., Björnsson, E., Abrahamsson, H., & Simrén, M. (2012). Effects of gut-directed hypnotherapy on IBS in different clinical settings-results from two randomized, controlled trials. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 107(2), 276-285. doi:10.1038/ajg.2011.340
Milling, L. S. (2014). Hypnosis in the treatment of headache pain: A methodological review. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 1(4), 431.
Systems Level Exercise
The paper focuses on how the current school systems delivery models of counselling are moving from an individual to a program, policy and planning focus. It will analyze the data collection methods to be used in collecting information about the indispline cases in the school. Additionally, the composition of the team to initiate change in the school will be discussed. The resources needed to solve the short-term and long-term needs will be identified and appropriate policies evaluated. Finally, the paper will discuss how the programs will be implemented and the likely challenges during implementation.
Delivery models of counseling are moving from individuals to a policy, program, and planning processes. The policies aim at providing guidance on how to achieve the set objectives of the model. They help in linking the organization’s vision with the operations that it intends to carry out. Additionally, the policies assist the decision makers when formulating strategies, which help in the handling of the issues as they arise. Formulation of policies can only be realized by providing the policy implementers with limits, and the choices that are available to guide them in the decision-making and overcome the existing problems. Programs initiated are supposed to stipulate how the arising problem would be solved, and the different stakeholders that are to be involved in the policy formulation and implementation. Furthermore, help identify the responsibilities that each stakeholder should shoulder, and how they should go about their duties easily and quickly. Written policies help organizations when challenged in court by the outsiders. Written programs are essential in organizations because they reveal the amount of money available for projects, stakeholders expected to be involved, and the procedure to be followed by the policy formulation and implementation. Additionally, the policy formulators take into account challenges that may be encountered during policy development or in the rest of process.
The school can opt to collect data on its own or seek assistance from an external consultant. Data collection will ensure that it has enough information to make a well-versed decision on how to proceed. Data should be collected using appropriate data collection techniques that ensure that unnecessary information is not collected. Additionally, data gathered should be protected to ensure reliability and credibility. Six steps will be followed by the team during data collection, and they would include; issue identification, issue selection, planning an approach and methods, data collection, analyzing and interpreting the data, and acting on the results (Gill et al., 2008 p.292). It is vital to conduct an internal and external assessment to understand what is happening inside and outside the school. The school might offer directions on what issues should be explored in addition to how data should be collected. This step may involve exploring the cultures of the schools, their history, how decisions are made, mandates, goals, and core values, systems of discipline, and the recruitment process of the peer counselors. In addition, the perception of the school by the communities will be considered. Additionally, selection of the issues from the list of priorities after the internal and external assessment will be undertaken. Goals should be set after the selection of the problem. The goal depends on a guess of what is happening in the schools that can be tested using data collection tools. This section can also entail brainstorming questions that are answerable.
When planning approaches and methods to be used, the team will make decisions about people to be surveyed, the sources of data, the procedure of data collection, and duration of data collection among others. Consultation with the experts will be relevant at this stage in which case, the size, resources, complexity, and purpose of the problem selected will be considered. Focused group discussions will be held with the students in the peer counseling club, students who have ever been suspended from school, and the student leaders. Additionally, teachers in the peer counseling department, the head of school, and parents of suspended students will be involved in the discussion to help get more information about the cause of indiscipline cases. They will also be interviewed independently. Additionally, the opinion of the other boards of directors, parents union, and management committees should be put into consideration during the entire exercise (Gill et al., 291). Data collected should be interpreted and analyzed. In this case, the school will determine whether it can analyze and interpret data or seek the assistance of an expert. Findings will help the school decide whether to act on the data or collect more of the same data.
Data collected showed that there are many cases of indiscipline in the school that ranges from abuse of drugs, violent strikes, increased incidents of bullying, and damage of the school’s facilities by students among others. Data collected revealed that despite the efforts taken by the peer counseling teachers, student leaders, parents, and the community leaders to counsel students, these acts still exist. Additionally, the research indicated that students conduct these acts because of lack of involvement in decision making by the school. Furthermore, they perform these acts because of the institutional challenges they face in the school, for instance, lack of water, poor hygiene, and lack of certain equipment and structures. School’s structure also contributes to the high in discipline cases, since they have to follow certain channels before reaching the senior administrators of the school. Core values, vision, and mission of the school do not play a vital role in shaping the discipline of the students. It is thus important to formulate policies, which will help reduce the increasing indiscipline cases in the school. The school has to establish policies and structures, which ensure that the students have a conducive environment for learning.
A meeting will be held by the student leaders, teachers in the counseling department, school head, community leaders, a consultant, and five parents of the suspended students. They will brain storm and develop plans to resolve the indiscipline issue in the school. This committee will also come up with appropriate policies to address the issue. The student leaders will present the grievances of the students and what the students would want done to minimize the indiscipline cases. The parents will be allowed to air their opinion on the possible causes of the indiscipline cases in the school and the possible programs they think should be initiated to reduce these cases. Additionally, the community leaders and the school head will inform the government about the intended programs and what assistance they would want. Furthermore, they will seek the support of external donors to help in the establishment of certain structures in the schools and purchase the required facilities. The consultant will advise the teachers, parents, and the community leaders on the possible challenges that may arise when implementing the program and the estimated cost to be incurred during implementation of the particular programs. Furthermore, the consultant will give them advice on the legal procedure that should be followed before implementation of the given policies. Each member of the committee will be given a certain period to seek the opinion of the members they represent concerning the issue. After the consultation, they will hold a meeting and present feedback on the issue, including proposed programs.
The issues of ineffective governance, particularly by school head and teachers have been described as primary causes of the indiscipline cases in the school. One of the main reasons for the ineffectiveness of governance is the lack of coordination and trust among the teachers in the counseling department and the students (Halász and Michel, 2011 p.302). In addition, lack of cooperation between the counseling department and the student welfare department has also played a key role in the increasing indiscipline cases. It is thus important to establish committees, which will monitor the coordination of the school administrators and the students. Officials of the departments, which do not coordinate, will be demoted.
Participatory decision-making needs to be adopted. All the stakeholders including the students should be involved in making decisions. The opinion of each stakeholder should be considered before policy formulation and implementation (Halász and Michel, 2011 p.300). The students, being the primary stakeholders, will be allowed to present the issues that they would want to be addressed by the government or the school. Student representatives would be elected to represent the students at the meetings and present grievances on behalf of the students. Additionally, the school should seek financial support from the government and donors. Finances obtained will help solve the institutional challenges, which are prevalent in the school. These problems include lack of water, essential facilities such as brooms, stationeries, sanitation, and enough teachers among others. More teachers will be employed, tanks and stationeries will be purchased, and the sanitation in the school improved. The school’s motto, vision, and core values should be evaluated and focus more on the conduct by the students. They should portray the positive values that each student is expected to adopt. Through adoption of the positive values, the students acquire discipline and can express and present their grievances in the right way.
The action plan will help the counseling department teachers, peer-counseling students, and the parents turn their visions into reality, and increase the efficiency and accountability of the school. The action plan will entail the actions and changes that will occur, who will carry out the changes, resources needed to steer the changes. In addition, it will show how communication will be done in all the phases of implementing the changes (Quintero Corzo and Ramírez, 2011 p. 61). Student leaders, head of school, teachers in the counseling department, parents of the suspended students, government, donors, and the community leaders will be involved in finding the solution for indiscipline cases in the school. Influential people in the society like the priests may also participate in the action plan. The planning group will include the teachers in counseling department, student leaders, community leaders, and priests who will be required to design the action plan. The group will discuss the strategies to reduce indiscipline in the school. Additionally, the target groups in this program will be the students, teachers, and head of school. The proposed solutions to each problem that cause students to indulge in indiscipline cases will be discussed.
The plan is to be carried out by the set committee. The coalition will work towards finding the funds to buy the required stationeries and facilities in the school. The committee will try to have the school motto evaluated within four weeks, and seek the financial support of the government and donors within eight weeks. Full implementation of the policies will be achieved within ten months. The committee will approach the donors and the government to request funding to purchase certain facilities. Additionally, expert labor will be required in the formulation of the new school motto. The other school board of directors should be availed with information about this planned change.
The students, teachers, head of school, and the other board of trustees will be notified of the policies to be implemented. The policies need to be clear and easy to interpret if they are to be applied effectively. Directions on how the policies are to be applied in the school should be elaborated. After the school stakeholders are notified of the intended plan, it will be implemented. Financial support from the government will be needed for the program to be implemented. The funds will be used after that to purchase stationeries and other facilities that are a requirement in the school.
Formative evaluation will help in analyzing how the policies are implemented with the aim of enhancing discipline among students. Summative evaluation will be conducted after the policies have been fully implemented to look at whether the programs met their objectives and why or why not (Tian and Shen, 2011 p.15). Evaluation is necessary to determine whether the policies are controversial or not. Evaluation will reveal whether the number of indiscipline cases has reduced in the school and how the students have benefited from the policies. Students are also asked whether they like the programs implemented and how they can be improved.
It is evident that the process of plan formulation and implementation requires the support of different stakeholders. Policy formulation requires proposed action about how the particular issue will be handled. Resources to be used in the planned action should be considered and discussions held by the change makers. Appropriate techniques and methods should be used to ensure that only relevant information is collected. All stakeholders are informed about the set policies before they are implemented. After the implementation, the system implemented should be evaluated to determine whether it has solved the problems that occurred during policy implementation period. Policy analysis helps the decision makers in making the best choices and ensuring the outcome among alternatives.
Gill, P., Stewart, K., Treasure, E. and Chadwick, B., 2008. Methods of data collection in qualitative research: interviews and focus groups. British dental journal, 204(6), pp.291-295.
Halász, G. and Michel, A., 2011. Key Competences in Europe: interpretation, policy formulation and implementation. European Journal of Education, 46(3), pp.289-306.
Quintero Corzo, J. and Ramírez Contreras, O., 2011. Understanding and facing discipline-related challenges in the English as a foreign language classroom at public schools. Profile Issues in TeachersProfessional Development, 13(2), pp.59-72.
Tian, L. and Shen, T., 2011. Evaluation of plan implementation in the transitional China: A case of Guangzhou city master plan. Cities, 28(1), pp.11-27.
Borderline Personality Disorder
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) denotes a psychological problem that may occur in adolescents or young adults. Borderline personality disorder affects about six percent of the entire population each year (Choi-Kain, Albert, & Gunderson, 2016). The American Psychiatric Association attributes the cause of the disorder to three major factors, which include environmental, serotonin, and hereditary abnormalities. Research on the relationship between twins and borderline personality disorder implies that there is an excellent probability that it is genetic. Personality attributes, for instance, impulsivity and hostility, witnessed in the disorder amid other problems might as well be genetic. Moreover, being raised in an unstable or negligent setting might lead to or be an aspect in the development of the disorder. Irregularities in serotonin, a mood regulating hormone, generation might make a person vulnerable to the development of borderline personality disorder. BPD is depicted by incidences of mental unsteadiness, impulsive conduct, fuzzy self-imaging, and unsound associations.
Diagnosis and Characteristics
Borderline personality disorder was first diagnosed in 1980. From that time, the disorder group has been employed so broadly that 10% to 20% of patients with psychiatric problems are provided with the diagnosis though it is approximated to occur in 6% of the population. Approximately 60% of the patients with the disorder are females (Biskin & Paris, 2012). A mixed group of people that obtain the diagnosis are found to share some traits such as unstable personal connections, risks of self-destructive conduct, impulsivity, a chronic scope of cognitive distortions, and dread of desertion. Strong clinging dependence, as well as manipulation, typifies the interpersonal dealings of the people with the disorder, which makes interrelations extremely hard. Such individuals appear to desire dependent and select affiliations with others.
The inclination for dependence is evident to individuals who perceive but are intensely denied by the person with BPD. As an element of the intense denial, such people undervalue or dishonor the importance and personal worth of others (Choi-Kain et al., 2016). This could at times take the nature of excessive anger when the other individual, interacting with the person who has borderline personality disorder, sets restrictions on the association or the moment they are just about to part. The people with the disorder employ manipulative conducts to sway the interrelations, for example, complaining regarding physical indications and making or issuing suicidal threats.
Effects of the Disorder
BPD represents a psychological problem that has the impact of developing considerable mental unsteadiness. This may result in a range of other stressful emotional and behavioral disorders. Having the disorder makes it likely to have a significantly faulty, unclear self-image and sentiments or worthlessness. Impulsivity, fury, and mood instabilities may push other people away, despite their desire for a long and friendly relationship (Biskin, 2013). BPD may influence the manner in which the individual feels about himself/herself and others over and above the way they interact with other people and their conduct. Nevertheless, if an individual is diagnosed with the disorder, he/she is not supposed to feel hopeless since there is a possibility of getting better after treatment and the person can lead a fulfilling life.
Self-destructive conducts are evident in people with borderline personality disorder and are often referred to as “the behavior specialty.” Drug overdose, self-mutilation, and suicidal ideations are frequent in people with BPD. Research has established that in a period of close to 30 years, about 10% of individuals with the disorder commit suicide and approximately 8% die in other ways (Choi-Kain et al., 2016). Currently, bulimia has turned out to be a widespread suicidal approach. Such conducts demand a saving reaction from other individuals. People with the disorder have also been established to pose a burden on law enforcement officers and health professionals. The self-destructive actions mainly witnessed in such patients are an unintentional overdose, substance abuse, promiscuity, suicidal ideations, and self-mutilation. They may as well suffer chronic sentiment of worthlessness. Other indications of the disorder include impulsive/risky conduct, unprotected sex, careless driving, gambling tendencies, and use of illicit drugs.
Self-destruction amid people with borderline personality disorder acts as an attribute which results in great discomfort in individuals who attempt to assist them. Therapists’ endeavors of helping such an endangered life are at times supported, only for the person with the disorder to dash the attempts with vicious actions of self-destruction. Sometimes therapists face excessive sentiments of responsibility for patients with the disorder (Biskin & Paris, 2012). Their efforts of offering support when the person attempts self-destruction might result in accountability for the life of the patient and contributions outside remedial sessions. Except when the controlling form of the reaction by the patient is disrupted in treatment provision, the circumstance might turn out to be impracticable. There is a need to make the patient aware that therapy cannot be changed by suicidal ideations and that he/she has to make efforts to comprehend the self-destruction urges. When the attempts fail, the threats of suicide recur, and the danger to the patient augments with the failure of therapy to respond at an opportune time.
Patients with borderline personality disorder have a powerful urge for interactions, and this makes them develop a chronic and long-term dread that the individuals to whom they are reliant will leave them. Such emotions are associated with their feelings of excessive terror the moment they are alone (Biskin, 2013). Patients with BPD tend to be obsessively social as a resistance approach against fear. Regardless of their inclination to social interrelations, most of their conducts drive others away, for example, their great resentment and demands, shiftiness, and impulsiveness to mention a few. People with BPD tend to address their stress through sexual promiscuity, involvement in aggression, and binge eating and chucking. Such patients express instability with rapid shifts to dejection and restlessness, which might last for just a short time. They may also demonstrate disturbance in their perceptions of individuality as they are dubious of their self-image, gender distinctiveness, ideals, objectives, and devotion. Sometimes BPD patients might have lasting sentiments of worthlessness or boredom and might be incapable of putting up with being away from other people.
Borderline personality disorder originally represented a marginal kind of schizophrenia. Studies affirm that people with the disorder account for the limit that borders mood and personality disorders. In most instances, BPD patients are found to have a family background of schizophrenia and mood disorders. Nevertheless, schizophrenic symptoms vary considerably from attributes of borderline personality disorders (Choi-Kain et al., 2016). Whereas the schizophrenic group comprises of symptoms such as superstition and illusions of possession of magical powers, the BPD class shows psychological signs that encompass emptiness, violence, and mental unsteadiness. Moreover, while schizophrenic patients prefer social seclusion, the ones with borderline personality disorder do not like being secluded. The value of diagnosis with borderline personality disorder in children is uncertain though severely disturbed kids usually satisfy its criteria. A high level of commonality has been found in people diagnosed with BPD, behavioral disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other personality disorders. BPD in children has been established to be heavily delinquent, unreceptive, assaultive, demanding, and petulant with the most discriminating aspect being incidents of psychotic thinking.
Biologically oriented medical professionals use a range of medications in treating people with borderline personality disorder. They encompass antidepressants, antianxiety drugs, and mood regulating medicines. Nonetheless, it has been found that medicine alone is faintly successful with patients seeking to improve from severely to a slightly impaired condition. Improvement after the application of medicine might occur in the nature of a decrease in unsteady moods and impulsive conduct. Combining numerous remedial practices might prove to be successful (Biskin & Paris, 2012). Having medication in conjunction with psychotherapy and the support of family members may be helpful in tackling the multiple problems of a person with borderline personality disorder.
BPD affects approximately 6% of the global population. The cause of the disorder has been attributed to three main factors, which encompass serotonin, environmental, and heritable abnormalities. Approximately sixty percent of the people with BPD are females. Rage and mood instabilities in people with the disorder push other people away, regardless of such patients’ desire for a long and sociable relationship. Self-destructive conducts, impulsivity, self-mutilation, emotional unsteadiness, drug overdose, and suicidal ideations are apparent in people with borderline personality disorder. Health professionals use a range of medications such as antidepressants, antianxiety drugs, and mood regulating medicines to treat borderline personality disorder. Combining several remedial practices such as medication, psychotherapy, and family backing have been found to be valuable in tackling the various problems in patients with borderline personality disorder.
Biskin, R. S. (2013). Treatment of borderline personality disorder in youth. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 22(3), 230. Retrieved from http://www.cacap-acpea.org/uploads/documents/Treatment_of_BPD_Biskin.pdf
Biskin, R. S., & Paris, J. (2012). Evaluating treatments of borderline personality disorder. Clinical Practice, 9(4), 425-437. Retrieved from http://www.openaccessjournals.com/articles/evaluating-treatments-of-borderline-personality-disorder.pdf
Choi-Kain, L. W., Albert, E. B., & Gunderson, J. G. (2016). Evidence-based treatments for borderline personality disorder: Implementation, integration, and stepped care. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 24(5), 342-356. Retrieved from http://www.sebastienbouchard.ca/pdf/Evidence_Based_Treatments_for_Borderline%20(APA,%202016).pdf