Teaching Science to the Mancu Emperor
This article was written by Eva march Tappan in 1914. It was written in Japan. This is an internet source type of document and it forms part of the Internet Modern History Sourcebook. The intended audience of this document is emperors of various cultures in China.
The main points of this document include making a great glass of high diameter where the emperor and his queens would visit to observe everything that took place on the street. He was very much pleased with the sight, but the princesses were not pleased because according to Chinese customs, they were not expected to move out of the palace. Secondly, the emperor was given different types of telescopes. Additionally, he was given glasses that would enable him to magnify, diminish, and multiply. There are also other things that the emperor was given for instance, Pere Brugilo gave the emperor three drafts and they served as places for keeping rules. Three similar copies were shown in Jesuits Garden at parking. The mandarins from all parts of the city visited the Jesuits’ garden at Peking .
This document was majorly written to show the skills that some Individuals had and how they utilized them to make various things that pleased both emperors and other people in China. For instance, they made things that were appreciated by both nationals and foreigners. It was also written to show the beliefs of the emperors. For instance, any time a phenomena like rainbows was seen in heavens, emperors would instantly call on missionaries to come and explain the source of their causes. They entailed several books with respective natural appearances, and this would help in providing proper explanations that show effects of nature in heavens.
The article also intended to show how the emperor was not performing as expected. For instance, the defective organ that was presented to the emperor can be analyzed it terms of the emperors failure to perform his responsibilities. Christians and missionaries wanted to convert individuals in both China and Japan. The prince was very much pleased with issues being raised and he was willing to discuss such issues with other people.
This article reveals that during this period, Père du Halde majorly focused on preparing things that would impress the emperor and other people. Additionally, other things that were made aimed at attracting people in the city. The article also shows that this type of society was under the leadership of emperors and princesses. The emperor had various responsibilities and was highly adored in this community. This is evident from various things that were made for the emperor. Additionally, this community has individuals who can come with varied inventions that can be very much appealing to people of this society. The society also came up with inventions that would enable them determine the weather conditions of their community. For instance, they invented a thermometer that would enable them to show variation in the degree of cold and heat. They also invented a hygrometer that would enable them to find out the degree of dryness and moisture.
In conclusion, this document provides a synopsis of what used to take place in the Chinese societies during the period. They performed various activities that seemed significant to the emperors and the rest of the community.
Underside of New York
On the surface, New York is America’s most exciting and populous city; a hub for all forms of businesses, cultural artifacts, fashion, distinct personalities and modern infrastructural facilities among other exemplary features. More than 18 million people reside in this metropolitan, where they live, work and raise their families in the city’s boroughs. The fact that the status of New York City in 1970s is significantly different from the metropolis known today does not imply that the previous social evils do not exist. On the underside of the evidently exciting city, an intricate syndicate of drug trafficking, high crime and poverty presents a contrary picture. The paper explores and explains the underside of New York in terms of crime, drug use and poverty.
Crime rate is relatively high in New York compared to other towns in the US except a few, such as Jersey City.
Table 1: Crime Rate in New York Compared To Other Cities
|City||Crime Rate (per 100,000 population)|
|West New York:||192.2|
Adapted from City-Data.com
One of the reasons associated with the increased crime rate in New York City is due to the fact that crime commenced early considering that most of the original mob families controlled their businesses largely from New York. Crime is described as any form of behavior that is not legal. The primary causes of rampant criminal activities in the City include racial discrimination, poverty and social unfairness. Violent and property crimes are the most common forms in New York. Violent crimes are the worst forms of crimes that can be committed and they include robbery, rape, homicide and aggravated assault. According to the 2012 statistics by City-data.com, (Figure 1) the level of crime by type includes auto thefts (4%), thefts (59%), robberies (10%) other (1%), burglaries (10%) and assaults (16%).
Figure 1: Crimes per Type In 2012
Adapted from http://www.city-data.com/crime/crime-New-York-New-York.html
The level of crime in New York City has been on the decline since 1990. According to Oppel, R., (2011), the number of homicides reported in 2013 was 333, the lowest number since 1963 when the reliable statistics on crime were ever recorded. The infestation of New York with drugs, such as crack cocaine and heroin increases the crime rate. For instance, the high rate of crime in the 1980s and 1990s is related to the increased use of crack in the city (Johnson, B.D., Golub, A. & Dunlap, E., 2006). Gotham experienced unprecedented fiscal crisis in 1975 as well as significant chaos after a 25-hour long power blackout. Although on the decline, murders are a rampant form of crime in the City’s underside. Its history is characterized by high profile murders. For instance, the murder of Helen Jewett, a New York City prostitute in the 1830s as well as that of Son of Sam killings committed by an American serial killer targeting Blacks generated high media coverage (Cohen, P.C., 1993 and Fox, J. & Levin, J., 1998). Fraud is also another rampant form of crime in Gotham. The most prominent form of fraud is the 2007-2010 Wall Street mortgage crisis that cost the taxpayers billions of financial resources during the bailout (Kuttner, R., 2010). The fraud case made the Wall Street in New York City to be identified as one of the most dangerous neighborhoods; it almost destabilized the global financial systems. Gang violence is still a prominent crime phenomenon. The most notorious mobsters of the 20th century based in New York City include Lucky Luciano, Arnold Rothstein and Meyer Lansky (Sterbenz, C., 2013).
Reasons for the Decline in Crime Rates in New York City
Although there is no specific factor that can be used to explain the decline of crime rates, there are various factors that appear to be correlated with crime reductions over the past decade (Kelling, G.L., 2000). Such factors include committed city political administration and renewed judicial service that is fully committed towards elimination of crime, improved economic conditions that increases job opportunities and higher investing in security organs, changes in the social conditions whereby many residents embraced law and order, reduction in racial profiling and decline in corruption among the law enforcers. The adoption of Compstat, broken widows policing that was applied by the New York City police department (NYPD) in the 1990s has also served a milestone in the reduction of crime in the city. The decline was achieved despite the fact that political scientists, criminologists and sociologists had predicted that the rates would increase due to the changes in the demographic trends that added more young people in the population.
Despite the fact that New York is one of the richest cities in the world, food poverty affects a high number of residents. For instance, an estimated 2.6 million residents in New York City experience a lot of difficulties in feeding themselves and their families (Oh, I., 2014). According to new report conducted by the Center for Economic Opportunity, 45.6% of New Yorkers barely afford the basic necessities (CEO Poverty Measure, 2014). The report also found out that the poverty rates in New York City increased to 20.9% in 2010 from 19.0% in 2008 although it has remained unchanged from 2011 onwards (21.4%). Poverty also affects the working population. The report found out that the poverty rate for adults that have attained the working age i.e. 18-64 years and working fulltime increased by 1.8%. Poor residents of the New York City, especially majority of the immigrant population face significant housing challenges i.e. live in tenement housing or ghettos. Majority of those highly affected by poverty are women, children, disabled people, working poor and seniors. Low to moderate income earners continue to experience financial pressures caused by low wages, health care issues and housing costs (DaCosta, N. R., & Sribnick, E.G., 2013). This, coupled with the increased food prices has compromised their ability to buy food.
Additionally, most poor New Yorkers live in low-income neighborhoods that have limited access to nutritious food. This makes it hard for them to maintain healthy lifestyles, leading to high concentration of diet-related conditions, such as hypertension and diabetes. According to CEO Poverty Measure (2014) report, poverty increase is more pronounced among Asians and non-citizens. For instance, in 2008, the poverty rate for Asians and Hispanics was almost equal i.e. 22.4% and 23.5% respectively. However, this rate changed by the end of 2012 whereby the poverty levels among Asians was found to be 3% higher than that of Hispanics.
Figure 2: CEO poverty Rates by Race/Ethnicity
According to Barr, R.G. (2001), poverty in New York City is characterized by living off less than $11,500 annually individually and $23 021 for a family. Bronx has the highest poverty rates with close to 30% of the residents living below the federal poverty rate (Figure 3).
Figure 3: Comparison of the Rates of Poverty in Various Counties within New York
Poverty always breeds crime; desperate residents would always resort to crime as a source of income especially when the factory wages do not suffice. Desperate youths roam the streets and eventually group to form terror gangs that wage suffering on the residents.
Illicit drug use leads to various health problems, such as unintentional death, sexually transmitted diseases, injuries, depression and hypertension. According to New York (2010) report on illicit drug use, drugs such as cocaine cause cardiovascular diseases. Drug use is a common phenomenon in the US and more prevalent in urban areas such as New York City. Although the city looks exciting on the surface, the underside is embroiled in drug trafficking, use and addiction. The rich market of more than 18 million potential clients has encouraged the drug dealers to penetrate through the formation of representative ethnic organizations that take advantage of their ethnic cronies to conceal their illegal deals. These organizations take advantage of the fact that New York has played homage to a high number of immigrants from all over the globe, making their detection difficult because traffickers from any ethnic background can easily blend in. According to Narconon International (2014), the abundance of regions rich in transportation and infrastructural facilities benefits the drug traffickers as they easily conceal their cargo. Furthermore, drug dealers are resorting into ingenious ways of concealing drug cargo such as use of sport equipments, toys, impregnating into plastic goods and encasing them in condoms among other methods. The possibility of transporting drugs in New York City is also enhanced due to the new direct flight from Nigeria to JFK International Airport (Zimring, F. E., 2012). The abundance of financial institutions in the US makes it possible for drug traffickers to transport these drugs out of the country easily. Some of the drugs that are readily abused in New York include marijuana, cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, club drugs e.g. Ecstasy (MDMA) and prescription drugs (Narconon International 2014). According to Celona, L. and Prendergast, D., (2014), heroin is abused at a higher level in upstate New York City compared to other drugs i.e. hospital admissions related to heroin abuse are higher compared to other drugs. This has led to the plunging in the price of the drug and soaring of its potency.
One of the evidences that the drug is still being abused in the city’s back alleys is the recent death of actor Philip Seymour as a result of an overdose. The new information released by Federal Drug Enforcement Administration shows Heroin use is increasing as dealers flood to satisfy the increased demand from their diversified clientele of New Yorkers (Celona, L. and Prendergast, D., 2014). The quantity of heroin nabbed by the DEA has increased to 144 kg in 2013 from 86kg in 2009. The increased supply of heroin in the market is blamed on the decreasing supply of prescription painkillers; the void that the heroin dealers exploit to reach out to those that cannot access painkillers. Its rampant use also results from its addictive nature. The Drug Enforcement Administration avers most heroin in the City originates from Mexico through the porous Mexican border. It is then smuggled into the country through any means possible such as prosthetic legs or guinea pigs. The current price of heroin is also lower compared to the price statistics of the earlier decade. Celona, L. and Prendergast, D., (2014) indicate that, one kilogram of the drug is currently sold between $50,000 and $60,000 while the same quantity could have been sold approximately $200,000 a decade ago. The quantity of drug impounded while trying to be smuggled at the border has also increased to 2 091 kilograms in 2012 from 558.8 kilograms in 2008.
Marijuana is the most popular drug among 18-25 year olds i.e. 30% (New York, 2010). It is also used by 12% of the New York residents annually. Cocaine is another rampantly abused drug in New York City just as in much of the US. Most of it is old in form of crack cocaine in the poor neighborhoods of the city (Feigelson, E. B., & Cadden, J. J.,1974). The widely used forms of Marijuana are Mexican marijuana that is smuggled in from the western border or potent hydroponic marijuana that is outsourced from Canada. Indoor marijuana, grown in gut houses is also commonly used in the city. The abuse of prescription drugs has rapidly increased especially in teens and young adults who assume that the legitimate manufactures have made them safe for abuse. Although its use has been growing in the last couple of years, the use methamphetamine poses a relatively lower challenge to the authorities in New York City compared to the rest of US. As long as drug addicts, demand and unscrupulous drug lords exist in the city, there will always be drug abuse. In addition to interdicting all drug shipments, the law enforcers should continue to ensure that addicts are well rehabilitated and effective drug education carried out to ensure that young people do not succumb to the temptation of drug abuse (Johnson, B.D., Golub, A. & Dunlap, E., 2006).
Other factors that characterize the underside of New York City include diseases and poor waste management (Lankevich, G.L., 1998). The massive overcrowding leads to wide spread of diseases, such as yellow fever and cholera; epidemics that sweep the slums on a regular basis. Although sewers are improving, the disposal of public waste is increasingly a challenge. Some residents use private sewer pools that may overflow during the rainy season. Old sewage pipes also empty waste water directly into rivers that are sometimes consumed by the city residents
Some of the features of the underside of New York City include crime, drug use, poverty, diseases and poor waste management. Although the situation has significantly improved compared to that of the 1970s, these societal evils are still existent only that the players have changed their tactics and made them suitable for concealing their illegalities from law enforcers. A wide range of measures have been applied in curbing these challenges, such as elimination of social conditions that promote them, improving the capability of the criminal justice system detect, apprehend, judge and rehabilitate criminals back to the community, creating more job opportunities for the jobless residents and improving sanitation among other factors.
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and homelessness in New York City.
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Ancient Indian Civilization and East Asian societies
The paper compares ancient Indian civilization (antiquity to 300 C. E.) with East Asia (Chinese) civilization (221 B.C.E-800 C. E) focusing on social organization. Since the two civilizations occurred within close proximity of each other geographically and historically (over 500 years of parallel existence), they are likely to have influenced each other directly or indirectly.
Ancient Indian and East Asian societies shared some general aspects of social organization but differed in specific areas. For instance, both societies consisted of four classes based on social roles. At the helm of the class system in ancient India were the Brahmins or the religious leaders. Brahmins were highly revered in the society because of their advisory role on matters of worship. The warrior, kshatriya, occupied the second class. Their role was to defend the society against invaders. The vaisya were the merchants who earned their living by selling goods and animals. The majority of the Indian population belonged to the sudra, a social class consisting of manual workers, such as artisans and peasants.
For the Chinese society of East Asia, the nobles or the elite led by the ruling family occupied the topmost class. Unlike the Brahmins who earned respect for their religious duties, the nobles of ancient China earned their status as political and intellectual leaders. Nevertheless, the citizens of ancient India and East Asia believed that the Brahmins and the nobles were god-sent. Just below the ruling class of the Chinese society were the peasants, who worked on the farms to provide food to the society. Unlike the sudras, the peasants of ancient East Asia received high regard for their role as food producers. For this reason, they were more important than the artisans and the merchants unlike in ancient India where they were inferior to the merchants and of equal social status with the artisans. The artisans belonged in the third class in ancient China while the merchants fell into the lowest class. While warriors enjoyed a high social status (second class) in the ancient Indian society, they did not receive meaningful respect in ancient china. It is worth recognizing that ancient Indians had a unique category of people, the untouchables or the outcasts. They led miserable lives in isolated quarters because they had no right to mingle freely with the rest of the society. The untouchables included prisoners, slaves, and criminals.
Both ancient Indian and Chinese societies recognized family as an essential social institution. For Indians, the extended family was the typical social unit with the oldest male as the head of the family. Although the concept of extended family existed in the Chinese society, most Chinese families were smaller and children were highly regarded because they provided labor for agricultural production. Ancient Indians maintained a strong connection with their departed ancestors through family rituals and ceremonies. The male head of the family conducted the ceremonial rituals to remember the dead. Similarly, the Chinese venerated their ancestors but the tradition was more common among the nobility who desired long life for the ruling dynasty. In terms of structure, the Chinese family was highly streamlined with clear rules to govern relationships among family members, unlike the Indian family that depended on the male head for direction. In the Chinese family, each member belonged to a specific place in a hierarchical organization. The son had to submit to the father, the wife to her husband, the brother to his older brother, and all were subordinate to the king. The Chinese also recognized friendships and friends were considered to belong to the same level in the hierarchy. While the Indian family primarily served as a unit of continuity and custody of the kin group or the clan, the family set up in China served as a socialization unit whose main purpose was to bring order in the society and instill loyalty to the ruling dynasty. In fact, kinship relations were considered a threat to patriotism. The Qin dynasty tried to introduce a new family system to destroy loyalty to the clan and assert stricter state control.
Both the Indian and Chinese societies were patriarchal, with the male exercising all authority and property ownership rights. In both societies, men went out to the fields to do agricultural work while women spent most of their lives at home raising children. Men in India took up all leadership positions even in the family setting where they led rituals in respect for the dead. In china, men became scholars, warriors, and powerful government officials while women lacked such opportunities. However, women in ancient India enjoyed some degree of liberty as symbols of fertility and sexual dominance although such freedom was limited in practice.
Judging from the similarities between ancient Indian (antiquity to 300 CE) and the East Asian (227 BC to 800 CE) societies, especially the concept of social class, family and gender relations, one might think that the two societies influenced each other directly. However, a closer examination reveals striking differences that suggest independent evolution. Nevertheless, the spread of Buddhism from India to China suggests that avenues of cultural exchange might have existed between the two societies even in prehistoric times.
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Challen, Paul. Life in Ancient China. New York: Crabtree Pub., 2005.
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 Tai Ng, Chinese Culture, Western Culture (Bloomington, Indiana: iUniverse, 2007) 130. .
 Duiker and Spielvogel, World History, 84.
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 Duiker and Spielvogel, World History, 48.
Advocates of change during the Interwar Period
The interwar period that lasted almost two decades marked a time during which the United States army was greatly underfunded. There was little political will to improve the operations of the army, as there seemed to be no need for that with no war in sight. The influential persons at that time were used to un-mechanized warfare where horses were used as a weapon to aid in increasing the mobility of the Calvary men. They could not fathom having their horses replaced by tanks and armored vehicles and stuck to the status quo. However, some persons saw a bright possibility of engaging in mechanized warfare in future. They included both civilians and military men that advocated for change in the way that the army operated in the US.
One of the proponents of mechanization was J.Walter Christie, a civilian inventor that believed in mechanized warfare as superior to the regular war approaches of the time. He in a great way contributed to a change in the way US Army viewed mechanization, only that they saw its importance after his demise. He is a both puzzling and controversial figure in the history of mechanization, despite which, he produced very innovative designs of warfare vehicles and tanks. Being a trained machinist, Christie designed his first military vehicles in the World War I. he was responsible for the designing of the steel steed in 1918, which was the first American tank. This tank was more advanced than any other tanks in the world at the time.
This model was however, not adopted by the army on the premise that the First world war was over and claims of having insufficient funds for external research. Christie forged on and went ahead to design the first amphibious tank in 1921. The Army seemed not interested in this design causing Christie to approach the Marine Corps. They tested the amphibious tank, and it proved effective. The Marine Corps still failed to purchase the tank on grounds of having insufficient funds. Bielakowski claims that the reluctance of the American military in buying the designs of the military vehicles made by Christie forced him to sell the plans for the amphibious tank to the Japanese government in order to avoid bankruptcy.
Christie designed a hybrid of a truck and tractor in the period between 1926 and 1929. It proved to have both commercial and military uses, but was still rejected by the Army citing lack of funds. This did not discourage Christie, as he continued to work on a new tank design together with his son, secretly. They came up with the Model 1928 Christie Tank that could perform feats never seen before. It had a system of individually sprung wheels with coil suspensions and a knee-action suspension that made it superior to all the other tanks. Despite the Calvary and Infantry being interested in this design, the Ordinance Department rejected it.Bielakowski narrates that the design was later adapted by the Soviets to create their BT series tanks and by the British to come up with their Crusader tanks. Christie gained very little financially from his efforts and died a poor man in 1944.
Another civilian advocate for mechanization in the American Army was Dwight F. Davis. He played a significant role in the mechanization of the Army during his tenure as the secretary of war in the period 1925-1929. Davis got the opportunity to observe mechanized training by the British army during his travels to the United Kingdom in 1927. Upon returning home, he proposed that same be adopted by the American Army. This led to the formation of the Army’s Experimental Mechanized Force at Camp Meade in Maryland. The purpose of this was to explore the military possibilities that could be occasioned by mechanization.
The force functioned as exclusively offensive, special unitmission as opposed to the traditional division size combat element. It was a completely self-contained unit that combined striking power and mobility in a way that had not been witnessed in the other existing arms. The force was given a one-year lifespan during which it was to serve as a laboratory to experiment with mechanization tactically and technically. The force was further given by Davis the freedom to experiment all the ideas they could fathom concerning mechanization.All the branches of the Army sent representative units to participate in the mechanization experiment. The Experimental Mechanized Force was laterdiscontinued after the equipment and machines they were using were worn out and broke down. Many persons in the media and the Army considered the experiment a failure, while others attributed the performance to usage of old equipment that was not up to date.
General Douglas MacArthur was the other advocate that contributed to the mechanization of the Army through channels that were at first glance seen as retrogressive. In his position as the chief of staff, MacArthur disbanded the Experimental Mechanized Force that had been reinstated earlier on by his predecessor, Gen. Summerall. The assets of the Experimental Mechanized Force were transferred to the Calvary by MacArthur. This move was criticised, but it later on became clear that since the Calvary was responsible for mobility and manoeuvre, then it fitted best the mechanized forces.
MacArthur completed this implementation by restructuring the Calvary into two regiments one using the traditional horses and mules, while the other was to be mechanized completely. He also encouraged the other branches of the army to embrace mechanization wherever possible. In the National Defence Act of 1920, the Calvary was not permitted to use tanks, and it was therefore suggested by MacArthur that the Calvaryadopts “combat cars” that were in essence identical to tanks.He was forward looking in that he recognised the need for the Army to improve despite having limited funds.
COL. Daniel Van Voorhis was in charge of the Experimental Mechanized Force at the time it was disbanded by GEN. MacArthur. He at first protested the move, but after grasping the vision that MacArthur had regarding mechanization of the Army, he became energised and played a critical role in implementation of the recommendations made by MacArthur. Van Voorhis recognised that veteran Calvary men were not in support of the mechanization of the force and therefore requested that the mechanized regiment be placed in a different location other than the one traditionally occupied by Calvary forces. He oversaw simulated battles between the mechanized Calvary and the traditional Calvary in different conditions and terrains.
Van Voorhis worked together with Adna R, Chaffee through the 1930s to develop and equip the mechanised Calvary. They had problems in getting men to volunteer and join the mechanized Calvary that they were forced to reactivate some regiments that had been deactivated in the 1920s. In 1932, the mechanized cavalry got a boost after the election of that year that led to the War Department designing the 1st Calvary regiment for mechanization. Works Progress Administration and Public Works Administration programs provided the mechanized group with the finance they required. The mechanized and traditional Calvary went head to head in six different scenarios. The umpires that made evaluations of these encounters seemed to favour the traditional regiment. Despite that, it became clear later on that the mechanized regiment had higher mobility and manoeuvre capability compared to the Calvary men on horses.
The persons described above were in favour of mechanisation when it was being objected by a majority of the personnel in the Army. It was observed during that period that junior officers preferred mechanization while the older senior Army personnel were bent on sticking to the traditional warfare methods. The adoption of mechanization in warfare came at an opportune time for the United States and assisted it in the Second World War. The military prowess of the Americans was improved a lot by mechanization that they ended up being the ones to determine the outcome of World War 2. Had mechanization not been adopted, United States might not have become the superpower that it turned out to be.
Bielakowski, Alexander M. “Mechanization in the Interwar U.S. Cavalry.” US ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLLEGE. (n.d.). accessed April 7, 2014. http://www.academia.edu/1916418/Mechanization_in_the_Interwar_U.S._Cavalry .Alexander M. Bielakowski, “Mechanization in the Interwar U.S. Cavalry,” US ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLLEGE,(n.d.) 2, accessed April 7, 2014, http://www.academia.edu/1916418/Mechanization_in_the_Interwar_U.S._Cavalry  .Ibid., 3.  .Ibid., 3.  Ibid., 3.  Ibid., 4.  . Alexander M. Bielakowski, “Mechanization in the Interwar U.S. Cavalry”, 5  Ibid., 6.  Ibid., 8.
Tecumseh and Andrew Jackson
Leadership is an important aspect of life that defines the future of a society. In most cases, a leader would come to fight for the rights of the people. This happens even at the cost of declaring resistance and war against the perceived enemies. In American history, certain Tecumseh, a Native American leader and Andrew Jackson, the former president of the United States stand out as leaders who championed for the rights of the people they led. Their leadership styles were different and were mostly influenced by what would work for the best interests of their people. These two leaders came from different American societies and were forced to lead their people in battles that were meant to help free their subjects. This essay argues that leadership styles and decisions are highly influenced by the interest of the subjects.
Tecumseh was a wise chief of the Shawnee Indians in the early 1800s. This was the period when the white settlement had started in the North American continent. He found himself fighting the Americans at age 14 alongside his brother, something that made him gather courage in the quest to help his people. In his resolve, no more traditional land was to be taken away by the Americans. This made him a courageous leader who decided to go to any lengths in order to save his Traditional Indian territory against white settlement. His courage was also seen in his continued resistance against the Americans who held different social and political ideologies. Moreover, the Americans had better fighting weapons than the natives. However, he led his people to continue fighting the Americans.
While the Americans continued to occupy more of the native territories through treaties, Tecumseh disagreed with such decisions, terming them invalid. According to him, giving away any part of the traditional territory could only be done through the consent of all the Native people and not a few representatives. This made him a prominent leader who was concerned of the plight of the local people. Another outstanding leadership quality was manifested in his quest to encourage all the native communities to unite under one political confederacy and fight for their rights. According to him, formation of a pan-Native American Confederation was the only way of stopping the continued occupation of their traditional territories by the white settlers. He joined hands with the British rulers who did not like the advancement of the Americans westwards. Tecumseh was respected by American enemies for releasing captive Americans. He was a humanitarian leader who never believed in torturing his enemies. Even though he was killed in the war before achieving his goals, his people continued to admire his courage and what he stood for.
Andrew Jackson was another American historical leader who later became United States President in 1828. He was involved in military activities in his teens, something that led to his capture alongside his brother by the British Army. His brother and mother later died as a result of the war with the British, which led to his hatred for the British rule. He was later appointed the commander of Tennessee militia in the early 1800s, rising to be the major general in 1802. One important engagement occurred when Tecumseh, chief of the Shawnee Indians led his people in attacking the white settlers in northern Ohio. The attack led to the Creek War, a battle that Jackson won while commanding the Tennessee militia, U.S regulars, Cherokee and Choctaw warriors that made the American forces.
Bravery is a component of Andrew Jackson’s political and military leadership. He was never afraid to face any challenges. When attacked, he could simply mobilize his soldiers and face the enemy. This made him emerge victorious in most of the battles he led. One of the things that Jackson is remembered for is his quest to displace the Native Indians to give way for white settlement. In this attempt, he used military power to push the Indian communities into signing treaties that allowed the American settlers to occupy traditional territories. This type of leadership contrasts that of Tecumseh who disagreed with it. He opposed the forceful treaty terming it as void since all community members were never involved in it. On the same note, unlike Jackson, Tecumseh went to all the Indian tribes convincing them of the need to unite under one political leadership. He is also associated with Indian removal in the 1820s when he was the president of the United States where the natives were massively displaced from their ancestral territories through a policy.
He achieved a lot during his time because of his strong and aggressive type of leadership. After winning the Creek War and forcing the Indians to give away part of their territories for settlement, he was promoted to higher military ranks by the U.S administration. He was strict with the people who worked under him, demanding high levels of loyalty from them. This aspect of his leadership made him ruthless in dealing with his enemies and subjects who never showed loyalty. This is different from the humanitarian qualities exhibited by Tecumseh. Nevertheless, Jackson was known as a democratic leader who won a large following of the Americans during his days. He stands out as the first U.S President to invite the public to his inauguration at the White House. His popularity was also seen among the troops he commanded during his military days. His courage and bravery made him achieve many things during his days. Tecumseh’s courage and polarity is also evident; however, he died before achieving his goals.
The Two Princes Of Calabar
Slavery presents one of the most humiliating treatments that Africans underwent over the 18th, 19th and part of the 20th century. Largely African kings and chiefs participated in the slave trade, selling some of their subjects and others captured during raids to Arab merchants and later European merchants for plantation labor. While most kings had their subjects captured, it was a rare occurrence to have princes captured and sold into slavery. Among the most captivating tale of the Transatlantic slave trade therefore is the capture of Ephraim and Ancona John, members of a ruling families in west Africa in the Bight of Biafra (Sparks, 2002, p. 557). Although they were later released from slavery by fighting for their own freedom, these two came back to become slave merchants. Many underlying reasons prompted Africans into slave trade participation. Although it came later, Christianity played an important role in ending the Transatlantic trade.
Having been tricked into a supposed treaty and agreement to help in fighting off competition from the New Town, Ephraim and Ancona Johns were captured aboard the Duke of York by English merchants (Sparks, 2002, 567). While slavery was never a choice for many Africans, some did sell themselves into slavery as a means of escaping the worst situations. Most of the slaves were however war captives, criminals and children whose parents had many mouths to feed. The return of the John Robins, is however an attestation to the fact that some African slaves did consider regaining their freedom. Given that less of Africans, and slaves, got to earn their freedom, only under special circumstances, the return of the Johns was therefore a feat worth noting. Additionally, their return also suggests their royal background and knowledge of the European culture and language as well as their cultural background as Atlantic creoles as having put them at a better position to regain their independence. More importantly, the Johns cosmopolitan view and their wealth of skills also played an important role in enabling them return to Old Calabar even after their capture (Sparks, 2002, p.557).
The suffering that the two went through: being sold into Dominica (Sparks, 2002, p. 569), then betrayed to be sold to the cruel Thompson, an escape and the hospitality of the Jones serves to explain the suffering that the two had to endure to gain their freedom. The Johns miraculously survived the trip and were together sold to a French physician who was kind to them (Sparks, 2002, p. 569). However, the two escaped to William Sharp, the Captain of Peggy, who had promised to take them back home. Sharp however sold them again into slavery in Virginia, to Captain Thompson who was abusive and cruel to them (Sparks, 2002, p. 569).
At the death of Thompson, the two Johns escaped enslavement and bumped into O’Neil who promised to buy them. However, O’Neil had no money and planned to sell them to slavery (Sparks, 2002, p. 572). After a long trail of letters however, the two were finally freed with the help of Jones. The Jones provided a family for them in addition to exposing them to Christianity as well as widening their scope in friendship through the Methodist church. Such was the close attachment that the Johns had with Charles, a teacher and church leader, with whom they regularly has correspondence (Sparks, 2002, p. 579). The Johns’ journey home, as eventful and trying as it was shows the determination of the two royalties to return home and continue their family legacy.
In a remote sense, Christianity offered reprieve from the suffering that the two Johns were experiencing through Jones (Sparks, 2002, p. 577). There in addition to constant campaigns against slavery and slave trade, and even the final abolition of slave trade in Europe and America, Christianity gave solace to slaves leading them in the path of light (Sensbach, 2007, p. 635). The Jones were a true manifestation of the compassion of Christians and Christianity towards slaves, given that they not only loved slaves, but as well took the Johns into their home and provided for them. Thus, even with their return to Old Calabar, and their engagement in slave trade, the Johns were equally responsible for the spread of Christianity in the region after their return.
The Johns return home, while it would have signaled an end to slavery and slave trade in the family, given the experience that the two had with slavery, did not deter them from participating in the slave trade. The Johns’ drive back to slave trade was therefore a culture that was within the family. According to Sparks (2002), the Johns’ return to slave trade was simply an engrained drive, given that it was the initial family trade (p. 583). Since the experience of slavery was not new to them, having been slaves themselves, they very much understood the pain that was there in slavery. However, their positions as royalties dictated that they carry on with the family business as it was before their departure.
Among the creoles and slaves, it was an uphill task for a slave to gain their freedom. Only under special circumstances such as a master’s concubine begetting a child, would both the child and the mother be set free (Inikori, 2000, p. 390). The only other way for self-betterment for a slave was therefore the purchase of their very own slaves. Having been sold into slavery therefore, the Johns only way for self-improvement was purchase of slaves. In addition, if they were to climb up the social ladder, they had to participate in the trade, as it was the most viable at the time, and one that would bring handsome profits.
Participation in slave trade among Africans was therefore largely for economic reasons, a fact that was also true for the Americans’ and British’s participation in the trade (Meager, 2007, p. 1). For many Europeans and Americans therefore, slavery offered a leeway through which Africans and some Islamic Africans could come into contact with Christianity especially in the Americas (Reddie, 2007), which eventually resulted in the colonization of Africa (Hunn & Wantchekon, 2011, p. 3223). The African rulers on the other hand saw slavery and slave trade as an avenue for making profits and growing rich (Sparks, 2002, p. 559).
African rulers (chiefs and kings) on the other hand, used the slave trade as a means of acquiring firearms and Western commodities. The firearms were particularly important in the expansion of their rule and power within their regions (Lovejoy, 2000, p. 145). To subdue the neighboring communities and ensure a continuous supply of slaves for instance, the Efiks needed firearms to conduct slave raids and ensure minimum resistance from these communities (Sparks, 2002, p. 559). With Europeans in need of the slaves and capable of supplying the firearms as well as other commodities such as cloth, perfume and glassware, most African chiefs and rulers would order raid on their neighboring communities (Thornton, 1998, p. 66).
The result of the demand for slaves from Europeans drew more African communities into wars and raids. The pressure mounted on the need to acquire firearm supplies and other commodities (Thornton, 1998, p. 66). Therefore, African’s participation in slave trade was through raids and wars for the capture of slaves (Smith, 2009). Other slaves voluntarily sold themselves into slavery seeing no other option aside from their service in bondage.
The Johns present a long and successful struggle against slavery among Africans. Theirs was a special case considering that they were captured and sentenced to slavery, although they were from the ruling family. In their life as slaves, their knowledge of English as cosmopolitan view came in handy towards their eventual emancipation. Specifically, Christianity played a major role in their release, as they were assisted by the Jones. African participation in the slave trade was ultimately because of financial and political pressure and reasons. While Christianity played a major role in ending slave trade, it did at one point, fuel the European participation in slave trade.
Inikori, J., E., (2000). Africa and the Transatlantic Slave Trade. In Africa, Volume 1: African History before 1885, ed. Toyin, F. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press
Lovejoy, E. P. (2000). Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa, 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press
Meager, D., (2007). Why Did Christians Justify African Slavery? Cross Way, 104
Nunn, N., & Wantchekon, L., (2011). The Slave Trade and the Origins of Mistrust in Africa. American Economic Review, 101:3221-3252
Reddie, R., (2007). Atlantic Slave Trade and Abolition. BBC
Sensbach, J., F., (2007). Religion in the Early South in an Age of Atlantic Empire. Journal of Southern History, 73(3):631-641
Smith, D., (2009). African Chiefs Urged to Apologize for Slave Trade. The Guardian
Sparks, R., J., (2002). Two Princes of Calabar: An Atlantic Odyssey from Slavery to Freedom. The William and Mary Quarterly, 59(3):555-584
Thornton, J., (1998). Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1680. New York: Cambridge University Press
Crimes in Russia during the War
War lawful offenses perpetrated by the army of Communist Russian federation and the Communist Partnership from 1919 to 1991 consisted of functions supposedly committed by the Red Military (later known as the Communist Army) as well as the NKVD, such as the NKVD’s Internal Soldiers. In some situations, these lawful offenses may have been done on the express orders of the early Communist national policy of Red Fear. In different circumstances, such an offence was done regardless of the army orders. The majority of these occurrences happened in Northern and Southern European countries before and during the Second World War. In addition, they engaged summary accomplishments and huge killing of criminals of war and mistreatment of individuals in Soviet-occupied areas. Although there are several recorded situations of such occurrences, very few associates of the Communist army have ever been billed with war lawful offenses. Moreover, the Worldwide Criminal Judge, Communist, or European tribunal (Ball 16) has billed none of them.
During the European Public War, an approximated 100,000 Judaism individuals perished in pogroms perpetrated by Symon. The only equipped power in the European Public War that did not consistently terrorize the Judaism individuals was the Red Military of the Communist government. The Jews came to respect the Red Military as their protector. In fact, young Jews joined it to be able to avenge lawful offenses against their families. The early Communist management treated anti-Semitism with utter contempt. Moreover, strong initiatives were designed by Communist regulators to contain anti-Jewish bigotry. However, during the European civil war as well as the Soviet-Polish War, some Red Military models perpetrated pogroms, especially at Baranovichi. However, some programs are linked to the Red Military, with many crime functions in the period having been committed by anti-Communist as well as nationalist causes. The pogroms were intensely criticized by the Red Military great command and accountable models were disarmed, while individual pogromists were court-martialed (Crowe 28).
On several occasions during the Second World War, Communist military set flame to components, towns, or parts of places, and used dangerous weapons against residents. For instance, in 1945, Communist military burned the capital city of Demmin and avoided the population from putting the fire off. Most Red Military atrocities took position only in what was regarded as aggressive area. Soldiers of the Red Military, together with associates of the NKVD, frequently looted German born transportation vehicles in the mid 1940s and 1945 in Belgium. However, the citizens of Germany understood that the Russian armies fought all individuals who did not wear combat. Initially, the Nazi propaganda reflected civil resistance restriction. Furthermore, Russian Military atrocities like the Nemmersdorf slaughter always did not work well and designed panic. However, individuals began to leave westward on their own effort (Ball 19).
The huge variety of the population of the German born regions of Silesia, Eastern Prussia, and Pomerania died during evacuations. Some of the people who died were because of hunger, bad weather as well as during fight events. However, a big percentage of this life loss toll happened when evacuations content encountered models of the Red Military. Those individuals who were caught not in combat were run on by aquariums, taken, or otherwise killed. Females were abused several times to a point of dyeing. Moreover, fighter-bombers of the Communist air power occupied far behind the top sidelines and often assaulted content of evacuees. The Russian army’s assault against the regional German individuals also resulted in crimes of fighting with bombs in Demmin. Nearly 900 individuals in this town committed suicide, inspired by the circumstances of pillaging, sexual assault, and accomplishments (Heller & Gerry 21).
Although huge accomplishments of individuals by the Red Military were rarely publicly revealed, there is a known occurrence in Treuenbrietzen, where at least 88 male populations were curved up and taken on May 1, 1945. The occurrence took position after a success celebration at which several women from Treuenbrietzen were raped and an unknown adversary lieutenant colonel of Red Military taken. Some resources declare that as many as 1,000 individuals may have been killed during the occurrence (Ball 26).
As Allied troops joined and filled German born area during the later stages of Second World War. Huge rapes took place, both in relationship with fight functions and during the following profession that was to last many decades. Most launched and several are the rapes committed by Communist service associates. A wave of rapes and sexual assault happened in Main European countries in 1944–45, as the European companions and the Red Military battled their route into the third Reich. In the area of the Nazi Malaysia, it began on 21 Oct 1944 when troops of the Red Military surpassed the weblink over the Angerapp stream (marking the border) and committed the Nemmersdorf slaughter before they were later beaten.
The majority of the offenses was committed in the Communist professional zones. In many situations, women were the sufferers of recurring rapes, some as many as 60 to 70 times. At least 100,000 women are considered to have been raped in Germany. Depending on the raised abortion rates in the following months and contemporary healthcare center reviews, with an approximated 10,000 women passing away in the consequences, it was certain that a big number of women suffered during the war. Female fatalities in relationship with the rapes in Malaysia, overall, are approximated at 240,000. This violation had the greatest trend of huge sexual assault in history. In addition, it has been determined that more than 1.4 thousand women were sexually abused in Eastern Prussia, Silesia and Pomerania alone (Ball 31).
Natalya Gesse stated that European military raped German born females who were as young as from eight to four years old. Communist soldiers’ relations with the German born population where the army had stayed were unsociable and neutral. Nobody, at least from his or her Routine, bothered or moved them (Heller & Gerry 31). After summer time season of 1945, Communist military caught raping individuals were usually penalized to some degree, ranging from police arrest to hard jobs. However, the rapes continued, until the winter of 1947–48, when Communist profession regulators finally limited Communist troops to protected posts and ideologies, absolutely splitting them from the personal population in the Communist area of Malaysia. The communist military did not attack their own individuals as well as individuals from their friendly nations. They considered themselves conquerors, but not liberators in aggressive places. They viewed the assault against individuals as a benefit of the winners (Crowe 9).
The Georgia–Russia problem is an ongoing international problem between Atlanta and Russian federation that increased in 2008, when both countries billed each other of army buildup near the separatist places Abkhazia and Southern Ossetia. On March 6, 2008, Russian federation declared that it would no longer participate in the independent states financial penalties enforced on Abkhazia in 1996. Throughout the war, almost all allied countries performed air raids on non-military and private objectives. This was a technique used by both factors primarily to eliminate spirits – specifically as part of Nazi Blitzkrieg. Most air raids on private communities were little more than vengeance strikes. During the last decades of the war, it began to have a strategic objective. The Spanish people began to enhance and hold up within places. However, this did not absolve the infrequent killing of individuals previously in the war.
In fact, all events resulted to serious offenses of international human rights and relief law, leading to many private fatalities and injuries. Georgian causes used infrequent power during their strike on Southern Ossetia with obvious neglect for the safety of individuals. The Georgians instructed container and machine gun flame at components in Tskhinvali, such as at apartments and cellars where individuals protected themselves. Southern Ossetian causes had shot on Georgian causes from at least some of these components. The Georgian army used BM-21 Graduate MRLs, a multiple bomb launch system, to eliminate objectives situated in private places. The European army also used infrequent power in strikes in Southern Ossetia and in the Gori district. In addition, it has apparently targeted convoys of individuals trying to leave the issue areas.
European warplanes bombed non-army population centers in Atlanta, and Georgian towns in Southern Ossetia. A European bombing killed 60 individuals and injured more in the Georgian city of Gori. Armed gangs and Ossetian troops committed looting, arson strikes, sexual assault and abductions in Georgian towns. They terrorized the non-army population, pushed them to leave their homes and avoided removed individuals from returning. In addition, they assaulted all those individuals who attempted to leave Georgian town of Gori. The military of Georgian retreated to protect Tbilisi, but did not come back until the withdrawal of Ossetians and Soviets.
The Soviets as well as Georgians utilized group aquariums M85S and RBK 250, leading to private accidents. Atlanta confesses using group aquariums against European troops and the Roki canal. Atlanta was also revealed to have used group munitions twice to hit individuals running from the battle area through the primary escape route. Russian federation declines the use of group aquariums, but it has been billed of utilizing them in its strikes against Ruisi, Gori and Karbi.
On 8 Sept Johnson Hammarberg, Authorities of European countries Commissioner for Individual Privileges, released a review named “Human Privileges in Areas Suffering from the Southern Ossetia Conflict.” Revealing that during the issue, a very huge amount of individuals had been victimized. More than 50 percent of the population in Southern Ossetia left. The frustrating greater part of them after the Georgian artillery and the container strike on Tskhinvali and the attacks on Georgian towns by Southern Ossetian militia and lawful gangs also left the state. The review also states that rockets had hit the primary Tskhinvali healthcare center. That some residential places in the city of Tskhinvali were destroyed and the primary building of the European peace keeping power as well as the base’s healthcare dispensary had been hit by large artillery. Furthermore, the towns with social Georgian greater part between Tskhinvali and Coffee have been broken, supposedly by Southern Ossetian troops and lawful gangs (Crowe 29)
During the Aug war, Southern Ossetian militias used off and looted most social Georgian towns in Southern Ossetia, effectively avoiding 20,000 citizens. Furthermore, the individuals willing to live in Southern Ossetia were required to accept a European ticket. Southern Ossetian President Eduard Kokoity mentioned in an interview that Georgian towns were successfully destroyed and none of the Georgian refugees would be permitted to come back. In fact, 30,000 Georgians moved from their country to live as strangers in different nations. Several elements suggested the conclusion that social cleansing was indeed practiced against social Georgians in Southern Ossetia both during and after the Aug 2008 conflict.
In Nov 2008, Amnesty Worldwide launched a 69-page review outlining serious international law offenses during the period of war by both Atlanta and Russian federation. Innocent individuals constituted majority of individuals who died during the war in Russia. European and Southern Ossetian authorities initially stated that up to 2,000 Ossetian Georgian soldiers killed individuals. These great victim figures are according to the Russian Federation, the reason for the army participation in Atlanta. After sometime, Atlanta revealed more than 413 fatalities, centered on reviews by Johnson Hammarberg, Authorities of European countries Commissioner for Individual Privileges. The estimates the Commissioner obtained from the European regulators on verified fatalities were 133 individuals in Tskhinvali region/South Ossetia. According to Individual Privileges Observe, some of the Ossetian citizens they questioned validated the torching and looting of the Georgian towns by referring to thousands of private accidents in Southern Ossetia. Stan Storimans, a Nederlander reporter, was the only foreigner killed in the issue. Both factors have registered complaints with various international lawful courts, such as the Worldwide Criminal Judge, the Worldwide Judge of Rights and the European Judge of Individual Privileges, against each other (Crowe 32).
On 12 Aug, regional regulators mentioned that approximately 70% of Tskhinvali’s buildings, both municipal and private, had experienced harm during the Georgian offense. According to later statements designed by the European and Ossetian resources, about 20% of the Tskhinvali’s buildings had experienced total destruction. A calculated big number of the town’s buildings, were destroyed beyond repair. According to Individual Rights Watch, on the night of seven to 8 Aug, Georgian troops shelled the town of Tskhinvali and several nearby Ossetian towns intensely. Moreover, Tskhinvali was intensely shelled during the occurrences of the offences. The Southern Ossetian competitors took up roles in private places, such as schools and a pre-school, turning them into legitimate army objectives. However, the artillery of Georgian then hit several places. On 9 Aug, the crime started again, but on a smaller scale when Georgian causes were focusing on the European troops who by then had moved into Tskhinvali and other places of Southern Ossetia. The organization has discovered evidence of extensive devastation in Tskhinvali caused by infrequent flame from Georgian artillery and bomb launchers. Tskhinvali citizens accused the Georgian troops for the devastation of the town.
The Georgian side claims that the European Military should be linked for large harm and devastation of facilities and buildings in Tskhinvali, as it was bombing the town for three days. When the airplane began to burn Tskhinvali, it destroyed most private buildings. In addition, Russia has been blamed for destroying most of the towns. Russia burned airfields as well as financial facilities, such as the Port of Dark Sea. At the port, between eight and 11 European airplanes hit container aquariums and a shipbuilding plant. On 16 Aug 2008, the European troops moved towards Tbilisi and blew up the train web link near Kaspi, about 50 km outside of the Georgian capital, thus cutting the web link between Southern and European Atlanta as well as the primary transportation web link between landlocked Armenia and the Georgian Dark Sea ports of Batumi and Poti. The concrete manufacturer and private area in Kaspi were also broken by the European air raids.
Majority of ill-educated Red Military troops experienced sex-related lack of knowledge and unenlightened behavior towards females. Therefore, the Communist region’s efforts to reduce the sex-related interest of its people created barracks eroticism, which was far more basic and aggressive than the international porn. All this was along with the dehumanizing impact of modern propaganda and the atavistic, warring signals of men noticeable by worry and struggling (Ball 13).
Sex-related assault sufferers were not just Spanish people. Polish females as well as young Ukrainian, Belorussian, and European females who had been sent back to Malaysia by the Wehrmacht for servant work also suffered. The sex-related assault of communist females and some women seriously undermined the European efforts to rationalize Red Military actions on the reasons of revenge. In Germany, the majority of females were simply not ready for the surprise of the European revenge. Several people reassured themselves that, although the risk must be great out in the landscapes, huge rapes could hardly take place in the town in front of everybody (Courtois and Mark 17).
Young girls, nuns, expectant females, and old women were all raped without disgrace In Dahlem. Yet within a short time, a design appeared of military blinking torches in the encounters of women huddled in the sand traps to choose their sufferers. This process of selection, in contrast to the infrequent assault shown earlier, indicates a certain change. Young children were invisible in storage lofts for days. Moms appeared on the road to bring water only in the early morning hours when the Communist military were resting. Sometimes the biggest risk came from one mom giving away the concealed place of other women in an anxious bid to preserve her own little girl (Collier & Nicholas 21).
If anyone tried to protect a woman against a Communist enemy, it was either a dad trying to protect a little girl or a younger son trying to secure his mom. After the second level of women providing themselves to one soldier to preserve themselves from others, came the post-battle need to endure hunger. All kinds of ladies prostituted themselves for food or the alternative money of tobacco. The final level was an unusual form of cohabitation in which the Red Military regulators resolved in with the wives of the Germans. Even if the feminist describes sexual assault simply as an act of assault shows to be simple, there is no validation for men complacency. If anything, the activities of 1945 expose how slim the veneer of society can be when there is little worry of retribution. It also indicates a much deeper part of men sex than an individual might properly want to confess (Crowe 11).
In Eastern Prussia, control and embarrassment occupied soldiers’ therapy in females. The sufferers carried the impact of Wehrmacht criminal offenses revenge. A war crime offender considered sexual assault as an act of a conqueror targeted at the bodies of the beaten enemy’s woman to highlight his success. Yet after the preliminary rage of Jan 1945 dissipated, the sadism became less noticeable. The feeling of domination certainly persisted, but this was perhaps partially an oblique item of the humiliations, which they had experienced in the arms of their commanders and the Communist regulators as a whole (Courtois & Mark 22).
Due to the crimes encountered during the war, there were several tests organized to deal with the offenders. The test took place in Krasnodar, Russian federation before the end of Second World War. Thirteen communist individuals were melted out with justice. Eight of the billed were given a death sentence and three others to 260 months in prison. Between Oct 1945 and Oct 1946, and Worldwide Military Tribunal (IMT) tried 22 of the most notorious major Nazi figures in procedures that came to be known as the Nuremberg Trial. Twelve offenders were given a death sentence, three were found innocent, and the rest were sentenced to prison. During that test, the four taking up abilities in Malaysia passed a law that permitted them to perform lawful tests on expenses of violence, war lawful offenses, lawful offenses against humankind, and membership in a lawful organization. Consequently, the US regulators in Malaysia set up six army lawful courts that were designed up of the United States private judges. The offenders included the management of the Nazi government, the SS, the German born army and industry, healthcare, and lawful establishments (Heller & Gerry 17).
After the Second World War, the Spanish and Japanese people billed of war lawful offenses against individuals of the allied countries were put to test in various lawful courts. The billed scammers were separated into two huge categories: “major” war scammers were those governmental and army management whose lawful offenses knew no regional limitations. In addition, “minor” war scammers were individuals or former military whose lawful offenses were dedicated in specific places. Significant war scammers were tried in Nuremberg or Seattle by lawful courts that were recognized depending on international contracts designed by the companions.
However, the frustrating greater part of billed war scammers was that in the “minor” category. Army lawful courts in the various fields ran their tests and the special lawful courts set up for this objective in allied countries. Moreover, war scammers were also tried in countries that had been filled by the satellite of Malaysia during the war, such as Belgium, Hungary, Romania, Norwegian, the Holland, Lithuania, Italy, and Italy. After the European Malaysia was designed, the German born lawful courts started procedures against Nazi war scammers. Over the last 260 months, lawful courts in the U.S, North America, and Sydney have also begun trying war scammers that joined their countries after the war.
The English taking up regulators in Germany also set up army lawful courts to try war scammers. However, distinct from the United States tests, the English only tried those billed of committing lawful offenses against English individuals, especially English military, and those who committed war lawful offenses against allied individuals in English areas. The English did not specifically cope with lawful offenses against the Jews, unless the Jews who suffered were also individuals of allied countries. An English army court also tried the employees of the Bergen-Belsen concentration camping. Forty-five offenders were standing on test, among them camping Commandant Josef Kramer. Eleven of the billed were sentenced to loss of life by hanging, while 14 were found innocent.
Another test put on the front side of an English army court was the March 1946 test of the owners and professionals of Tesch and Stabenow—an organization that manufactured Zyklon B. In the 90’s, two scammers were subjected to procedures in England. In Belgium, where almost all of the Nazi extermination ideologies were located, special lawful courts were recognized in Sept 1944 to try Nazi war criminals—more than six months before the war ended. By the end of 1946, most of the top Hungarian political figures who had worked with Nazi Malaysia had been tried and penalized. Almost 40,000-suspected war scammers were examined and tried in Hungary, more than 19,000 of which were discovered accountable (Heller & Gerry 21).
The penalties of the Romanian war scammers were performed within the perspective of serious governmental struggle between the traditional management of Romania and the Communist Party. From Goal 1945, those Nazi scammers engaged in the extermination of the Judaism individuals of Bessarabia, Bukovina, and Transnistria who were put on tests, such as Prime Reverend Ion Antonescu, who was implemented in 1946. In the Holland, special lawful courts were set up in late 1945 to cope with Nazi war scammers who had been active there, as well as with Nederlander collaborators. However, 14,562 individuals were charged and sentenced by the time the lawful courts stopped functioning in 1950. In Norwegian, the Nazis and Nazi collaborators were put to test, specifically Norwegian Prime Reverend Vidkun Qisling, who invited the German born army into his nation in 1940. Most major war scammers in Norwegian were sentenced to loss of life (Ball 19).
The European German born regulators began analyzing the Nazi lawful offenses in a serious way in the late nineteen fifties. In 1958, the Main Office of the Legal Administration in Ludwigsburg was recognized to uncover any available information on Nazi lawful offenses and to start lawful procedures against those accountable. To date, Malaysia has tried over 90,000 individuals and melted out over 6,400 serious cases. During the late 90’s, both Lithuania and Italy tried the war scammers. In Lithuania, the tests never got off the floor, due to the illness of the offenders. In Italy, the commandant of Jasenovac was in prison for lawful offenses against humankind and sentenced to 20 decades jail time. In the 90 researches and court, procedures have also been performed in Sydney and North America against war scammers who reached those countries after the war.
Nowadays, across the past Communist Partnership, a Success day over Nazi Malaysia is recognized. In Moscow, there are huge army celebration and festivities. In Riga, people come together around the “Monument of Liberation” to enjoy the victory with songs, dancing and liquor. Essential areas in this war are all veterans- old men in outfits protected with awards and badges. For decades, Communist and European government authorities have created the conspiracy of victory in “Great loyal war.” Little do they know about proper worry about the down part around the victory over Malaysia.
Khodorkovsky was born in Moscow, where he grew up in ordinary Communist family members with a two-room residence, his moms and dads being engineers who spent their entire professions at a measuring-instruments factory. Khodorkovsky was committed and obtained excellent personalities. He became the deputy leader of Komsomol at his university, the Mendeleev Moscow Institution of Chemical make up and Technology, where he completed in chemical technological innovation in 1986.The Komsomol participation was one of the ways to get into the positions of communist apparatchiks and to achieve the highest possible living standard.
Khodorkovsky used his relationships within the communist components to gain a grip in the developing free industry. After the dissolution of the Communist Partnership, he gathered prosperity through the development of Siberian oil areas as the head of Yukos, one of the biggest European companies to appear from the privatization of state resources during the 90’s.
He was caught on 25 Oct 2003 as a witness to appear before investigators, but within the time of being taken into legal care, he was billed with frauds. Situations took further actions against Yukos, leading to a collapse of the organization’s stock price and the water loss of much of Khodorkovsky’s prosperity. He was discovered accountable and jailed in prison in May 2005 for nine years (Shneer 21).
There is an extensive concern worldwide that the tests and sentencing were politically inspired. The test procedure has obtained critique from overseas for its lack of due procedure. Khodorkovsky registered several applications to the European Judge of Individual Privileges, seeking readdress for claimed offenses by the Russian federation of his human rights. In reaction to his first application, which concerned events from 2003 to 2005, a lawful court discovered that the European regulators in their treatment of Khodorkovsky dedicated several offenses. Specifically, a legal court decided that Khodorkovsky’s police capture was unlawful, as it had been outlined with a target not quite the same as the one communicated. Despite these results, a lawful court ultimately decided that the test was not politically inspired, but rather that the expenses against him were based on ‘reasonable suspicion’ (T Szászdi 30).
Khodorkovsky also became a philanthropist, whose initiatives consist of the supply of the Internet-training centers for teachers, a forum for the discussion with reporters of change and democracy, and the establishment of fundamentals, which finance historical digs, social transactions, and ideologies for children and a boarding school for orphans. Khodorkovsky’s experts saw this as governmental posturing, in light of his funding of several governmental events ahead of the elections for the Condition Duma to be organized in late 2003 (Collier & Nicholas 44).
He is unreservedly condemned for what he alludes to as he oversaw the vote-based system inside the Russian alliance. Khordorkovsky promoted social projects through Yukos in spots where the association worked, one illustration being New Civilization, in Angarsk, which displayed college understudy government to young people. The look program incorporated aspects of the university student. Members from throughout the nation invested their holidays planning student-governed bodies at ideologies.
After six decades in prison, Khodorkovsky had politically modified from an oligarch into a governmental captive and independence fighter. He illustrates how the Russia’s oil industry and Yuko worked. Mr. Khodorkovsky’s alteration from a callous oligarch, operating in an almost lawless climate, into a governmental captive and an independence martial artist is one of the more fascinating stories in post-communist Russian federation (Courtois &Mark 19).
He claims that his politics has been modified while serving his sentence in prison in his several documents. On 26 2009, he launched a reaction to Dmitri Medvedev’s “Forward, Russia” content in Vedomosti, disagreeing that authoritarianism in its present European type does not meet many key relief requirements for any nation that wishes to consider itself contemporary. On 28 Jan 2010, Khodorkovsky wrote an op-ed for the New York Times and Worldwide Usher in Tribune, which suggested, Russia must make an ancient choice. “We reverse from the dead end toward which we have been heading recently – and we do it soon – or else we continue in this direction and Russian federation in its present type simply stops to exist.” According to him, the siloviki machine buckles, which has weakened justice is truly the gravedigger of recent European statehood (Rielage 27).
After he was freed in Dec after several years, Mikhail Khodorkovsky, who was once the Russia’s wealthiest man recommended that he would remain out of the European state policies. Though locked up on embezzlement and tax evasion expenses, it was commonly believed that the actual purpose for Khodorkovsky’s jail time had been his financing of categories compared to Chief executive Vladimir Putin. Since his pre-Olympic excuse and leaving from European federation, he has resided in Swiss. He has mentioned a wish to come back to the European federation once his lawful position is resolved (Courtois & Mark 37).
Ball, Howard. War Crimes and Justice: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2002. Print.
Courtois, Stéphane, and Mark Kramer. The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression. Cambridge, Mass ;London, England: Harvard University Press, 2004. Print.
Collier, Paul, and Nicholas Sambanis. Understanding Civil War: Evidence and Analysis. Washington, D.C: The World Bank, 2005. Print.
Crowe, David M. War Crimes, Genocide, and Justice: A Global History. , 2013. Internet resource.
Crowe, Emma. Terror in Chechnya: Russia and the Tragedy of Civilians in War. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009. Internet resource.
Heller, Kevin J, and Gerry J. Simpson. The Hidden Histories of War Crimes Trials. , 2013. Print.
Olstoy, Leo. War and Peace. Ware, Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions, 1995. Print.
Rielage, Dale C. Russian Supply Efforts in America During the First World War. Jefferson, N.C. [u.a.: McFarland & Co, 2002. Print
Shneer, David. Through Soviet Jewish Eyes: Photography, War, and the Holocaust. New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press, 2011. Print.
T Szászdi, Lajos F. Russian Civil-Military Relations and the Origins of the Second Chechen War. Lanham: University Press of America, 2008. Internet resource.
Kidnapping in Nigeria
Studies indicate that, the portent of kidnapping has assumed a distressing dimension in many parts of the world, especially in Nigeria. In this sense, kidnapping has become a big business in Nigeria. Studies reveal that kidnapping is the act of taking a person away illegitimately and keeping them as hostages. This is aimed at benefiting the kidnappers financially or in other ways before the hostage is released. In other terms, kidnapping is a forceful abduction of an individual with the intention of holding them for ransom (Ikejiaku 74). Otherwise, it is aimed at seizing people with the motive of harassing both psychologically and physically. Accordingly, kidnapping of people in the Niger delta is something that happens almost every day. This usually involves expatriates, women and children. It is believed to be a source of restiveness and eventual, breakdown of law and order (Obuah 38). It has also been found that, kidnapping in the Niger delta is among the key weapons, employed by the various ethnic militias who carry out their operations in the area (Ikejiaku 76). Studies affirm that the crime matter in Nigeria is based on the social imbalance, especially on the line of the two major classes of people.
Causes of kidnapping
As such, because of the pressure on certain individuals to meet up the challenges of satisfying their economic needs; it is the notion of this basis such individuals resort to committing diverse kinds of crime. Accordingly, there is the existence of the intensity of the problem of class conflict and contradictions in the economic order (Maleckova 45). This is mainly because of depressive, oppressive, and dehumanizing effects. This has on the extreme end, caused an increase in capitalist behavior for profit maximization and unequal economic and social status is the foundation and continuation of crime rate sin Nigeria.
Various incidences of kidnapping in Nigeria
Furthermore, there have been a number of incidences where people have been abducted (Maleckova 48). For example, the first case in early 2006 two Britons were kidnapped in Port Harcourt, the hostages were later released unharmed after a ransom was paid. In the same year, six South Koreans were kidnapped in the Niger delta, in royal Dutch shell operated gas plant. These hostages were later released after a week and the motive was based on high underdevelopment of the area sited against the federal government.
Various strategies of kidnapping in Nigeria
Kidnapping in Nigeria has taken many strategies, where kidnappers find strategic locations to carry out their criminal activities. To begin with, there have been kidnapping in the bush, where victims were abducted along the road leading to either a village or a nearby town. Such victims are kept hostage in the bush, which offers a haven for the kidnappers; a case in hand is the 2008 kidnap scenario of fifteen pupils along the aba-port Harcourt expressway (Obuah 38). The second strategic point is the sea, where kidnappers in Nigeria abduct victims traveling the country`s waterways (Obuah 39). For example, the bonny sea incidence of 2009 in which the staff of NLNG was abducted. The abductors entered the boat of itinerants and eventually carried out their criminal activities.
Impacts of kidnapping cases in Nigeria
There are copious effects of seizure in Nigeria; such sways have instigated more harm to the people in the areas, where abduction is protuberant. Kidnapping of expatriates, for example, in the Abia state, has resulted to some companies to relocated to other parts or outside the shows of Nigeria leading to unemployment based on occasional loss of jobs (Obuah 40). Furthermore, kidnapping has created a negative image of the Nigerian society at international levels. This affects virtually all aspects of life of the people; especially the tourism industry has been adversely affected. In general, kidnapping incidences have affected revenue gyration of many affected areas, thus the federal government has been forced to operate on defeats of its budget based on low revenue generation. Hence, these among other factors, show that kidnapping has had a high influence on Nigeria and it is a national crisis, which calls for different mechanisms to control or mitigate it completely.
Ikejiaku, Boniface. “The Relationship between Poverty, Conflict and Development.” Journal of Sustainable Development. 2.1 (2009): 70- 79.
Maleckova, Joel. “Education, Poverty and Terrorism: Is there a Causal Connection?” Journal of Economic Perspectives. 17.4 (2003): 45-58.
Obuah, Elvis. “Combating Corruption in a “Failed” state. The Nigerian Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC).” Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa. 12.1 (2010): 38-60.
Italian Renaissance and the Reformation
Renaissance and reformation are two significant occasions in the history of Europe. Renaissance was a period when new ideas emerged and spread across Europe, while reformation was a period when new religion ideologies inspired by the protestant movement emerged. This paper is going to argue that the connection between the Italian Renaissance and reformation was a weak one. The paper is going to accomplish this by first discussing the Renaissance era and its ideologies. The paper will then analyze the writing of Martin Luther in order to draw a conclusion of the connection between the Italian Renaissance and the reformation.
Most historians concur that ideas that were embraced during the Renaissance originated towards the end of the 13th century in Florence, especially with the writings of Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374) and Dante Alighieri (1265-1321). The artistic works of Giotto Bondone also played a key role in the emergence of the Italian Renaissance. Some historians have argued that Renaissance started in 1404 with rival between art geniuses such as Filippo Brunelleschi and Lorenzo Ghiberti who competed to be awarded a contract to build doors for a Florentine cathedral. Others argue that Renaissance emerged in Italy because of a more generalized competition amongst great artists like Masaccio, Donatello, Ghiberti, and Brunelleschi. Historians have also provided varied views on why Renaissance started in Italy at the time it did.
One of the reasons that brought about Renaissance was economic freedom that was being experienced in Europe and Italy. The population of Europe had decreased because of the Black Death. After the Black Death, the economies of several European countries grew and Italy was the greatest beneficiary of this economic growth. There were great merchants in Venice and Milan and influential bankers who worked for the pope. Medieval guilds in Europe grew into industries and played a significant role in economic growth. In these developments, Italy arose as the region that was most liberated economically and this explains why the first intellectual dependence in the Renaissance era was witnessed in Italy.
In the Renaissance era, feudalism was being abandoned by many European countries and Italy was the first to do away with the system. Feudalism was considered a backward system as European societies were urbanizing. Commercial nobility became the dominant social status replacing land nobility. However, very few men in Italy possessed the qualifications to be considered nobles. This led to the formation of a disenfranchised class called the Popolo, who started to conquer Italian city-states through military force. The Popolo were unable to hold onto power and were replaced by oligarchs or despots. Italy experienced political turmoil during Renaissance, and this inspired Niccolo Machiavelli to write “The Prince,” a book on political power.
In the 15th century, Italy started to model itself alongside Greek city states, and five dominant cities emerged; and these included the Kingdom of Naples, the Papal state, Florence, Milan, and Venice. These city-states were independent, and a prince who surrounded himself with artisans and wealthy merchants ruled them. Princes who ruled the Italian city-states employed an authoritarian rule. They heavily taxed their subjects, and the programs they perused were designed to mirror their glory. The papal state under the rule of pope Alexander VI while Florence was ruled by the Medici family. The pope ruled as a dictator and his son Cesare Borgia assisted him. The ruthless leadership by Borgia is another factor that inspired Machiavelli to write the Prince, and Borgia was considered the perfect Machiavellian leader.
The five Italian city-states competed with one another in aspects that included warfare and artistic endeavors. This is considered the first example of balance of power in world politics because the city-sates checked each other but also cooperated to avert prospective threats. However, the competition among city-sates caused instability, and this made Milan to call for French assistance in order to avoid a conquest. Personalities like Girolamo Savanarola, a sizzling preacher condemned the competition among city-sates, corruption in the office of the pope, artistic representation, and the leadership of the de Medici family.
In the Renaissance, there were many intellectual achievements in Italy. The intellectual endeavors shaded light to European societies after many years of Germanic invasion in the dark ages. The practices in mediaeval Europe were being abandoned and Italy emerged as an intellectual leader. The works of Dante and Chaucer made people to develop the notion that they could achieve great things, and the ability of man did not come from God alone, but also from talent. This notion is what led to the emergence of the philosophy of humanism. During the Renaissance, scholars, artists, writers, and thinkers embarked on an effort to rediscover the Greco-Roman classics, and avoided being identified with the Middle Ages.
Humanism, which was the dominant philosophy during Renaissance, was based on the belief that human beings had ability, and potential for achievements, and great interests and competences. In renewing interest in the Greco-Roman tradition of the past, Pope Nicholas created a storehouse at the Vatican library that had 9000 documents. Pico della Mirandola published a book called the “Dignity of Man”, which examined classical texts in order to understand human nature. According to Mirandola, man had high dignity because he was created as Adam, in God’s image.
Secularism is also a philosophy embraced during the Renaissance era. Before the Renaissance, people in Europe placed emphasis on the afterlife. However, in the Renaissance era people started to focus on the present life. This led to the emergence of different commercial endeavors that were not in line with religious doctrine. Artistic representation was another dominant feature during Renaissance in the 1400s, and art was supposed to meet two criteria. Frist, the art had to meet the extravagant standards of the rich commissioners; and second, art was supposed to address semi-secular issues in order to meet the needs of the people. Michelangelo emerged as one of the most influential artists of the Renaissance era, and he was a brilliant architect, sculptor and painter. Some of his renowned works are Madonna, David, paintings on the Sistine Chapel ceiling, St. Peters, and the Pieta. Leonardo da Vinci was also a great Renaissance artist; he was a sculptor, painter, mathematician, scientist, engineer and inventor. Some of his famous works are Mona Lisa, the Last Supper, and Anatomy. Another great artist during the Renaissance was Raphael Santi. He is considered the greatest painter of the Renaissance era, and his painting called a School of Athens is the most revered painting in the world.
It is evident that the Renaissance era emerged because of economic freedom and lack of political unity in Italy. Economic freedom ended feudalism, which was a political system based on land ownership. In the feudal system, those who owned large tracks of lands occupied a higher class and were leaders in society. Economic freedom replaced feudalism with merchant nobility whereby those who succeeded in trade occupied the highest class in society and were leaders. The growth in commerce encouraged the emergence of new ideas. Lack of political unity among Italian city-states encouraged the emergence of new ideas because there was no strong unified government that could have suppressed new ideas or jailed and execute people who were spreading these ideas.
The three significant sources chosen for this paper are “Lecture 4: The Impact of Luther and the Radical Reformation”; “The Society of Europe in an Age of Crisis (Age of the Baroque Lecture)”; and “The structure of Economic Life”.
Analysis of the Writings of Martin Luther
Martin Luther was a German monk and a theologian who challenged the Catholic Church and the authority of the pope in 1517. His actions started the protestant reformation. Luther’s ideas spread quickly all over Europe because of the printing press. Luther not only questioned the power of the Catholic Church but also asserted the power of individual conscience. In the 15th century, people were greatly opposed to the privileges enjoyed by the clerics. The clergy did not pay taxes and were exempt from many other civil responsibilities that had to be catered for by common people. The church engaged in splendor and luxury in the full view of people and neglected it spiritual functions. Moreover, the church was corrupt, lax and indifferent to the needs of the people.
The shortcoming of the Catholic Church is what attracted people to the alternative that was being offered by Luther. One of the famous writings by Martin Luther is “On Christian Liberty” written in 1520. This writing is a great evidence of the leading doctrine during the reformation era, which was “justification by faith alone”. “On Christian Liberty” is a letter addressed to Pope Leo X. In the letter, Luther concentrates in explaining his paradoxical opening statement, which is “a Christian man is the most free lord of all, and subject to none; a Christian man is the most dutiful servant of all, and subject to everyone”.
In his explanation, Luther first seeks to identify what makes a man a justifiable, real Christian. According to Luther, it is the word of God and the teachings of Jesus that make a man a true Christian. In the letter, Luther also talks about the three main virtues Christian derive from faith. First, faith gives Christians liberty; it makes them free from law and other factors that may demand that they justify their salvation. Second, faith enables Christians to honor God because it makes them believe in God, and this is an indication that God is righteous. The third virtue of faith is that it joins the souls of Christians to Christ.
Luther compares faith in Christ to a marriage between a king and a whore, where both parties share on equal basis what they bring to the marriage. For instance, Christ brings salvation, life and grace into the union while the human soul brings death, condemnation and sin. Luther also condemned the papal court for being a tool used to oppress and deceive Christians. Luther states that the court of Rome is more corrupt than Sodom or Babylon, and the worst men were advising the pope.
“Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants” is a second writing by Luther, and the “Twelve Article” written by the peasants of Swabia influenced it. The article written by the peasants highlighted their grievances, which were social and economic in nature. The grievances had nothing to do with theological issues. For example, the peasant criticized the seizure of their lands by the nobility and the increase in taxes. The peasant asked Luther to intervene on their behalf because they believed that Luther could indicate that their demands were in line with the teachings of the bible. However, Luther was not interested in causing social rebellion because he was not a revolutionary.
Nevertheless, in his writing titled “An Admonition to Peace”, Luther sided with the peasants and criticized the nobility. The peasant of Swabia rebelled, but Luther did encourage the use of armed force. The peasants utilized the word of God and God’s righteousness in attempts to have their social and economic problems addressed. However, Luther did not directly support the peasant despite the fact that he spoke about Christian liberty in many occasions. The Christian liberty advanced by Luther was in terms of religious faith as opposed to societal matters. According to Luther, Freedom implied being independent from Rome. In the “Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants,” Luther responded to the rebellion by the peasants.
In his response, Luther condemned the decision by the peasant to rebelled, and termed the act ungodly and contrary to the teaching of Jesus. The peasants initially promised not to use violence but went against this promise and looted castles and other premises that did not belong to them. Luther also states that the peasants deserve both physical and spiritual death because of their violent actions. He equates the peasant to common criminals like murderers. Luther was against the idea of peasants disrespecting authority and taking the law into their own hands because it contradicted the teachings of Jesus.
Based on the analysis of events and documents on Renaissance and reformation, it can be concluded that the connection between Renaissance and reformation was a weak one. People in the Renaissance and reformation era were looking for freedom. In the Renaissance era, people were looking for freedom of expression in order to express new ideas that contradicted those held in the mediaeval age. This was evident in the expression of new ideas in the arts, science and philosophy. During reformation, the freedom people looked for was breaking away from the Roman Catholic Church and papal influence. This is why personalities like Martin Luther and John Calvin criticized the Catholic Church.
However, there were fundamental differences between the Renaissance and the reformation movements that weaken the link between these two eras. In the Renaissance era, people were moving away from religious beliefs and adopting secular ideas. This was evident in the philosophy of humanism that emphasized on the talent of man in achieving his potential as opposed to religious explanations of the medieval era. On the contrary, during the reformation, protestants like Luther and Calvin and their followers were embracing religious teachings especially salvation by faith. This was evident in the “justification by faith alone,” the dominant philosophy at the time.
Graham-Dixon, Andrew. Renaissance. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.
Kreis, Steven. Lecture 4: The Impact of Luther and the Radical Reformation. May 12, 2004. http://www.historyguide.org/earlymod/lecture5c.html (accessed March 10, 2014).
Kreis, Steven. Luther Against the Peasants (1525). May 12, 2004. http://www.historyguide.org/earlymod/peasants1525.html (accessed March 10, 2014).
Luther, Martin. Concerning Christian Liberty: Letter of Martin Luther to Pope Leo X. July 31, 2006. http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/wittenberg/luther/web/cclib-1.html (accessed March 10, 2014).
 Andrew Graham-Dixon, Renaissance ( Berkeley : University of California Press, 1999) 10.
 Ibid., 11
 Ibid., 12
 Ibid., 13
 Ibid., 14
 Ibid., 16
 Ibid., 18
 Ibid., 19
 Ibid., 21
 Steven Kreis, Lecture 4: The Impact of Luther and the Radical Reformatio, May 12, 2004. http://www.historyguide.org/earlymod/lecture5c.html (accessed March 10, 2014) 1.
 Ibid., 2
 Martin Luther, Concerning Christian Liberty: Letter of Martin Luther to Pope Leo , July 31, 2006. http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/wittenberg/luther/web/cclib-1.html (accessed March 10, 2014) para. 1.
Ibid., para. 4
 Ibid., para. 5
 Ibid., 3
 Steven Kreis, Luther Against the Peasants (1525), May 12, 2004. http://www.historyguide.org/earlymod/peasants1525.html (accessed March 10, 2014) para. 1-5
The status of women in the U.S from the Civil war to Progressive era
In North America, where states eliminated captivity after revolution, females acquired rights to get married, have legal care of their kids, and to own residences. However, even in the South, an increasing number of released dark females hypothetically experienced the same rights under the law as white females. However, national tendency against both dark and Local American females made it hard to practice these rights.
In all countries, the legal status of females depended on if they are married or not. Single females, such as widows, were known as “women alone” or “fames soles.” They had the lawful right to live where they wished and to assist themselves in any profession that did not need a certificate or a degree limited to men. Single females could start agreements, sell and buy residence, or acquire personal residence, which was referred to as personality. It contains everything that could be shifted such as cash, shares, and stock.
If any woman decided to remain single, she was allowed to write a will, sue as well as be charged, serve as parents, and act as estate executors. Such rights were an extension of the northeastern lawful custom. Nevertheless, the progressive era focus on equivalent rights introduced some fundamental changes in female’s rights of inheritance. State congress everywhere eliminated primogeniture and the custom of double sharing, inheritance traditions that preferred the oldest sons. Instead, equivalent inheritance for all kids became the concept.
Marriage modified females’ lawful position considerably. When women decided to get married, they no longer had independence. Instead, they assumed the roles of reliance on their spouses. In the Modern Era, females were the central source of change, showing that they started and ensured that they achieved their goal of change. Women understood how to arrange for their cause, convince people, as well as the capability of promoting their cause.