Annotated Bibliography: Violent Crimes
The paper will provide a summary of various sources that could be used in the research on violent crimes. It will clearly outline the relevance and importance of the different sources in the research.
Barber, N. (2006). Why is violent crime so common in the Americas? Aggressive Behavior, 32(5), 442-450.
The article by Barber (2006) provides an explorative study on occurrence of violent crimes in the United States. It is noted that America has the highest level of violent crimes than any other country in the world. The article notes the role single parenthood families have played in increasing the level of violent crimes in America. The increased rates of single parent families have created unethical behaviors due to lack of proper parental guidance. Most of the children in the United States lack proper parental support. The rates of violent crimes can be strongly linked to the increased number of single parent families in America. Income equality is another issue that has led to increased violent crimes in America. People from low income earning families are involved in most of the reported cases of violence. The article is useful in the research study, as it would expose the researcher to the significant issues that leads to increased violent crimes in America.
Graz, C., Etschel, E., Schoech, H., & Soyka, M. (2009). Criminal behavior and violent crimes in former inpatients with affective disorder. Journal of affective disorders, 117(1), 98-103.
The article by Graz, Etschel, Schoech and Soyka (2009) provides a comprehensive study of criminal behaviors and violent crimes among patients affected with affective disorder. The evidence of the article is based on several studies on criminal and violent behavior among persons diagnosed with schizophrenia. In the article, some of studies integrate research investigations on the relationship between affective disorder and violent behaviors of the individuals. The findings of the research suggested that the frequency of criminal behaviors among individuals may dependent on the nature of diagnoses. It also noted that the increased cases of substance use led to the increased violent actions in the society. Thus, affective disorders could lead to violent crimes due to the violent criminal behaviors of the individuals. The article is significant to the study on violent crimes, as it offers adequate evidence on the nature of violent crimes. Therefore, the article would be crucial in conduction of the research on violent crimes in the society.
Klötz, F., Petersson, A., Isacson, D., & Thiblin, I. (2007). Violent crime and substance abuse: a medico-legal comparison between deceased users of anabolic androgenic steroids and abusers of illicit drugs. Forensic science international, 173(1), 57-63.
The article by Klötz, Petersson, Isacson and Thiblin (2007) sought to conduct a research on the correlation between violent crimes and substance in the society. The substances abused include anabolic steroids and illicit drugs, which leads to a behavioral change among individuals. The article documents the various cases and survey studies that reflect how substance abuse leads to increased feelings of hostility and aggressiveness. The increased aggressiveness is responsible for causing violent reactions and behaviors among the violent offenders. The history of most criminals usually indicates a string of substance abuse, more so the illicit substances. It is crucial to understand that increased cases of violent crimes are caused by substance abuse. The relationship of violent crimes and substance abuse is significant on the research on violent crimes, since it analyzes the impacts of substance of criminal behavior.
Types of Computer Crimes
Characteristically, computer crime can be classified by the kind of activity which happens. Four elementary classes are exploited in relating to computer crime. These include theft, fraud, copyright violation, and attacks.
Theft in computer crime designates either illegal confiscation of physical items like hardware or illegal deletion copying of data or information from a computer system.
Fraud on the Internet operates on the gamut from credit card presents which are exploited only to take personal information, to stockholder placements which stimulate a stock or asset offer to inspire investment.
- Copyright violation
The Internet has presented an exclusive chance and environment for copyright violation. This kind of computer crime involves the use of software, which is not suitably attained or bought.
- Attacks on firms and individuals
Attacks on firms’ management information systems may be considered as being physical or logical. There are numerous circumstances where web sites, produces, and individuals being attacked by dangerous personalities or assemblies.
Information Systems and Technology Weaknesses
There are numerous categories of activities which may also impair information systems and associate technology. These deeds may lead to criminal charges relying on the situations and impact on information systems. Presently, these accomplishments fall inside the categories of viruses, worms, Trojan Horse, time bomb, logic bomb, and trapdoors.
A virus refers to a program with aim to harm or make a computer organization unusable. The virus technique of attack is to embed itself to particular files like data files.
Worms are another critical program fashioned to create variability information systems and associate technology. Worms vary from viruses because a worm is an unrestricted operating program.
- Trojan Horse
This software program obtains its nomenclature from the Greek mythos portraying war action between the Greeks and Trojans of Troy. Normally, a Trojan Horse does something damaging whereas the person at the computer keyboard imagines they are downloading or copying a simulation or some other proper file. The Trojan Horse frequently loads a software application to be used in a later Denial of Service attack and decrypts ones access codes, credit card numbers that are stored within their computer system
- Time bomb
This refers to software bouts that are intended to happen at a programmed time or date. The dissimilarity between a time bomb and a virus is that theoretically the time bomb does not extend.
- Logic bomb
Logic bombs refers to software invasions that activated by a programmed occurrence. The most corporate logic bombs happen when IT personnel are decommissioned from service.
Trapdoors refer to system appearances that evade safety system. These are concealed logins or executive user descriptions added by system designers for devious motives.
The biggest challenge in the cybercrime investigation is to apprehend the criminal investigation is to understand the criminal offence and secondary to substantiate it. Moreover, real time co-operation and accepting of legal issues offers another challenge to computer crime investigation.
In conclusion, computer crime risks management can be achieved in information systems settings. Security is a misapprehension as any computer system can be invaded and greatly attacked under the right situations. Consequently, the paramount hazard is to be complacent with such computer crimes in any setting.
Casey, E. (2010). Digital evidence and computer crime: forensic science, computers and the internet. London: Academic.
Toren, P. (2003). Intellectual property and computer crimes. New York: Law Journal Press.
Vecca, J. R. (2005). Computer forensics: computer crime scene investigation. Hingham, Mass: Charles River Media.
An emergency or crisis is an unexpected event or occurrence that can close down functions, cause physical or environmental damage, cause significant injury or loss of life to workers, learners, guests, or the community, or endanger Humboldt Education Center’s public image. Emergency management is the procedure of planning for, mitigating, addressing, and recuperating from an emergency. The All Risks Safety and Protection Strategy is the foundation of this plan and provides for a synchronized response and a clear line of control. The following will induce execution of this emergency security plan:
- Notice of a university emergency to the president, management, and/or other appropriate individuals by the security director
- Notice of a university emergency by a reliable source of information
- A routine failure reaction that gets worse and is considered significant by the Technological innovation Division
- Serious weather-related problems that endanger university functions
- A significant crisis, either natural or man-made (Butler & Clayton, 2009)
Should an emergency happen demanding the implementation of this security plan, an Emergency Command Center (ECC) may need to be established. The president of the university will set up the ECC and take the part of Incident Leader (IC). Communication concerning the implementation of the security plan, and relevant continuous information concerning the emergency will be sent through the communication center to notify workers, learners, and guests in the impacted areas. The message will cover guidelines for action. Emergency notices are ready and managed by the Public Relations manager to accomplish immediate and thorough communication. Should the occurrence impact computer systems and telephones, communication will be expected to take place through the Building Emergency Supervisors (BEMs) in the involved area radios and verbal communication (Abbott & Hetzel, 2010).
As part of the Security and Risk Evaluation Procedure, Humboldt Education and learning Center has recognized prospective risks that may cause a risk to the learners, employees, and visitors of the College. These prospective threats have been recognized through a procedure of information collecting and survey as well as on-site statement and research.
Hazards Profile and Assessment
The Humboldt Education Center campuses are exposed to many risks, all of which have the prospective for disrupting the community, triggering casualties, and damaging or destroying private or public property. Humboldt Education Center has recognized the prospective risks and, for each hazard, recognized the probability of occurrence, the approximated effect on public safety and health, and the approximated effect on environment and public (Trump, 2011).
Preventive and Mitigation Measures
By adhering to the District Security and Risk Evaluation process, the College and its staff will identify precautionary and mitigation actions considered necessary to reduce the possibility of risk on the Humboldt Education University. In addition, following any problems, Humboldt Education Center will evaluate the incident and response to determine if additional precautionary and mitigation actions need to be applied.
Timely and rapid communication of information to the communication center during emergencies is critical. In addition, precise and appropriate communication of information to emergency occurrence employees is required for sufficient response to emergency occurrences. Humboldt Education Center will use several communication strategies in handling different levels of occurrences (Trump, 2011). The communication center is the primary mode of communication to all members of the university community in the event of an emergency. This plan can be triggered by the public information official within the Region or by the following College officials: the president of the college, Vice president, Dean of Student, security director, or assistant security director.
Through emergency communication center alerts, students, and staff can receive emergency signals via communication center and individual e-mail accounts, mobile and home contact numbers, and text information. The communication center will be examined for appropriate performance three times per year at the beginning of each term and summer period depending on the Workplace Safety and Protection (Butler & Clayton, 2009). The liability of each member of district Universities and divisions involved in urgent management will be familiar with these communication methods. Individuals must also ensure that their private contact details and the contact details of their employees are up to date and precise in order for appropriate communication. Inconsistencies in contact details will be resolved as soon as possible.
District and Campus Web Page
The most recent information regarding the position of the district is always available on the district and university Websites. During and following emergency circumstances, details as it is applicable to the district community will be published on these Websites as it becomes available, such as details about such things as university closure. Other details will be published as considered appropriate (Trump, 2011).
Public Address System
Outdoor sound system are located in several places on the Humboldt Education Center in order to alert students, staff and visitors on College about an emergency. Both voice information and warning tones will be used to offer directions to those who are in sensible range of the outdoor sound system. The voice information and warning tones will guide all employees to seek protection. More information will be provided through the university emergency aware program, which disseminates information to university e-mail and mobile phones (Abbott & Hetzel, 2010).
The emergency authorities have the ability to spread important information via text directly to the mobile cell phones of users signed up the service. This provides emergency authorities with another option to connect with Humboldt Education Center staff and students during a disaster.
Basic responsibility for these functions is allocated to the university emergency communication center as monitored by the president or security director. Emergency tasks to be conducted include the following:
- Receive details on emergency circumstances
- Alert key district authorities of emergency circumstances
- Spread warning details and guidelines to the district through available alert systems
- Spread alerts and guidelines to special facilities
- Offer up-dates to the university community as instructed (Trump, 2011)
In the event of an emergency or incident, the president of the College is responsible for informing communication center staff so that alerts can be conveyed throughout the communication center program as appropriate. The security director declares university emergency alerts and evacuations via the university public address program.
Main responsibility for these functions is allocated to the university security director, who will sustain the College and Campus security Plans of this strategy and assisting emergency projects to be conducted include the following:
Building emergency management (BEM) Responsibilities: The security director will work as the emergency manager, and different supervisors should be allocated to execute emergency management functions when the main manager is not available. The BEM is accountable for the following planning activities:
- Developing an evacuation strategy for the campus building
- Assigning employees to execute various evacuation roles
- Maintaining an itemized duplicate of the evacuation strategy
- Training building residents in the evacuation strategy
- Conducting regular evacuation exercises
- Revising the evacuation strategy as necessary
- Assigning and coaching floor supervisors (FM)
- Assigning and coaching industry planners (SC) when necessary
Employees Responsibilities: Teachers are accountable for informing their floor/department student leaders who need evacuation support. Teachers are accountable for guaranteeing that learners who need evacuation support report to their designated place. Teachers should make sure disabled learners are being assisted and inform security department if learners demanding support are at the designated place. It is the obligation of all district faculties to point out their emergency evacuation tracks and emergency procedures to learners at the beginning of each term (Trump, 2011).
Staff Responsibilities: Upon installation of the building alert, specific employees are accountable for guaranteeing that residents with special evacuation needs are aware of the alert condition and respond to their designated place. The ground or division leader is accountable for giving personnel to perform this function.
District Evacuation Functions: Primary liability for these functions is allocated to the District Security director—in synchronization with the local officials—who will prepare and maintain the Evacuation of this plan. To make sure safe evacuation during a high-level emergency or disaster, the District security director shall:
- Recognize places where evacuation has already taken place or where it is necessary, and figure out at-risk persons
- Perform evacuation preparations for known threat places, such as paths and identification of visitors’ traffic control specifications.
- Develop simple planning techniques for ad hoc evacuations.
Learners and employees with disabilities who need assistance getting out of the building are requested to provide a duplicate of their schedule and workplace location to the head of the disability center. This center offers a list of places of individuals with disabilities to the Humboldt Education Center Security Office. Faculty and employees are to ensure that individuals with disabilities are being helped during an emergency or evacuation (Abbott & Hetzel, 2010).
Approach to Safety and Security Management
Humboldt Park Education Center will perform minimization activities as a fundamental element of the emergency management program. Mitigation is intended to remove risks, reduce the prospect of risks causing an emergency scenario, or reduce the repercussions of inevitable risks. Mitigation should be a pre-disaster activity, although minimization may also occur in the end of an emergency scenario with the purpose of preventing the scenario from repeating (Trump, 2011).
Preparedness actions will be performed to create the response abilities needed in the event of a crisis. Preparedness is everybody’s responsibility. Humboldt Education Center divisions and offices must create programs and procedures to help in the overall execution and maintenance of emergency programs. Among the preparedness actions included in the emergency control program are:
- Offering emergency equipment and facilities
- Emergency planning, such as maintaining this plan
- Performing or organizing appropriate coaching for emergency responders, emergency control employees, other local authorities, and volunteers who support this jurisdiction during emergency situations
- Performing regular exercises and drills to test emergency programs and coaching (Trump, 2011)
Humboldt Education Center will respond to emergency situations successfully and efficiently. The focus of most of this plan is on planning for the response to emergency situations. Response functions are designed to take care of a situation while reducing accidents and property damage. Response activities include alerts, emergency medical services, firefighting, police officers functions, evacuation, protection and mass care, search and rescue, as well as other related functions.
If a catastrophe occurs, Humboldt Education Center will carry out a recovery program that involves both short-term and long-term initiatives. Humboldt Education Center will be part of those initiatives. Short-term functions seek to recover vital solutions to the community and provide for the basic needs of the community. Long-term recovery concentrates on repairing the region to its normal state. The government, pursuant to the Stafford Act, provides many catastrophe recovery supports (Trump, 2011). The process of recovery includes support to individuals, businesses, and government and other community institutions. Examples of recovery programs include short-term housing, recovery of region services, debris removal, recovery of resources, crisis mental health services, and renovation of damaged facilities and roads.
Levels of Emergency and Response
Humboldt Park Education Center describes and categorizes emergency situations using a three-level system. Each category or stage of emergency has a corresponding stage of response, according to the magnitude of severity. The incident commander (IC) or the first certified individual to reach the field of the occurrence will establish the degree of an emergency. The severity of the occurrence may increase or reduce during response actions, demanding the stage of response to be modified. The degree of an occurrence is identified by the risk to the protection of the Region group and property, as well as the capability of the communication center to deal with the occurrence.
Level 1 Emergency: A minimal emergency scenario that is restricted in opportunity and prospective impacts, which involve:
- A restricted place and/or restricted population group
- An evacuation or in-place sheltering, generally restricted to the immediate place of the occurrence
Level 1 Response: Level 1 incidents/events are the least serious of the three levels of emergency situations. Regular district response services will be able to deal with the incident/emergency without activating the EOC. The crisis may result in minimal harm to college members or university group and minimal harm to district functions, and will impact a single local area of the university.
Level 2 Emergency: A significant emergency situation that is bigger in opportunity and more severe with regards to actual or potential effects than a level 1 Emergency. Features of a level 2 Emergency include:
- A huge area, significant population group, or important buildings or facilities
- The execution of large-scale evacuation or in-place sheltering, and execution of short-term protection and mass care functions
- District-wide caution and public instructions
- A multi-agency response working under the IC
- Exterior support from other local response organizations, contractors and restricted support from government or state organizations
Level 2 Response: Stage 2 incidents/events require implementation and activation of the emergency communication center. Sychronisation between several district divisions will be required for an effective response to the occurrence. The occurrence may result in significant damage to district functions or serious damage to members of the university group. A level 2 occurrence may affect one or more areas of the campus.
Level 3 Emergency: A catastrophe relating to the incident or risk of important accidents and comprehensive property harm. Often, such disasters are beyond the capability of the district and municipality to handle with its organic resources. A level 3 emergency involves:
- A huge place, substantial population, and/or crucial facilities
- The execution of large-scale evacuation or in-place sheltering, and execution of short-term protection and mass care functions
- Community-wide warning and public guidelines
- Significant exterior support from other regional response agencies, contractors, and comprehensive government assistance (Abbott & Hetzel, 2010)
Level 3 Response: Stage 3 incidents/events are those in which catastrophe conditions are present. Response will require activation of emergency communication center. A Stage 3 incident may result in major harm to several district functions, huge accidents, and severe injury to members of the campus group. The incident will not be local to a single place and may affect the entire district. The region may need to request support from several exterior support groups at the regional, state, and government level to properly handle to the incident (Trump, 2011).
Every Humboldt Education Center worker and student has a role in the campus crisis. All students and staff are required to be familiar with emergency procedures required by the Risk Protection and security Strategy. This will be accomplished through training and exercises as required by the Campus Protection Enhancement Act. The Humboldt Education Center controls the District emergency control center (ECC) and the emergency functions centers. During district-wide emergencies, the ECC serves as the control center for the response and recovery functions. An extensive range of communication tools are employed by the ECC to aid in the reception and release of vital details. The ECC brings together decision makers to organize the flow of information and strategy development. An extensive range of organizations and government departments may be represented during an ECC implementation based on the type and severity of the crisis.
Campus emergencies are basically reported to the Campus Protection and Security department first. This could be through the Emergency Management and Communications, on-campus emergency mobile phones, local mobile phones, weather sirens, weather radios or other means. The Security Personnel on duty will get in touch with the security director or the allocated official instantly when the reported occurrence is predicted to have campus-wide impact or include many resources or multiple hours of time to mitigate (Trump, 2011).
When the director or designated official decides that the disaster is categorized as the major crisis as described in the Risks Protection and security Strategy, he or she will instantly get in touch with members of the Campus Risk Response Group. If the director or designee decides that the threat to the university is imminent, any one member of the Campus Risk Response Group thus approached has the power to stimulate this course of action.
Prohibited Conduct and Sanctions
Humboldt Education Center prevents the ownership of weapons, such as carrying, maintaining, or storing weaponry, on any college or university facility when not required by the person’s job or according to relevant district policies or state laws. Appropriate disciplinary measures, such as prosecution and arrest, will be introduced for any person discovered to possess a gun or weapon on campus residence. Banned behaviour considered undesirable by the district and which will subject the individual(s) to disciplinary measure that conforms to district policy includes, but is not limited to, the following:
- Risk of or physical damage to others;
- Actual physical or verbal conduct that makes a reasonable fear of harm
- Actual physical or verbal actions that results in significant emotional problems to an individual(s);
- Actual physical or verbal actions or harmful aggressive actions, whether perceived or actual, based on ethnicity, gender, sex, sex-related orientation, or other secured status;
- Risk of or real defacement and/or damage of property;
- Sexual harassment or attack, such as dating, stalking, or domestic violence;
- Brandishing a tool or firearm; or
- Revenge against any individual(s) who reports a breach of these principles (Abbott & Hetzel, 2010)
Humboldt Education Center identifies that offering follow-up with employees and learners after a disaster is critical to keeping order in the educational institutions and helping associates of the university group move beyond the crisis. School, District, nation, and state based response groups have been established for planning and applying recovery/postvention actions (Butler & Clayton, 2009). These functions, activities include assisting the mourning process for employees and learners, offering precise information to university employees and the public, creating classroom materials for activities and discussions, intervening with at-risk learners, arranging follow-up events with parents and the public, assessment response initiatives and suggesting developments. The goal of these actions is to address the consequences of an emergency or crisis with the supply of support, control, and framework to strengthen a situation until it can return to its pre-crisis condition.
Abbott, E. B. & Hetzel, O. J. (2010). Homeland security and emergency management: A legal guide for state and local governments. Chicago, IL: Section of State and Local Government Law, American Bar Association.
Butler, A. S., & Clayton, E. W. (2009). A Review of the HHS family planning program: Mission, management, and measurement of results. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press.
Trump, K. S. (2011). Proactive school security and emergency preparedness planning. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Corwin.
Missions of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
One of the CIA’s missions is to gather information that is supposed to reveal the plans, intentions and the potential of the US adversaries, from which decisions are made and necessary actions taken. At the same time, the CIA is mandated with the responsibility of keeping and safeguarding the United States secrets that aid in national security (Mello, 2000). The information may be collected overtly through the readership of overseas newspapers and magazines or surveillance of overseas television and radio stations. On the other hand, the information may also be collected covertly through listening devices, hidden cameras or satellite photography. The CIA carries out these operations through the creation of multidisciplinary centers to tackle aforesaid high-priority concerns like nonproliferation, counterterrorism, and counterintelligence (Wagner, 2007). The CIA operations are also concerned with international organized crime and drug trafficking, environmental and firearms control intelligence.
An operational example of this mission is in the employment of the CIA officials in the US embassies across the world (Mello, 2000). The officials carry out counterintelligence, and other specialized operations that relate to overseas intelligence and national security. Another example is in the worldwide fight against terrorism in relation to information gathering and the crackdown on al Qaeda hot spots in different parts of the world.
The second mission of the CIA is to produce accurate and timely analysis of the intelligence information to the president and all the other government officials that create and implement the policies of the US national security. The analysis could be anything from a translated document aimed at providing insights, warning and opportunity to the president and policy makers, whose responsibility is to protect and advance the interests of the US. The CIA is the leading agency responsible for the provision of global intelligence reports in all manner of issues ranging from political, social, technological, economic and military settings (Wagner, 2007). They are involved in forging strong partnerships between numerous intelligence collection centers and the analysis centers, and enhances the correlation and evaluation of the information allied to national security and the provision of proper distribution of the aforesaid intelligence.
An example of this mission in operation is the 2003 war in Iraq, where the CIA officials arrived early in 2002 and prepared a battle space for the subsequent invasion of the US military forces (Mello, 2000). Another example is the capture, interrogation and analysis of intelligence information from Sheik Mohammad that led to the discovery of Osama bin Laden’s hideout in Abbottabad.
The third mission of the CIA is to execute covert ops upon the orders of the head of state to prevent threats and to accomplish the US policy objectives (Wagner, 2007). This kind of operation is carried out in circumstances where openly operating against the adversary would be considered disadvantageous. Such operations are usually unlawful in the targeted nation and regularly considered to violating the laws of the sponsor nation. Covert actions may comprise of disruption, assassination, supporting coups or subversions.
The president indirectly communicates his wish for a sensitive operation with the government officials in a boardroom and it is the mandate of the CIA officials, who have internalized the idea, to carry out that wish. An example of this mission in action is the saga involving the Iranian Contra Affair where the President Reagan’s administration was advancing the proceeds of firearm sales to Iran towards the Contra rebels in Nicaragua to aid in ousting the left-wing Sandinistas (Wagner, 2007).
Mello, T. B. (2000). The Central Intelligence Agency. Chelsea House Publishers.
Wagner, H. L., & Mello, T. B. (2007). The Central Intelligence Agency. Infobase Publishing.
The Death of Osama Bin Laden
Osama Bin Laden was the world’s greatest terrorist bomber and the founder of the al-Qaeda organization which served the purpose of mass casualty attacks inimical to military and civilian targets. Being the C.E.O of terror attacks, he organized a traumatizing and painful attacks against the United States embassy in 1998 and the 2002 Bali bombings which resulted in deaths of thousands of innocent men, women and children (Bowden, 2012).After these attacks, he went into hiding in Pakistan and was declared as the world’s most wanted terrorist. The U.S government launched war on terror against him in a bid to find him whether dead or alive. In May 2011, president Obama held a press conference to inform the nation that Osama Bin Laden had been killed and his body seized by the U.S armed forces. In some minds, this event provided justice for the attacks of 9/11 while for others, the fear of threat increased. This paper analyses the post-event speeches by President Obama and the CIA director.
In the introductory part of his remarks, President Obama embarks on the past ten years of that fateful September when a bright day was darkened by the horrific attack on the American citizens in their history (The White House, 2011). He states that the 9/11 images still reflect in the national economy through the terror related tragedies for instance the collapsing of the Twin Towers to the ground.He congratulates heroic citizens who took the initiative to rescue the nation from destruction. He states that the worst images were those the world could not perceive such as the gap left by loved ones, the adverse effect on children who lost one or both parents and parents who could never embrace their child/children. From these remarks, it is clear that President Obama was predicting the future of the U.S based on the historic events(The White House, 2011). As victims of casualties, they have learnt some lessons from the past and are applying the skills to better the future. The analysis here are both victorious and realized risk. The death of the innocent victims was an awakening dawn to the U.S citizens of the realized risks around them whereas the heroic military who survived after the terror war emerged victorious and were even acknowledged by the president.
He also states that on September 2001 was America’s time of grief and that people united, by holding hands and donating blood to the wounded(The White House, 2011). They were united to protect their nation and bring justice to the offenders. Upon learning that the attackers were al-Qaeda group and Osama being the bell ringer, they declared war against al-Qaeda to protect their citizens, friends and allies. He states that they have achieved tremendous strides through the efforts of their heroic military and their counterterrorism professionals. They have warped terrorist attacks and strengthened their homeland defense. They eradicated the Taliban government in Afghanistan which offered a safe haven to Osama and his al-Qaeda crew and also connected with friends around the globe to capture al-Qaeda terrorists. These remarks indicates that the president respected his citizens’ grief and that he also encouraged unity to members of his state. Later in future after the nation’s mourning, they were united and remained strong and this helped them in one way or another to defeat their attacker. Based on analysis, the speech was a victorious one whereby they not only destroyed Osama, but also the strong points of al-Qaeda group in Afghanistan.
In the midst of his speech, President Obama notes that after the destruction of al-Qaeda’s haven in Afghanistan, Osama managed to escape to his hideout in Pakistan while the remnant group continued to take lives across Afghan border and across the world (CIA, 2011). He also states that after taking the throne, he ordered the capture or killing of Osama the main priority to curb the al-Qaeda group as they proceed to defeat, disrupt and dismantle his network. From these remarks, it can be deduced that with the escaping of Osama and the co-existence of al-Qaeda in different parts of the world, the president was trying to alert his citizens on the possibilities of unpleasant future turnout of events. The citizens had to be cautious and take note of any violent happenings around their environment. This part of speech can be analyzed as realized risk because the enemy is still roaming freely and nobody knows the risk which might befall them around such dangerous attackers.
The director of the Central Intelligence Agency Leon E. Panetta, also had a message to the U.S citizens informing them that they had successfully killed Osama Bin Laden and that justice was served at last (CIA, 2011). He goes ahead to state that there can never be any compensation good enough to measure up for the suffering and pain inflicted by the Osama and his henchmen, and consoles thousands of families with the death of Osama. He also adds that the thoughts of family agency turns to the fallen soldiers who died in the battlefield to make that day a reality. He however enlightens them to be vigilant since the founder of al-Qaeda was the one killed and not al-Qaeda group.From his message it is clear that the relevant, timely and accurate intelligence offered by CIA resulted to the victory of the U.S military, though it is essential to note that the battle is not yet over (CIA, 2011). The fallen soldiers on the other hand gave up their own life for a terrorism Free State and a peaceful future.
Personally I think the killing of Bin Laden served as justice to all U.S citizens, especially those who were affected directly or indirectly. But on the other hand, it also raised the fear of terrorism among most U.S citizens (Michael, 2012). This is because the world wide spread of al-Qaeda organization might be planning to unleash another attack against U.S to avenge the death of Osama. After all, they still have the terrorism skills their master instilled in them, plus the impact of losing their leader might double their wrath to take even more lives than before. In their speech conclusion, both President Obama and Leon agree that thecitizens must remain vigilant since al-Qaeda will try to avenge Osama’s death. This is evident by the current trends of terrorism experienced in different parts of the globe among them the U.S, Egypt, Kenya, Pakistan and Uganda just to mention a few countries around the world.
The death of Bin Laden has adversely affected the al-Qaeda recruits in several ways. For instance, during his lifetime, he trained both the local and regional Muslim militant groups and advised them to carry out the terror attacks on their own, without relying on a central leader. The principal strength of al-Qaeda was to operate without a central point or leader (Michael, 2012). This knowledge is still applicable up to date whereby they just explode different parts of the world without central meeting point and this works in their favor since it is hard for them to be tracked down. Also apart from being the founder, Osama was also viewed as a spiritual leader among the al-Qaeda group. Therefore, his rebellious ideology terrorism war between the West and Islam unfortunately exists to date. His purpose as an ideological and visionary lodestar are still nurtured among extremists Islamic, since ideas never perish (The Atlantic Monthly Group, 2014).
Bowden, M. (2012). The Finish: The Killing of Osama Bin Laden. Atlantic Monthly Press.
CIA. (2011).Statement to Employees by Director of the Central Intelligence Agency Leon E. Panetta on the Death of Osama Bin Laden. Retrieved on 14 Feb. 2014 from https://www.cia.gov/news-information/press-releases-statements/press-release- 2011/justice-done.html
Michael, J. (2012). Year after Bin Laden’s death. Retrieved on 14th February 2014 http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/world/story/2012-04-29/bin-laden- anniversary/54630274/1
The Atlantic Monthly Group (2014). How the Killing of Bin Laden has Crippled al Qaeda. Retrieved on 14th February 2014 http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/04/how-the-killing- of-bin-laden- has-crippled-al-qaeda/256505/
The White House (2011). Remarks by the President on Osama Bin Laden.
Retrieved on 14 Feb. 2014 from http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press- office/2011/05/02/remarks-president-Osama-bin-laden
Police Code of Ethics
The police code of ethics is more public service based than crime fighter based. It states the way police officers should relate with the public more than how they should fight crimes. Very lenient terms are used in the few instances, whereby the fighting of crimes is addressed in the code. It forbids the police from using force, which in most cases is the only way out because most criminals do not cooperate with the police. It also states that the police should use their discretion most of the times (Westmarland, 2005). This makes the police appear willing to do what is best for the public and not what is best for eradicating crimes. The code emphasizes on the conduct of the police, which appears more as a public relations code. This is because it states the way the police should relate with the public and their colleagues (Neyroud & Beckley, 2001). This makes them appear more interested in the way the public views them than the way they dispense their duties. Allowing the police to use their discretion when dealing with crimes clearly shows that, the code is not clear on how they should deal with criminals. This is different from the way the code clearly outlines the dos and don’ts of police when relating with each other and the public.
The code can be improved by outlining how the police officers should handle criminals. The code should be more specific on what actions should be taken by a police officer than merely stating that they use their discretion. This creates a loophole that some police officers misuse by physically abusing suspects, claiming that is the only way they can get them to talk. The code should also determine the exact amount of force a police officer should use.
Westmarland, L. (2005). Police ethics and integrity: Breaking the blue code of silence. Policing and Society, 15(2), 145-165.
Neyroud, P., & Beckley, A. (2001). Policing, ethics and human rights (p. 156). Cullompton, Devon: Willan.
The Aryan Brotherhood
The Aryan Brotherhood is a gang also known as AB, One-Two, or The Brand. It originated in 1960s after the government began to desegregate prisons. White convicts detained at San Quentin were often victimized. Therefore, they formed this gang to revenge on other groups. They especially targeted the Black Guerrilla Family that was a militant group and the Mexican Mafia who victimized White inmates. Irish bikers were the founders of the gang with connections to Charles Manson and the Manson family. The gang was formed under the basic Nazism ideologies and beliefs to undertake the mission of protecting White prisoners from victimization to achieve self-protection. The gang has expanded since 1960s. Consequently, the beliefs and undertakings have evolved and increased. For example, the gang also seeks to provide members with an identity and purpose. Thus, it does not accept new members unless they kill a Hispanic or a Black prisoner. This has led to the adoption of the ‘blood in/ blood out’ motto since members believe quitting is not an option but rather death. In 2002, prison authorities affirmed that the gang’s influence in prisons had been increasing since approximately twenty-nine gang leaders manipulated operations in prisons across the country. The actual number of members is unknown. In 2001, the gang’s membership was estimated to be two thousand. The number however has increased as it was estimated at over fifteen thousand in 2013 (CM, 2011).
According to Texas Department of Criminal Justice, the gang’s strongest influence is witnessed across prisons in Texas ruling within and outside prison settings. The gang’s influence can be witnessed across California. Its weak influence is witnessed in prisons mainly comprising of Black inmates and members of Crips and Black Guerilla Family gangs. Their activities revolve around criminal activities for power, authority, money, and hate. These crimes are drug trafficking, gambling, money laundering, burglary, home invasions, identity theft schemes, and prostitution among others. The gang has proven to be dangerous by engaging in high profile criminal activities. For example, Steven Cooke who was detained for life imprisonment for committing murder was sentenced to eighty-seven months in prison. In 2012, Cooke pleaded guilty for aggregately assaulting gang prospects by brutally beating them for violating gang rules. In 2011, Steven Scott was sentenced by a federal judge to four hundred and fifty months in prison for hate-motivated arsons he pleaded guilty of committing in December 2010. The gang also proves to be dangerous by ensuring members take an oath asserting that they care less while engaging in heartless vengeful criminal acts (Coverson, 2006).
Black Guerilla Family
This is an African American gang also known as either the Black Family or Black Vanguard. Founded in 1966 by Nolen and George Jackson at San Quentin State Prison in California, its beliefs were inspired by Marcus Garvey to formulate African America Marxist Leninist ideologies during the Black Power Movement. The gang’s mission is therefore allied to eradication of racism especially against members of the African American community, maintenance of dignity among prisoners, and the need to overthrow the government. According to FBI, the gang has been spreading in prisons as well as the streets. For example, prison systems in Maryland have affirmed the gang’s activities have been impacting prisons and streets rapidly in attempt to ensure their criminal undertakings progress naturally when members are either poisoned or released back to the communities. This progression has also been witnessed in other prison systems including California. Baltimore however is acknowledged as the gang’s stronghold. The gang is acknowledged as a well organized group engaging in dangerous criminal activities to exert power, gain control, and enhance financial influence. It has faced legal indictments for peddling drugs, engaging in robberies, money laundering, and running prostitution rings. Its members have also been involved in diverse criminal activities resulting in brutal assaults and deaths. According to FBI, the gang’s criminal activities within prison influences undertakings in the streets. The gang has therefore ensured it maintains its dangerous influence in prisons as well as in the streets as witnessed in January 2013 (Porter, 2015).
Correction officers at Baltimore City Detention Center were preparing for a search in the middle of the night. They were determined to root out drugs, weapons, cell phones and contrabands prisoners had stashed illegally. These plans were however communicated to the gang after Tavon White tipped the gang using his phone. The gang’s ‘minister of finance’ relied on the tip to collect dues and levies before funneling the money to gang leaders outside prison. This incident has been applied by FBI to affirm the gang has infiltrated federal, state, and local authorities to gain influence, power and authority posing danger to other inmates and people in the streets. FBI has also prosecuted prison officers especially from Maryland for conspiring and running operations on behalf of the gang (David, 2010).
The Folk Nation
The Folk Nation also referred to as the Folk gang is an alliance of street gangs based in Chicago. In November 1978, Larry Hoover formed this gang in Illinois Department of Corrections. He, the leader of Gangster Disciple Nation developed the idea of forming a gang by persuading leaders of White, Black, and Latino gangs to form an alliance. Folk Nation’ belief is based on the ‘All for One’ mentality in order to sustain and enhance the alliance. Thus, the gang’s mission is to protect the alliance by attacking and fighting individuals and groups posing to be a threat. The gang’s strongholds can be witnessed among prisons in Chicago. The strongholds are maintained by ensuring the members are from diverse races and communities in Chicago. It impacts operations undertaken among the twenty state and private prisons in Colorado and Denver. Its weak strongholds can however be located in Texas due to the massive impact from Aryan Brotherhood (FBI, 2014).
A report was released on 2014 affirming the gang’s leader had been sentenced for twenty years by New York FBI field office. This however has not hindered the gang to grow and expand. More so, it engages in criminal activities enhancing the gang’s influence, power, authority, and financial strength. For example, they steal and smuggle drugs including heroin and cocaine within and outside prisons. They also steal cash, prison commissary foods, televisions, and commit crimes linked to murders, homicides, and brutal assaults while providing protection to white inmates. For example, D-Bloc pleaded guilty of racketeering, brandishing of firearm, attempted murder, and robbery conspiracy before a federal court in New York. The gang is therefore dangerous posing great security threats in the nation (FBI, 2014).
The Mexican Mafia
Mexican Mafia also known as La Eme is an organized criminal organization comprising of Mexicans and Americans that originated in United States. It is the most powerful gang in California with more than three hundred official members and nine hundred associates to assist in carrying out criminal activities. It came into existence in 1957 formed by Michael Cardiel and thirteen Hispanic gang members from Los Angeles. Various gangs including MS-13 show allegiance to this organization by using the number thirteen. It was formed to achieve the mission of protecting members from other gangs in prison. The founder, Luis Huero Buff was an active member of Hawaiian Garden Gang in California when wars between Hispanic groups were rampant in 1950s and 1960s. He developed the belief that, the gang ought to develop self-sustaining entities. As a result, violent members are hired to infiltrate and control black markets and prisons. Thus, it strives to terrorize prison systems in order for the members to enjoy their stay as they serve time. The gang’s strongholds are diversified across the country. Their main stronghold is in Los Angeles (Walker, 2012).
The gang engages in diverse criminal activities including arranging contract killings carried out by Aryan Brotherhood. Homosexuals that are not openly accepted as members are required to sustain prostitution rings in prison. The gang’s main source of income however involves extortion from drug distributors while distributing narcotics in prison as well as in the streets. The gang is therefore regarded as powerful, influential, and dangerous. For example, it applied its power in 1992 exerted by the leader, Joe Morgan, to ensure Surenos should not experience anymore drive-by shootings and violent attacks. In 2006, federal indictments proved the gang has been growing and expanding at a rapid rate in order to exert influence and power in federal and state prisons through violence, threats, and extortion (Walker, 2012).
MS 13 is a criminal organization that was founded in Los Angeles in 1980s by Salvadoran immigrants in Pico-Union from Central American civil wars. The gang was formed based on the belief that, it ought to protect Salvadoran immigrants from more established gangs in California comprising of Mexicans and African Americans. Its mission therefore is to engage in violent criminal activities enhancing the gang’s smuggling undertakings. This has enabled the gang to expand into Washington DC including Takoma and Langley parks. The gang declared Maryland as the center of its activities prompting FBI to form a task force to engage in operations aimed at maiming the organization. This proves the gang has been growing and expanding prompting major law enforcing organizations to pay attention and devise measures to curb its capacities (David, 2010).
In 2009, it was estimated that at least ten thousand gang members residing in United States form the organization enabling the group to engage in diverse violent and dangerous activities. For example, in 2005 United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement commenced the Operation Community Shield. In 2011, more than three thousand gang members had been arrested through the operation without maiming the organization. It is therefore acknowledged as a growing criminal gang that recruits violent persons to engage in dangerous activities. These criminal activities include smuggling of human beings, drugs, and weapons as well as child prostitution (Howard, 2012).
Gangs across United States are meant to commit criminal, violent, and dangerous activities. Thus, they share similar beliefs despite being founded by different members in diverse time periods. Their threat levels are also similar as their influences, powers, and impacts are witnessed across diverse state and federal prisons as well as streets in United States. Their criminal activities are also similar as they engage in violent undertakings posing harm and danger in attempt to exert authority and enhance power. For example, they engage in drug smuggling and peddling, extortion, and prostitution for financial gains. However, they differ on how they identify their members. For example, all gangs comprise of members with tattoos. The tattoos however differ as they are designed differently with diverse meanings to suit the gang’s beliefs, mission, and culture.
Coverson, L. (2006). Aryan Brotherhood tried for 40 Years of Prison Mayhem. ABC News.
Crime Magazine (CM). (2011). Blood In, Blood Out: the Violent Empire of the Aryan Brotherhood. Crime Magazine Report.
David, S. (2010). The Social Order of the Underworld: How Prison Gangs Govern the American Penal System. Oxford University Press.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). (2014). People and Folk Nation: Law Enforcement Bulleting. Wayback Machine.
Howard, L. (2012). MS 13 Gang Labeled transnational Criminal Group, A First for US Street Gang. CS Monitor Review.
Porter, T. (2015). Bloods and Crips Gangs Reject Claims of Kill-a-Cop- Pact. International Business Times.
Walker, R. (2012). The Mexican Mafia Prison Gang Profile, Background and History a Security Threat Group. New York, New Mexican Mafia.
Crime Prevention through Prediction
Prediction of crime represents a hard but increasingly popular task with the rise of new technologies and scientific forecasting methods. One factor in the forecasting of crime concerns the motto that the past is the finest judgeof the future, which involves extrapolation of contemporary and past trends on upcoming events. This model engages mathematical schemes describing the behavior of observed statistics in the past to achieve forecasts of future trends. This is probable through time-series inquiry of trends in crime towards the future. Crime statistics from police and reports by victims provide the source of quantitative time-series data for use in forecasting. Modelling involves description of causal order of variables and forecast of their relationships. Nevertheless, simple extrapolation of past trends is an unreliable method in prediction, and time-series models have to consider broader contexts of crime to maximize validity in crime prediction (Lab, 2016).
Prediction needs to allow for prevalent social, political, technological, and economic variability with influence on crime to be more accurate. Prediction models should identify and forecast the nature and scope of different factors that shall affect crime and abuse in future. The most essential aspect of the models concerns difficulty in identifying, expecting, and factoring in the effects of expected variables in future crime trends. At the same time, the models ought to identify new targets for crime activity in keeping pace with transitions in social mores and innovations in technology (Lab, 2016).
Targeting repeat victimization is sensible in crime prevention because it represents an excellent predictor. Victimization recurs highly in different areas and scopes of life, including personally and in enterprises. Focus on repeat victimization represents acompetent strategy in allocating limited crime prevention resources. Relevant to all crimes with targets, focus on repeat victimization empowers policing to achieve tangible and constructive results to assist crime victims and orients policing more greatly towards victims (Lab, 2016). It allows effective detection of organized crime and can influence positive feedback from victims.
Lab, S. (2016). Crime Prevention: Approaches, Practices, and Evaluations. London, UK: Routledge
Corrupt Practices of Police and Correctional Systems
Police corruption and brutality has come to the attention of the public due to the increasing casesof corrupt activities within the police force and correctional system. Nowadays citizens have to be careful with the way they interact with law enforcement officers because of the increased mistrust between the police and members of the public.Corruption in the police force and their abuse of power has a negative impact on the society which is greater than corruption of other governmental agencies because of their specific characteristics(Lee, Lim, Moore, and Kim, 2013). My town is with no exception because it has been characterized by police corruption and other activities that ail the police force.
Many cases of corrupt practices of the police and correctional systems have been reported in my town in the recent past. Police brutality and corrupt practices within the entire police force is a threat to the well being of the citizens of my town.“Police brutality is whereby the police or officer mandate with taking care of prisoners use excessive physical force or verbal assault and psychological intimidation against people whom they are supposed to protect” (Chaney and Robertson, 2013). Many residents in town have been assaulted by the police and other have fallen victim to the corrupt practices that are widespread in the police force. The culture of police officers is a major factor in creating police corruption because officershave been trained not to reveal the weaknesses of others and thus they sustain corruption by covering up corrupt activities by other officers. Police corruption is a complex issue because it does not submit to simple analysis and thus will continue to affect us, whether we are civilians or law enforcement officers. Investigations of police units in my town have shown evidence of many ills in the police force, for instance, tampering with exhibits, abuse of power, and enforcement of laws in a discriminatory way both in the police force and the correctional system. Many law enforcement officers in my town have been caught fabricating evidence to get convictions in very weak cases as a result of their own shoddy investigations. Police perjury is also rampant in my town and this has made it be considered a sub cultural norm because almost every police officer engages in the vice. Similarly, corruption and brutality is also widespread in correctional facilities where inmates are abused by the police. Investigations in correctional facilities in my town has revealed that inmates are brutality assaulted by correctional officers on flimsy grounds. There have been cases of body injury in correctional facilities as it is evident from the bruised bodies of inmates. Majority ofinmates who have been interviewed have accepted being brutally battered by the police and excessive use of force by correctional officers in some instances.
- Stakeholders in the police force should put measures in place to ensure that those officers who engage in such activities are severely punished so as to deter them and others from engaging in such activities. This will help to mitigate the problem of corruption in the police force and in correctional facilities. Both the police and the general observing public will be deterred from engaging in corruption on witnessing their counterparts being punished.
- An independent body should be set up and allowed to inspect police facilities and carry out investigation on cases of corruption and police brutality. The independent body should be given the powers to apprehend and institute criminal proceedings against those police officers who are believed to have engaged in corrupt activities. They body should also be allowed to inspect correctional facilities and take legal action against those officers who brutally abuse prisoners. This will help in ensuring that those officers are brought to book to serve as an example to others thus ending the vices.
- A law should also be made to ensure that corruption and police brutality are heavily punished. The law should spell out punitive measures that will be taken against those who engage in the above vices. Those who are found guilty of engaging in corruption and police brutality after the due process should be blacklisted and not allowed to serve in any other position in the country. This will act in deterring police and correctional officers from abusing prisoners and soliciting certain favors from members of the public.
- Introduction, police corruption and brutality have become rampant and wide spread in my town.
- Police corruption is evident from the way police handle causes that are brought before them
- Police brutality in my town is clear from the bruises that are on the bodies of the inmates
- Correctional officers brutally abuse prisoners in town as alleged by family members
- Causes of police corruption vary from greed to other issues that have not been addressed in the police force
- Police brutality is caused by the discretion and excessive powers that police officers are given.
- How the deontological theory of ethics can be used to explain police corruption and police abuse.
- Solutions to police corruption and abuse
- Recommendations on how to end police corruption and abuse
Chaney, C., & Robertson, R. (2013). Racism and Police Brutality in America. Journal of African American Studies, 17(4), 480-505.
Lee, H., Lim, H., Moore, D. D., & Kim, J. (2013). How police organizational structure correlates with frontline officers’ attitudes toward corruption: a multilevel model. Police Practice & Research, 14(5), 386-401
Juvenile Criminal Behavior among the Youth
Juvenile criminal behavior among the youth has been on a steady increase. Research conducted by Pyrooz and Sweeten (2015) indicates that children as young as five years old in the United States are involved in gang membership. These kids are engaged in all crimes ranging from petty theft and public disturbance to robbery with violence and drug abuse. The alarming rate at which juvenile centers admit young offenders has led to the need to conduct further research as to what promotes the growth in some young people, and how to deal with the situation. This paper seeks to establish some of the reasons leading to juvenile criminal behavior, patterns studied in juvenile crime, and ways to prevent the youth from participating in crime.
Pyrooz and Sweeten (2015) attempted to establish factors contributing to the probability of youth getting involved in crime. According to their study, some of these factors include substance abuse, financial instability, and peer pressure from their fellow young people and adults. They also noted that the ratio of gangs forming increased in areas of low-income status, and the offenders were associated with criminal activities such as drug abuse and trafficking, petty theft, robbery with violence, and public destruction of property. Due to financial instability \, most people seek for other means of fending for themselves. A large number of juvenile offenders are school dropouts who lack qualification for employment. Others find an easier way out by resorting to the crime pattern which has faster returns, than having to wait for a low wage due to their lack of experience or qualification. Young people also tend to be dysfunctional under the influence of drugs. They lose the ability to think rationally, and act out unreasonably under influence, or have a false sense of confidence in committing crimes.
Some of the patterns noted by Martin et.al (2008) in their research after profiling young offenders can be classified according to age, gender, environment, and race. It was noted that the number of male offenders was higher than that of the females. The figure was higher because boys are more agile, daring, and easily influenced into joining gangs, and committing the vices mentioned. Some act out individually while for others, becoming part of a group is a privilege. Most of them are oblivious to the activities that other gang members get involved in, and later find out that their counterparts take part in criminal activities. Most of them get initiated willingly or unwillingly, just to be part of the group, while others are threatened against leaving.
In the journal done by Martine et.al, their research sought to develop methods that are useful in identifying young offenders (2008). Their methods would then be used to come up with adequate programs used to prevent further increase of juvenile criminal activities. The research was conducted through observation, whereby participants were selected from a city with a high crime rate. These participants were taken from a juvenile system and underwent behavioral and psychological assessment. From the research, a profile was created that indicated that most of the offenders were male, mostly from African –American descent, and they came from a poor background living in an environment that promoted crime.
Various studies indicate that several methods can be used to curb the high crime rate among the youth. The first major step is to understand the reasons that motivate young offenders into committing a crime. As discussed above, the main reasons prompting criminal activities include peer pressure, financial instability, and access to drugs. Spruit et.al (2016) suggest that young people need to be kept busy and involved with positive recreational activities. Their study mainly focuses on using sports to promote healthy activities during their free time. The authors state that young people stand to gain a lot by participating in sports. Those activities are healthy for their body and mind. However, the study mentions that the extent to which sports has influenced juvenile delinquents is yet to be determined. Participation in sports has been suggested as a substitute for other means used before, for example, the boot camp program. Boot camps have been previously used as a rehabilitation method for juvenile offenders (Polsky & Fast, 1993). The programs involve intense physical, psychological, and emotional exercises and activities, meant to punish young criminals and serve as a warning to prevent them from further committing crimes. This program is supposed to scare young children from crime, and give them an oversight of what to expect when imprisoned as adults.
Other ways mentioned in preventing the increase of juvenile offenders include counseling for those already incarcerated to determine the reason for their actions, the introduction of community policing programs in which members keep vigilant watch over the children to prevent them from joining gangs (Spruit et.al, 2016). The young offenders can also be rehabilitated by being enrolled in community schools, and teaching them basic skills that can be used by them to get employment as an alternative to crime for financial reasons. The state should also work in close collaboration with communities to keep watch over those released to ensure they do not go back into crime.
Martin, D., Martin, M., Dell, R., Davis, C., & Guerrieri, C. (2008). Profile of incarcerated
juveniles: Comparison of Male and Female Offenders. Adolescence, 43 (171), 607-622.
Polsky, H., & Fast. J. (1993). Boot camps, juvenile offenders, and culture shock. Child & Youth
Care Forum, 22(6), 403-415.
Pyrooz,D., & Sweeten, G. (2015). Gang Membership between ages 5 and 17 years in the United
States. Journal of Adolescent Health, 56 (4), 414-419.
Spruit, A., Van Vugt E., Stouwe, T., & Stams, G. (2016). Sports participation and juvenile
delinquency: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45(4), 655-671.