Interpersonal Communication Terms
People communicate on daily basis to pass information. Communication is the process in which people deliver a message to another person through pictures, words, gestures among others. This process of communication is only complete if the person targeted to get the information understands it entirely. Communication process involves several stages like encoding where the source of the message puts the message in an understandable form. The encoded message is then transmitted through a channel or a medium to the receiver (Lane, 2016). After the receiver receives the information, he then decodes the message to get its meaning. After decoding the message, the receiver sends a feedback to the point of origin of the message. The original receiver goes back to the same process as the original sender and the same factors influence the communication. The receiver of the message may use the same medium or channel when giving the feedback. The message received by the original sender is not the same as that sent by the original receiver. It is also important to understand that the process of communication may not always be successful. Several factors may prevent the message from reaching the receiver or have the anticipated effect. Barriers, which may affect the transmission of communication, may include, listening barriers like, interrupting a speaker, rushing the speaker, being distracted by someone or something, which is not part of the communication among others. Other barriers occur when speaking, like, unclear messages, failure to seek for clarification while communicating. Additionally, environmental barriers like the use of negative words, use of words with the same meaning, an emotional block may affect the communication process. Communication can be one to one communication, one to many communication, many to one communication.
In addition, communication can be of diverse types; written communication, non-verbal communication, or verbal communication (Lane, 2016). Verbal communication includes; face to face conversation, through telephone, presentation, public speech, interview, and meetings. On the hand, non-verbal communication involves the use of models, pictures, diagrams, charts, maps, sketches, and cutouts. Documents such as minutes, reports, letters, circulars, notices, memos are used in transmitting written messages. Conflict may also occur in the communication process when individuals have opposing viewpoints, have incompatible goals or when there is a scarcity of resources. Interpersonal conflict is expressed either verbally or non-verbally ranging such unnoticeable cold shoulder to evident disapproval. Interpersonal disagreement is different from intrapersonal; violence that involves abuse of certain individuals. Conflict is inevitable in close relationships and in most cases takes a negative emotional toll. In some instances when the conflict is handled well, it can result in positive rewards. This paper will focus on the film, “Love-struck the Musical.” This film was produced in the year 2013, focusing on the issues of love and how people communicate when solving the relationship conflicts that occur. This paper aims at explaining how interpersonal communication concepts have been applied in the film. The paper will illustrate how the actors in this exchange information either verbally or non-verbally. Concepts of interpersonal communication will help in explaining the complexity of relationships and the various stages that relationships go through. In addition, the concepts will help explain why people behave the way they behave and the reasons why they succeed or fail in those relationships. The paper aims at explaining how the following terms have been demonstrated in the film; strategies, self-disclosure, stages, reverse pattern, relational dialectics theory.
The film involves characters such as Mirabella Hutton and her mother Harper. It is based on love where Mirabella Hutton is in love with a French person and wants to go and live with him in Italy. It is against her mother Harper, who argues that Mirabella should remain in her homeland and continue practicing dancing. They confront each other since Mirabella refuses to go and dance in a show, which had been organized by her mother. Her mother had invited famous musicians to come and see her daughter present on that day. Harper falls when also practicing for a dance and breaks her leg. She found a drug called Aramid O’Malley’s as she was searching for drugs relieve her pain. She decided to take it. Immediately she took it, she became young and her wrinkles faded away. She could be able to dance as she did when she was young. She decides to follow Mirabella to Italy. Harper attends a party organized by Mirabella’s boyfriend and she intentionally kisses him to hurt Mirabella and make them break up. Mirabella’s boyfriend was weak and could not tell Mirabella that he loved her. After Mirabella realized that her boyfriend had kissed another girl, she decided to stop the marriage preparations that they had. They eventually get married as the film ends.
The strategy concept shows the various active, passive, and interactive strategies that people use when learning about others and how best to approach them. The passive strategy involves first observing an individual before deciding whether to approach them or not. One observes how an individual communicates with other people, how they respond to various issues, what they like to strangers, and how they are able to handle interpersonal conflict. On the other hand, the active strategy involves asking other people for information about an individual before approaching them. One may enquire from their either close friends or family members about how they carry out communication (Shockley, 2014). One also gets an idea on the best way to approach the person without making them angry. Furthermore, the interactive strategy involves approaching an individual directly and starting a conversation with them. This strategy does not require one to conduct a pilot study about the individual before approaching them. Different strategies have been used in the film “Love-struck Musical.” Harper did not have any information about where Mirabella’s boyfriend lived and did not even know what job he did. Before Harper left for Italy, she sought information about Mirabella’s boyfriend from her friend Amanda. This strategy is called active strategy. Amanda explained to Harper where Mirabella’s boyfriend lived, what he liked, and how he treated Mirabella. Additionally, Amanda explained to Harper that the best way to approach Mirabella’s boyfriend was by first saying hello to him with without shaking his hand. She was also advised not to approach him if he was drunk since he became high tempered when drank. It is evident that strategies should be used to understand other people well to develop a close relationship with them.
Self-disclosure involves an individual revealing their confidential, private, and confidential information to other people. Through this, one is able to build trust with other people. The concept brings people closer together and one is able to understand the other person better. It increases intimacy and makes people feel comfortable to disclose information that other people might see as negative (McLeod, Scheufele & Moy, 1999). Mirabella’s boyfriend was weak and could not tell Mirabella that he loved her. He could only express what he felt through music. In one of the songs he sang to Mirabella, he explained that his mother had died when he was six years and his grandmother raised that. He explained to Mirabella that his grandmother also died when he was at the age of fifteen and that he had to raise himself since there was nobody else to take care of him. He had worked as a houseboy where he was tortured. Despite the torture, he was able to save some amount of money, which he used to produce his first song. He also explained that someone had even planned to kill him if he did not give the song’s lyrics to him. Through this self-disclosure, Mirabella was able to understand her boyfriend and a feeling of trust build between them. Mirabella’s boyfriend was also able to explain to Mirabella that he had also attempted to steal food from his neighbor during his young age since he was starving.
The stage concept explains how the relationships evolve. The concept explains that relationships start with a first encounter, a relationship advances to the point where people are able to exchange a variety of information on different topics. The stages help people know if they have common grounds to enable them to establish a good relationship (Bochner & Krueger, 1979). If the people have common grounds, the two people irrespective of whether they are lovers, friends or business acquaintances develop a lasting bond. Mirabella first met her boyfriend in a dance training session. They were shy at each other and only talked less. One day after the training session, they were left together as their colleagues left. They talked a lot about each other and their experiences. They talked about their aspirations and lifelong dreams. They shared their contacts and left for their homes. They chatted all night. Unfortunately, Mirabella’s boyfriend got a sponsorship in Italy for musical training. He left the next week but they could always keep in touch. Mirabella’s boyfriend flew severally to visit Mirabella. This advanced to the stage that they got married to each other. It is evident that their intimate relationship took a while and stages before they got married.
Relational Dialectics Theory
Relational dialectics theory helps in exploring the tensions that arise in a relationship. It studies the connection and separateness between the people. In the case of self-disclosure, every individual is expected to keep the information confidential (O’sullivan, et al., 1994). If they share the information with other parties, conflict arises and the individuals may even part ways. In the film, Mirabella becomes angry when she realized that her boyfriend had kissed another woman. She felt that her boyfriend had betrayed her and that he only played with her feelings. Mirabella even composed a song claiming that her boyfriend is a liar and that she hoped that she was only dreaming. She closed herself in her room and did not want to talk to anyone about her boyfriend. She vowed never to talk to him and that he had shattered all her dreams. Her boyfriend apologized and claimed that he kissed another woman by mistake, but she did not want to listen to anything about it. They split ways and did not communicate to each other for few days. The relationship between Mirabella and Harper also deteriorated and Harper could not even look at Mirabella’s eyes. This theory aims at studying such tensions in relationships regardless of whether they are business, family or lover relationships.
Reverse pattern concept explains that once relationships have broken down, they follow a reverse pattern similar to the way they were initiated. Those in the relationship mainly focus on the differences rather than the similarities (Verderber, Beebe &Verberber, 2004). They begin to reduce the number of times that they communicated about the impersonal topics. The members in the relationship avoid each other and the relationship becomes unrewarding to both parties. Members exhibit mutual annoyance when they meet and could even catch the attention of other people because of this. After Mirabella realized her boyfriend kissed another woman, she developed a negative attitude towards him. She did not want to meet him and every time her boyfriend called or texted her, she could talk rudely or even not pick the calls. It is interesting to see how all this happened because they had even planned for a wedding and set the wedding date. This concept explains that the members in the relationship exhibit a proportional level of hatred to the love they shared. Despite Harper apologizing to Mirabella because of kissing her boyfriend, she did not want to listen to anything positive about him. Mirabella’s friends advised her to forgive her boyfriend since he did not kiss intentionally.
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Corporate Communication in Guatemala
Corporate communication is an essential ingredient of success in every organization. Corporate communication determines what and how people view the organization internally and externally. In essence, corporate communication helps unveil the company to its stakeholders in a way that persuades them to continue to support the goals of the organization. Poor corporate communication can derail the growth and the development of an organization. As such, organizational leaders invest a great deal of resources to ensure that the company maintains the right image to its stakeholders. On the other hand, corporate communication policies of an organization reflect the societal values of the community in which the company exists. The cultural values of the society have a great influence on the various aspects of corporate communication in an organization (Goodman and peter 79).
The differences in culture explain the various mechanisms and tools that companies employ in enhancing the knowledge of the firm to its stakeholders. As such, organizations operating international businesses employ different tools of corporate communication depending on the society that the company serves. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the corporate communication rules in Guatemala. Additionally, the paper will detail how the corporate communication rules operate in the country as well as the various cultural values that determine business operations in the nation.
The Cultural Values
An interview with Ray Rogers who is a former manager of one of the Coca-Cola battling plants in Guatemala revealed the following as the main Corporate Communication Rules and cultural values of the Guatemala. To start with, Ray Rogers claimed tha the culture of Guatemala is characterized by high levels of collectivism and a high power distance. People in Guatemala value unity within the society and every member of the community bear the responsibility of the other peoples well being. Family is a highly respected institution in this community and people mostly live in extended families. The nature of lifestyle in Guatemala is rather different from the life in the United States where people value individualism. Family in the United States constitutes of the nuclear family hence the difference in the view of family between the two nations.
Furthermore, he revealed that the collectivity nature of life extends to the workplace where people mostly work in teams and groups. The cohesiveness of members within an organization in Guatemala is of great value and it is a determinant factor to the success of the firm. Loyalty is highly valued in the Guatemala community. People pledge allegiance to the teams or groups in which they belong. The collectivism nature of life requires people to have strong ties with the rest of the world, hence necessitating loyalty in both social and economic situations (Hubner 126).
On the other hand, Ray Rogers acknowleged that the people of Guatemala allow inequality in terms of wealth and power to exist within the society. The society appreciates the fact that people exist in different capacities and the influence that one has on the society depends on their status or class. As such, the division of power within organizations is vital to the people of Guatemala. The responsibilities of people within the organization differ according to their power positions within the firm. Democracy is rarely practiced in the work place or in the society due to the division of power and wealth. Additionally, the society also believes in absolute truth that cannot be challenged.
Ray Rogers also realized that the Guatemala people do not accept change easily because they believe in one truth. Therefore, international organizations with offices in Guatemala must find ways to fit in the society in one way or another. Companies that try to change the way of operating in the business realm end up in bankruptcy in Guatemala because people are loyal to their values and the stipulated ways of operations (Jaksic and Sladana 47). The business community has set rules and regulations to govern business transactions throughout the land. The purpose of the rules and the regulations is to prevent the occurrence of uncertainties and the unexpected.
Corporate Communication Rules in Guatemala
From the interview, Ray Rogers revealed that the aspects of the corporate communication in Guatemala are different from those in the United States. Ray Rogers pointed out that there are two main corporate communication rules that stand out in Guatemala. He categorized them as division of responsibility and restriction and confidentiality. Corporate communication is the means through which the organization communicates with its stakeholders. As such, the division of responsibilities within the organization determines who and how the information about the company reaches the concerned parties. Ray Rogers highlighted that responsibilities for internal and external communication differ in Guatemala and so does the message that the company presents to the stakeholders. Moreover, companies follow specific rules and regulations in communicating to both internal and external stakeholders to avoid chances of unplanned occurrences.
Ray Rogers also stipulated that the people of Guatemala do not have tolerance for uncertainties, therefore, communication within and without the organization are well planned to avoid such incidences (Mumby 63). Consequently, employee communication is also different in Guatemala. According to the Ray Rogers, the culture of collectivism gives people the chance to raise their views concerning certain things, employees within the organization do respect the chain of command in raising their views.
Corporate communication rules govern the restrictions and confidentialities within the organizations. In Guatemala, Ray Rogers reveled that managers have the ultimate authority to give orders. Leaders give clear guidelines to any certain operation because the people of Guatemala believe in planning to avoid uncertainties. Restrictions and confidentialities differ according to the communication facet and the target audience. However, he pointed out that management communication, marketing communication, and organization communications employ different restrictions and confidentiality. However, the lack of individualism in the society reduces the burden of confidentiality in corporate communication at different levels.
In fact, Ray Rogers put it very clear that the laws governing operations in the Guatemala society and at the business place are clearly stipulated. Therefore, privacy is not a necessity in business operations. He further claimed that the vital information concerning any business transaction is communicated openly without any confidentiality aspects to enhance the collective responsibility of the stakeholders. The community plays an ideal role in business operations (Mumby 71). Therefore, most organizations maintain constant communication with the society to enhance connectivity. Ray Rogers singled out differences in power to be the factor that determine the level of stakeholder involvement in day-to-day business operations. The wealthy and the powerful control what the rest of the world hears concerning the company. However, the Guatemala people value working together without unnecessary restrictions as it is in many other western nations.
How the Corporate Communication Rule Operates In Guatemala
In accordance with the Ray Rogers, corporate communication in Guatemala affects the internal and the external communication in a great way. Internal communication within organizations in Guatemala are more controlled and organized than it is with communication in the United States. The CEO’s have the responsibility of communicating to employees with the purpose of improving the knowledge of the company among employees. In Guatemala, people do not believe in working for something they do not fully understand. As such, the leaders of certain groups must ensure efficient communication with the employees to ensure that people are on the same page concerning the goals of the organization. During internal communication, the hierarchy of leadership must be honored because the culture of the land allows unequal distribution of power. Organizations have certain rules, regulations, and standards that govern the kind of information that leaders pass to the employees (Harris and Mark 90). In fact, failure to communicate effectively can adversely affect the productivity of the company.
From the interview, it was revealed that the people of Guatemala believe in an absolute truth and the failure of the leaders to adhere to the known truths hinders coordination at the work place. On the other hand, change is not positively received in organizations within Guatemala. Leaders must groom employees in advance to accept certain changes in the business operations. Additionally, internal communication in such organizations seeks to motivate, strengthen, and enhance employee loyalty within the organization rather than just offering information about the organization. Issues of masculinity and feminist do not affect internal communication in Guatemala because the society believes in unity and cohesiveness.
Ray Rogers identified external communication to be another important aspect of corporate communication. The capital markets and the media are key recipients of the external communication in Guatemala because of the many rules and regulations that govern business transactions in the nation. Organizations must follow the set standards, laws, and regulations in presenting the company information to the external stakeholders. Laws and regulations are meant to ensure that organization do not encounter unexpected risks in business operations.
Consequently, Ray Rogers stressed that in Guatemala, communication with the outside stakeholders are conducted in an honest and trustworthy way. The community in Guatemala believes in relationships that are founded on the truth; therefore, lack of honest communication can be detrimental to the organization. In times where the truth is too much to bear for the society or external communication, a silent period is exercised (Harris and Mark 52).
However, Ray Rogers cautioned that the silent moments should not interfere with the laws of open disclosure as stipulated in the corporate communication rules of the land. Organizations maintain a transparent relationship with the investors. An investors’ relationship committee is established to keep the investors informed of the company’s position, operations, and developments (Hubner 64). Additionally, constant communication with investors eliminates chances of risk occurrences because of information deficit. Employees must always consult with their immediate superiors before releasing any company’s information to an external investor for the safety of the company.
Restrictions and confidentiality is the third aspect of corporate communication that is highly valued in Guatemala as revealed during the interview. As stated earlier, the people of Guatemala value consistency and the rule of law. As such, communication within and without the organization is governed by certain regulation to ensure effectiveness of business operations. First, before any information is released to the stakeholders, the rules, regulations and the standards of both the company and the society must be followed. Additionally, communication in the organization must be based on trust.
Open communication is highly valued in Guatemala because of the collective nature of the society. To avoid risks and uncertainties, organization have certain rules that govern which kind of information should be released to the outside world and by whom (Hubner 163). Unlike in other places where employees have the authority to speak on behalf of the organization, in Guatemala only people mandated with that responsibility can speak on behalf of the company. Additionally, organizations value the privacy of their workers and releasing the whereabouts of an employee to an unauthorized person is prohib
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Research News Article
In a study conducted by New England Journal of Medicine, it was established that marijuana has the potential of reducing the number of seizure episodes by up to a half in children suffering Dravet; a form of epilepsy. The research, whose findings were reported by ABC News Associated Press’s Marilynn Marchione, was conducted using liquefied cannabidiol known as Epidiolex manufactured by GW Pharmaceuticals. The non-hallucinogenic compound was administered to the experiment group while the control group was given a placebo drug in addition to their conventional anti-seizure medication. Up to 120 children drawn from the United States and Europe were involved as participants in the study. Aged between 12 and 18 years, the participants on Epidiolex and their usual anti-seizure medication saw a significant reduction in the number of seizure episodes in a month. Data, which was compared to the previous month’s record, showed that three participants using the marijuana compound were seizure while others had their seizure episodes halved to six in four weeks. However, the participants on the marijuana compounded suffered several side effects ranging from diarrhea to sleep complications (Marchione, 2017).
The news article does not clearly indicate the data collection methodology used during the research. However, I believe that the methodology used for data collection during the study was primarily observational. The 120 participants, barring the twelve who dropped out of the study, were observed in their environment after the administration of the placebo and the marijuana compound whose efficacy was being tested. This was a case study of 120 participants. Case studies usually combine both qualitative and quantitative approaches (Mahoney & Goertz, 2006; Creswell, 2013). The relative small sample size is an indication of the use of convenient sampling where participants are chosen randomly yet such a decision is guided by available resources, time and permission (Pyrczak, 2012). In this case, permission was primarily sought from parents of the epileptic children not only because of their vulnerability but also due to their young age.
The statistics of the study reinforces the long-held opinion that marijuana has important medicinal values that can be used to treat disorders and diseases that conventional medicines have had little progress. The data added a scientific edge to the growing call for increased research into these untapped medical capabilities of marijuana. Additionally, the study reinforces the growing push for legalization of marijuana for medicinal and recreational purposes by extension. This has become a thorny social and political issue over the years in the United States and Europe with several states in the U.S. legalizing its use. For a news company, relaying these findings act as a symbol of their stand on the debate of marijuana legalization especially for medicinal use. The findings give them the much-needed scientific backing in the polarized marijuana legalization debate.
This methodology was a perfect fit because it also allowed the researchers to take notes on various research outliers including abstract variables such as emotion of the parents, which cannot be effectively captured within the variables being measured. Case studies also allows for impersonal connections with the participants, which are critical in getting the understanding of the phenomenon under study (Pyrczak, 2012). This was effectively achieved in this research. Even though it was tasking and labor intensive considering the relatively large number of participants, the method used allowed the researchers to dig deeper into the topic and highlights issues beyond the scope of the variables. For example, they were able to observe the various side effects of the marijuana compound being administered to experimental group.
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Mahoney, J. & Goertz, G. (2006). A tale of two cultures: Contrasting quantitative and qualitative research. Political Analysis, 14, 227–249. doi:10.1093/pan/mpj017
Marchione, M. (2017 May). Marijuana extract helps some kids with epilepsy, study says. ABC News. Retrieved from: http://abcnews.go.com/Health/wireStory/marijuana-extract-helps-kids-epilepsy-study-47635791
Pyrczak, F. (2012). Evaluating Research in Academic Journals: A Practical Guide to Realistic Education (5th ed). Los Angeles, CA: Pyrczak Publishing.