Types of Internet Languages and their Uses
Communication revolution has seen ways of communicating evolve from print to telephone, and now to the 20th century emails and chat rooms. Recently, the Internet has frequently been used as a communication tool. The Internet language is used for communication over the Internet. Currently, there are different types of languages that are used for online communications. They include Internet slang, acronyms, emoticons, memes, and flaming.
Acronyms are forms of abbreviations that constitute initial letters of a word or initial letters of several words (Taylor & Metzler, 2008). They can also be identified as words that are formed from initial letters. They are used commonly in chat rooms, Facebook, and twitter. Example of common acronyms include LOL (Laughing Out Loud), BTW (By The Way), OMG (Oh My God) and ASAP (As Soon as Possible). They reflect the behavior of the users and their attitudes. The use of LOL portrays the writer’s attitude towards what he or she is commenting.
Another common Internet language is Emoticons. Emoticons are a representation of facial expressions and they are created out of a sequence of characters. They are used to portray the mood and emotion of the writer. In online forums, some of the emoticons could be present in the websites used. Other ways of finding emoticons is by combining a set of keyboard characters. The emoticons are the ideal way of expressing the writer’s emotions since there is no physical contact between the sender and receivers of the message. Examples of common emoticons include J(happy face), 😀 (Laughing face) and :-O (Surprise).
Another type of language used in online communication is language that has incorrect grammar. It is mainly seen in youth discussions forums. The main grammatical errors performed are misspellings, punctuation errors, and incorrect capitalization. In misspelling, the writer can do so intentionally or unintentionally. Non-deliberate misspellings come due to improper use of the keyboard. Examples of intentional misspelling are, “Luv” for “love” and “wot” for “what.” The use of capitalization on the other hand is used to put emphasis on specific words. Punctuation can be used to portray various situations, such as uncertainty and continuation (Jung, 2012).
Memes are images of famous characters that are found on the Internet. These images are usually accompanied by funny quotes. Internet users usually use them several times. It is only the quote that can be edited by the users any time they upload the image. They can become famous in a matter of hours. Flaming is another type of Internet language. It is a set of insults that is intended to hurt people’s feeling. It is usually used in bulletin boards and Internet forums. It expresses controversial issues, such as religion and politics. Flaming is considered an abusive form of online communication (Jung, 2012). Another online type of language is internet slang. It is commonly used on forums, chats, Facebook, and twitter. It is often used by the young generation to communicate faster and to fit into the “cool” category. Internet slang incorporates use of acronyms, misspelling, emoticons, and use of capital letters. Today, language critics want this kind of language to be banned and or people to return to real English.
The use of the above Internet language can have a great impact on our life. It can reduce time people spend in communicating, and it can make communication cheaper (Herring, 2004). However, the Internet language can also create misunderstanding, conflict, and in some cases reduce the self-esteem of people. Therefore, it is the duty of every Internet user to make sure that they engage in use of Internet language wisely.
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Combinations of letters are acronyms. Network World Inc.
Initially, research in mass communication conceptualized the process of communication as a linear process, with information proceeding from the sender to the receiver via a channel (Wood 125). One of the most famous linear communication models is Shannon’s model of communication that reduced communication process to a set of basic constituents that not only explained a successful communication process but also gave a means of explaining why communication fails. The minimalist and structurist way that Shannon’s model explains the communication process has made it one of the most enduring and popular communication models. However, Shannon’s and Weavers model has been heavily criticized for being overly simplistic and misrepresenting the nature of human communication, which is complex and nuanced (McQuail and Windahl 47). In an attempt to tackle some of the inherent weaknesses of Shannon and Weaver’s model, Hall (91) developed his theoretical framework for interpreting communication based on the encoding and decoding of information. Hall’s model, unlike Shannon’s which assumes that if a message is accurately transmitted it will be precisely deciphered, assumes that a message passes through four distinctive moments – production, circulation, use and reproduction – where it can get distorted.
Hall’s model was developed to examine the process of communication through mass media, specifically through the television medium (91). Communication involves the transmission of information from the sender to the recipient using presentational and discursive symbols that are rooted within the cultural semantic code of the sender. Hall conceptualizes the packaging and transmission of information through the television medium as a complex structure of relations that have distinctive but linked moments which he identifies as production, circulation, use and reproduction. Although each of these moments is linked, they each retain their distinctiveness, specific modalities, and have their independent forms as well as conditions of existence (Hall 91). Before information can be broadcasted, it must be produced by first turning it into a story which then becomes the communicative event (Hall 92). Production constructs the massage that is to be sent to the receiver, and is influenced by the discursive aspect that is innate to the production process, which turns information into a discursive form that is then sent to the receiver.
Encoding of the message usually happens in the production stage of the communication process, and is done by the sender, who converts the message into a discursive form, in which the message will be circulated (Hall 91). The encoding process uses codes that are within the syntagmatic chain of discourse to convey the message as well as meanings in the form of sign-vehicles that are relevant and recognizable within the encoding context. The encoding of the message within the production end of the communication process is not an isolated process, but is influenced by other discursive formations within the socio-cultural and political context as well as images of the audience.
Decoding occurs on the other end of the communication process and involves the conversion of the discursive message produced by encoding into the structures of social practice (Hall 95). Decoding requires a degree of symmetry between the codes at the encoding and decoding ends, so that when the message is being decoded, it can be as similar as the encoded message as possible. Hall (97) states that it is rare for signs organized in a discourse to have only their literal meaning because signs usually combine the denotative and the connotative aspects. Therefore, when the discursive form is being decoded, a message can get distorted depending on which aspect is emphasized, because meanings are inferred through the matching of the discursive form codes with the deep semantic codes of the culture of the decoder. Although encoding and decoding are determinate events, when encoding a message, there must be an attempt by the encoder to achieve some symmetry with the intended decoder. Schrøder (237) criticizes Hall’s model for being one-dimensional and focusing on how the decoder treats the message. However, the model offers a framework for examining the different ways in which a decoder can interpret a message. Hall posits that there are three ways in which a decoder decodes a message (Hall 100).
The dominant-hegemonic decoding hypothetical position assumes that the viewer will take the connotative meaning of the message he receives at face value and decodes the received message in terms of the reference frame with which it was coded (Hall 101). This is the perfect communication scenario, which rarely happens, because there is no misunderstanding or distortion of the message. In hegemonic decoding, there is perfectly transparent communication between the coder and the decoder, implying perfect symmetry between the encoding and decoding codes, and the coder and decoder have similar semantic codes (Anderson 3). Although the dominant-hegemonic decoding presents the ideal communication scenario, it is also the most simplistic approach towards construction of meaning from the discursive form (Howarth 9). Since codes will always have the denotative and connotative meanings, it is unlikely that practical communication can have perfectly symmetrical codes at the encoding and decoding stages. The dominant-hegemonic decoding position assumes that the coded message is neutral because of the professional code operating within the dominant code, which strives for neutrality. However, hegemonic interpretations of events are influenced by the elite making the coded message to be skewed. This makes the hegemonic decoding position susceptible to manipulation by the coder.
Oppositional decoding occurs not because the decoder cannot understand the message, but the decoder uses an alternative framework of reference to interpret the message, since the decoder understands both the connotative and literal meanings of the message perfectly (Hall 103). This is because they have the requisite semantic codes to make sense of the discursive form of the encoded message. However, after decoding the message, an oppositional decoder does not take the literal meaning of the decoded message. Rather, he will decode the message, get the literal and connotative meaning using the appropriate semantic codes, and then fit the message within an alternative framework that might be antithetical to the coding framework (Steiner 6). This process may give the message an altogether different meaning from the one intended by the coder. Oppositional decoding involves the detotalization of a message from the global code, and then retotalizing it using a different reference framework leading to a completely different meaning.
The negotiated code position is an amalgamation of the hegemonic and oppositional decoding and is, therefore, riddled with contradictions (Hall 102). Negotiated decoding is generally done using global definitions, which can be considered as hegemonic positions because a global code is of necessity hegemonic in nature. A hegemonic viewpoint defines and limits the mental horizon, giving meanings as well as carries the stamp of legitimacy because it appears natural and in sync with the social order. Messages are decoded using the hegemonic viewpoint to obtain the abstract meaning at a global level. Oppositional decoding is then used to situate the message within local conditions and determine its relevance within a more restricted local level (Chandler no pag.). The negotiated decoding position accepts the hegemonic global viewpoint as valid but incorporates exceptions to the rule, and hence may not apply the message although it is accurately decoded The decoder can decide not to apply it to her situation if an oppositional analysis of the message shows that it is not applicable to local conditions.
The Wolf of Wall Street
The movie The Wolf of Wall Street is the story of the rise and fall of Jordan Belfort, a New York stockbroker, who begins working in Wall Street as a licensed stock broker in Black Monday, loses his job, and thereafter goes to work at Investor Center, a small establishment. He is very successful in pitching sales and soon establishes his brokerage firm. However the firm is basically a swindling operation where he launders clients’ money making him and his peers a small fortune. However, the law eventually catches up with him and he eventually spends time in prison. The movie received mixed reviews and the following is an analysis of some of the reviews using Hall’s decoding framework.
Thomson’s review is premised on the hegemonic decoding position as he describes the movie as ‘the funniest’ with ‘an authentic daring’. Thomson considers the movie as one that dispelled the ‘bogus holiday atmospherics’ when it was released, giving timely lessons ‘in blithe amorality.’ Therefore, his take on the movie is rather uncritical and he decodes it hegemonically, lavishing praise on it for its ‘authenticity.’ Brody reviewing the movie for The New Yorker is full of praise for the movie saying it has a rhythm akin to ‘a great jazz band in flat-out rumble’ and may be Scorsese’s best movie with its acknowledgment of the essential vitality of the ‘predatory manipulations and reckless adventure’ that runs through the movie. He considers the narrator’s voiceover as a ‘great device to impose the protagonist’s point of view,’ and says that the movie ‘is an outrageous comedy’ that has some of the funniest scenes he has ever seen. This is a hegemonistic decoding of the movie as it tallies with the coders’ perspective.
Orr writing for The Atlantic also uses the hegemonistic viewpoint to decode the movie calling it ‘a magnificent black comedy, fast, funny, and remarkably filthy’ that is one of Scorsese’s best pictures in the last 20 years. Orr considers the movie a cinematic master piece ‘crammed with giddy effects and visual jokes’ and concludes by saying that although the movie is not subtle, it ‘is a great—no, a fucking great—movie movie.’ Davis writing for Awards Circuit also decodes the movie from the hegemonic position describing the movie as ‘one of the year’s most compelling pictures and definitely the year’s best comedy.
Hylton reviewing for Dark Horizons uses the negotiated decoding position to analyze the movie. He writes that ‘it’s not a bad movie’ although it ‘is surprisingly off-putting, overlong and morally skewed.’ He criticizes the movie for being too long considering the simple story line, yet in the same breath says that it never drags and that its dialogue ‘is sharp and witty.’ Roberts reviewing for Fan the Fire praises Scorsese’s adaptation of the script into ‘something that is giddily enjoyable to watch’ claiming that it has a ‘brilliantly constructed ending.’ However, he also feels that the movie is ‘a tad indulgent and lacking the emotional resonance’ which is required to turn a good movie into a true great. Glasson reviewing for Concrete Playground states that the movie’s ‘cycle of sex, drugs and opulence admittedly entertains at first’ and is a chronicle of depravity that amuses. However, he says that the movie is also shallow and none of the characters in the movie grows, making the movie ‘less arresting’ when compared to movies of a similar genre.
Morgenstern reviewing for The Wall Street Journal analyzes The Wolf of Wall Street from an oppositional decoding position. He states that the movies ‘is selling three hours of incessant shouting and sensationally bad behavior’ and that he ‘is selling three hours of incessant shouting and sensationally bad behavior.’ Morgenstern states that the movie requires a ‘huge investment of time for a paltry return’ and is merely hollow cinematic experience and a waste of time for the viewer. Knight reviewing for Windy City Times is also scathing of the movie. Referring to a scene where Reiner exclaims that “This is obscene!” after surveying the perverse financial goings on, Knight says that this gem ‘perfectly sums up both the subject of the movie and it’s bloated, three-hour running time.’ He feels that the movie is ‘ultimately hollow exercise in movie excess’ which has no redeeming qualities. Ross (no pag.) describes the movie as ’a monotonous, repetitive piece of work’ that is ‘three hours of the same events, over and over.’ The movie does not have any depth and has no ‘psychological insight, no moral insight, just no insight, full stop,’ making a pointless piece of work.
Hall’s framework provides an invaluable framework for interpreting and analyzing the communication process. The framework is robust an offers different perspective through which meaning is constructed from the same discursive form of communication. For communication to occur, there must be some symmetry of codes between the encoding and decoding ends of the communication process, otherwise, the message will be distorted and the greater the asymmetry, the greater the distortion. Perfect symmetry gives perfect communication just as perfect asymmetry will likely lead to a complete breakdown of communication. However, even in cases where there is symmetry between the encoding and decoding sides of communication, the different positions used for decoding leads to construction of different meanings. The preceding analysis of the movie, The Wolf of Wall Street, shows that different people looking at the same movie can come up with very different interpretations of its merits. This analysis agrees with Hall’s framework, indicating that the framework can be used to accurately analyze the communication process
Andersen Kara, “Harry Potter and the Susceptible Child Audience” Comparative Literature and Culture 7.2 (2005): 2-11. Print.
Brody, Richard. “The wild, brilliant ‘wolf of Wall Street.’” The New Yorker, 24 December 2013. Web. 17 November 2014. <http://www.newyorker.com/the-front-row/the-wild-brilliant- wolf-of-wall-street>
Chandler, Daniel “Semiotics for beginners.” 3 August 2014. Web. 17 November 2014. <http://visual-memory.co.uk/daniel/Documents/S4B/sem08c.html>
Glasson, Tom. “The wolf of Wall Street.” Concrete Playground, 23 January 2014. Web. 17 November 2014. <http://sydney.concreteplayground.com.au/event/178403/the-wolf-of- wall-street.htmevent/178403/the-wolf-of-wall-street.htmevent/178403/the-wolf-of-wall- street.htmevent/178403/the-wolf-of-wall-street.htm>
Hall, S. “Encoding and decoding in the television discourse.” Centre for Cultural Studies, University of Birmingham, CCS Stencilled Paper no. 7, 1971. Print.
Howarth, Caroline. ‘Representations, identity and resistance in communication’, In: Hook, Derek and Franks, Bradley and Bauer, Martin W., (eds.) The social psychology of communication. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. Print.
Hylton, Josh. “The Wolf of Wall Street.” Dark Horizons, 25 December 2013. Web. 17 November 2014. <http://www.darkhorizons.com/reviews/1325/the-wolf-of-wall-street>
Knight, Richard. “Knight at the movies: August: Osage County; Wolf of Wall Street and The Great Beauty.” Windy City Times, 1 January 2014. Web. 17 November 2014. <http://www.windycitymediagroup.com/lgbt/Knight-at-the-Movies-August-Osage- County-Wolf-of-Wall-Street/45728.html>
McQuail, Dennis and Sven Windahl. Communication Models for the Study of Mass Communication. London: Longman, 1993. Print.
Mendelson, Scott. “Review: ‘Wolf of Wall Street’ is a modern-day ‘Caligula.’”Forbes, 17 December 2013. Web. 17 November 2014. <http://www.forbes.com/sites/scottmendelson/2013/12/17/review-wolf-of-wall-street-a- modern-day-caligula/>
Morgenstern, Joe. “’Wolf of Wall Street’ skims the surface of sin.” The Wall Street Journal, 24 December 2013. Web. 17 November 2014. <http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB100014240527023032909045792780125489949 26>
Orr, Christopher. “The vulgar genius of The Wolf of Wall Street.” The Atlantic, 25 December 2013. Web. 17 November 2014 <http://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2013/12/the-vulgar-genius-of-em-the- wolf-of-wall-street-em/282611/>
Roberts, Martin. “Film review: The wolf of Wall Street.” Fan the Fire, 15 January 2014. Web. 17 November 2014. <http://fanthefiremagazine.com/film/film-review-the-wolf-of-wall- street/>
Schrøder, Kim. “Making sense of audience discourses towards a multidimensional model of mass media reception.” European Journal of Cultural Studies, 3,2: 233-258. 2000. Print.
Sharkey, Betsy. “Review: Scorsese, DiCaprio go hunting in ‘Wolf of Wall Street.’” Los Angeles Times, 24 December 2013. Web. 17 November 2014. <http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/movies/moviesnow/la-et-mn-wolf-of-wall-street- review-leonardo-dicaprio-martin-scorsese-20131225- story.html#axzz2ob03fVID&page=1>
Steiner, Linda. “Oppositional decoding as an act of resistance.” Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 5.1 (1988): 1-15. Print.
Thomson, David. “’The Wolf of Wall Street’: No moralizing, great filmmaking.” The New Republic, 9 January 2014. Web. 17 November 2014. <http://www.newrepublic.com/article/116162/wolf-wall-street-martin-scorsese- reviewed>
Wood, James. Interpersonal communication: everyday encounters. London: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, 2002. Print.
Branding: A paradox force
Today’s society is dominated by big brands which control relatively all aspects of modern day life. This is because these brands promote a consumerism culture that drives our social, political and economic lives. These brands are mostly promoted and produced by big multinationals with global influence and hence have a global influence (Walker, 2010). With the changing political landscape, these brands are capable of influencing the outcomes of elections especially in countries where organizations are allowed to finance political campaigns or lobby for the passing or rejection of legislations. Socially and economically, consumerism which is a result of strong branding approaches by many market leaders, free market and globalization ideologies has led to a global capitalist-driven culture where individuals have a strong drive to appropriation. The onset of industrialization heralded the emergence of a consumer culture in which the industrialists, mostly capitalists, endeavored to create demand for their bulging production by defining human worth by the number of commodities in one’s possession.
Therefore, they invented advertisement; a tool aimed at convincing consumers to purchasing more and more goods through creation of illusionist messages and attaching them to consumption of commodities. They convinced consumers that life is only worth living if they acquire more and more commodities which would set them apart from the rest of the society. This is the essence of branding. Billions of dollars are being used in advertisements while more billions are also used by consumers to purchase commodities that they rarely need. This essay will argue that, while branding has its positive influences, it is a paradox force which limits creativity in everyday life.
The advent of industrialization led to the need to expand the market-reach for goods and services that were constantly churned out of the production lines. This led to the growth and expansion of the marketing sector with marketing experts constantly devising novel ideas to advertise the products. Consequently, strong brands emerged. It led to an ‘arms race’ within the marketing field and every company sort to strengthen their existing brands or introduce new and better brands aimed at outshining their competitors. This competition for commercial space or ‘arms race’ has led, to some extension, increased quality of products and services offered by these companies as they seek to strengthen their share on the marketplace. New brands emerged and the existing brands were strengthened through value and quality addition.
To increase the market penetration of these brands, many companies as Naomi Klein (2000) notes, have began advertising and sponsoring culture events. Companies began building close relationships with their target customers by infusing the brands with cultural messages and icons. By donating money to different cultural communities’ activities and events, companies are now able to have their logos imprinted during these activities or programs. In addition, many companies have increasingly sponsored corporate social responsible initiatives in different communities including in developing countries where they have sponsored water projects, immunization drives and researches. This adds value to their brands and gives the greater market penetration. On the other hand, communities gain from these brands through provision of vital services and amenities especially in health care services provision, education and water and sanitation. These are the areas that branding have and can have a positive impact with proper regulations and increased levels of professionalism and ethicality.
However, this infusion of brands and culture presents a great threat to these cultures. This is because these brands do not ideally infuse with these cultures through the logos: they ultimately lead to the formation of a new culture that eventually obliterates the existing culture. Klein (2000) notes that, such a full-frontal branding strategy has been successfully employed by brands such as Tommy Hilfiger, Michael Jordan, Star Wars and Coke which have ultimately become distinct cultures. They have transformed the cultures they have associated with; the cultures they were purportedly sponsoring and replaced them. They have used celebrities and social media to achieve this (PBS, 2014). They have become the main attraction and the central focus leading to a cultural extinction. This is because these brands encourage a culture of consumerism where the win-win arrangement as fronted by these brands during the initial agreement to sponsor these cultures has transformed by the encroachment of corporate brands. Such encroachment and the resultant loss of cultural identity by the sponsored culture is further complicated by the fact such public-private partnerships are rarely regulated (Klein, 2000).
Moreover, such infusion and the popularity of brands can persuade individuals to engage in causes that would not normally engage in. Impulse buying and participation negates the freedom of individual freewill because such individuals are forced by social pressure. Their strong persuasion ultimately means that many of the consumers may lack a strong will to stand their when it comes to decision making (Walker, 2010; Sandel, 2012). This is because every aspect of life is increasingly being commercialized (Sandel, 2012).
The creation of strong brands is a product of corporate globalization, a consolidation of multinational corporations into huge transnational with immense influence and power. Branding allows these huge corporations to gain access to the local markets through free trade agreements which have are increasingly being signed in an increasing number of economies. With such agreements, these corporations encourage the spirit of unfair competition especially on the local small companies. The stiff competition, financial strengths of these corporations and their strong brands make them virtually impossible to compete against. Smaller brands which are mostly produced locally by small companies have no chance of competing against such brands. In the end, some are forced to close shops due to the unpopularity of their brands leading to low sales and consequently, economic losses. Closing of shops leads to unemployment and eventually poverty and hunger emerge due to loss of source of income.
Of greater concern, is that these small companies are fundamental in promoting a culture of creativity and innovation. Upstarts and smaller companies ought to offer a constant supply of new brands as they are the incubators for new ideas. In addition, due to its popularity, branding especially for big brands suppresses the development of new brands as many consumers opt for the more established brands. These brands provide an easy option and therefore limit the creativity of the consumers in everyday life. Branding affects all individuals with whom it interacts. There is no major distinction between consumers and students. They have tastes and preferences. They have needs that ought to be met. Both their choices and creativity are equally limited by the culture of consumerism promoted by branding.
Learning institutions, like all corporations, are faceless but their true influence is powered by the brands that represent them. These brands target their consumers, the students and citizens. Contrary to Rebecca Schuman’s assertions, learning institutions should tailor-make their services to meet the demands of their customers: the students (Schuman, 2015). Due to the strong relationship that branding aims to build between corporations and consumers, students like other consumers are also vulnerable to the exploitations of these bonds. Institutions like corporations rarely meet the quality standards. All they endeavor to achieve is make low quality products look pretty (Walker, 2010) and in the case of learning institutions, they offer poor services. Similarly, they also enjoy the same benefits of branding including increased quality of goods and closer relationships with companies.
The free rein offered to many corporations and their brands especially through the public-private partnerships, has significant negative effects socially and environmentally. Polyarchic economies such as the United States marked by light regulation of a capitalist provide a good environment for the thriving of consumer culture because it is dominated by corporations operating in a democracy. The government has little control on their activities. Such an economy is riddled with environmental, social, labor and economic issues because the corporations with their capitalist orientation endeavors everyday to maximize profits at the expense of labor and the environment.
In conclusion, branding has had a positive influence especially in provision of essential public services and goods such as healthcare services and public amenities. However, many corporations have taken advantage of the popularity of their brands. They have curtailed creativity and innovation through impeding growth of local and small industries while suppressing the cultures that they sponsor and creation of other brands. Branding has created a consumerism culture due to the free rein it enjoys because of lack of appropriate regulations. Branding does not draw any distinction between citizen, student and consumers. All learning institutions are businesses whose aim is to satisfy the needs of their customers: students. These needs must direct how they brand themselves.
Klein, N. (2000). “The Brand Expands”. In No Logo. London: Flamingo. Retrieved from http://www.tcnj.edu/~allyn/No%20Logo%20-%20Naomi%20Klein.pdf
Walker, R. (2010). “The Pretty Good Problem”. In Buying In: What We Buy and Who We Are. New York: Random House.
Sandel, M. (2012). “What’s Wrong with Commercialism?”. In What Money Can’t Buy: The Moral Limits of Markets. England: Allen Lane.
Shuman, R. “College Students Are Not Customers.” Retrieved from http://www.slate.com/articles/life/education/2015/05/college_students_are_not_customers_a_political_shorthand_that_needs_to_die.html
PBS. (2014). “Frontline: Generation Like.” PBS. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/film/generation-like/
Effect of Modern Technologies on Media Freedoms
The ability to publicly communicate or display one’s intentions and beliefs is referred to as freedom of expression.It encompasses freedom of expression in written word, verbal communication or diverse platforms of fashion and art. Every human being inclusive of the introverts has the innate nature of the desire to express their ideas to the world. However, in spite of this desire, there are questions on the length the governments ensure that all the citizens are free to express themselves and how far individuals should be allowed to extend their limits in a political realm. The government might decide to censor some material that could be offensive and seems to cause trouble, for instance, materials touching on racism, religious freedom, and political biases.
Politically, philosophically and scientifically, the presence of freedom to express individual ideas and being able to reach other people’s ideas has contributed to progress in the society. A free and rational debate are allowed in some cases when an idea is termed morally abominable; thus, the idea isnot immediately censoredbut given room to articulate and from that the irrational ideas are dismissed (IDEA). Ideally, in some situations, an individual’s safety might be endangered by someone else’s right to free expression and this raises the need for government involvement in deciding what is right to express to save lives and keep citizens safe. Despite every nation subscribing to the article 19, the right to freedom of expression in the global Declaration of Human Rights, it has not been a universal achievement. There has been a consistent decline in the freedom of expression even in the Westerncountries where free speech is prevalent especially politically. Social networking cites such as Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, and Twitter make it easier for individuals to express themselves to a broad audience though the ones found guilty of being offensive or abusive have been prosecuted.
Regardless of the availability and emergence of social media, currently, freedom of expression still faces international and domestic economic divide. Individuals who have access to newspapers and television networks can express themselves easily and fast compared to the ones who do not have the money to purchase these services. Likewise, access to the internet brings about a disparity between those who can access it and those who cannot access it, and this stirs up the debate on how modern technology has affected freedom of expression. However, freedom of expression needs a public platform for it to be a democratic and human rights pillar where citizens can freely interact.
According to European Commission, the media acknowledged as a fundamental element in a democracy and gives the public a right to freedom of expression. It allows the citizens to debate and discuss with each other on certain ideas and give their views about them. The platform also offers room for the politicians and public officials to express their views, be questioned, and respond to the public questions.For the media to fulfill this function, it has to gain independence from government and political control and interference and thereforethe emergence of diverse media outlets giving variable content from different points of view to avoid monopoly.
Social media materialization has changed the way individuals express their ideas and technological evolution is not restricted onTwitter and Facebook as one can blog expressing their ideas to a large audience (IDEA).Media plays a watchdog role in that it promotes transparency of the government and scrutinizes those in power for maladministration and corruption through public expression. In the past, for one to express their ideas to a big crowd they had to be able to publish, and this was entitled to a system of rules and regulations through editing.As a result, individuals were bound to adhere to what the publisher deemed was right to be let out to the public, but thanks to technology one can freely express their ideas.
The digital developments in the media industry possess a threat not only to the profitability of the traditional media but dissemination of unbiased information. Concisely, the dissemination of information through peer to peer digital platforms is based on the viral attraction that the media can create. For instance, powerful companies such as the Apple, Verizon, and Google seem to have a bigger share of the digital profits. Such communication companies are aided by the “search” capability that is controlling the digital world. In essence, consumers want fast access to data, in a convenient way and at a low data cost. Though a significant development for the consumer, the market producers and suppliers are facing imminent collapse.
Arguably, some traditional media platforms such as newspapers and magazines will be out of the market when mobile data connection will be universal for all. However, they have tried to remain profitable by launching an online newspaper that needs a subscription fee. The ideology has not been successful considering the online alternatives present in the market and the associated cost. Consequently, most newspapers companies have resulted to downsizing. In fact, according to the European Commission, about 13, 400 newspaper journalists have lost their jobs in the last four years. More severely, the trend is expected to affect the whole world, which means a minority of digitalized companies will control the industry. As a result, the content shared online might be biased since it depends on how content goes viral.
To sum up, the rapid growth in technology has both positive and negative impacts on the freedom of expression. On the pros side, it can contribute to more scrutiny on the public institutions, and a large audience can be achieved. However, digitalized platforms are easily regulated by authorities who can use state machinery to filter information being offered on different platforms. The practice could pose a significant threat to the freedom of expression especially in criticizing inept organizations and fighting social evils. Moreover, information passed online depends on the public debate that content can spur, which means social topics will attract more attention
European Commission. (2012). Freedom of Expression, Media and Digital Communications (pp. 7-12). Geneva: European Commission.
IDEA. Freedom of Expression. Idebate.org. Retrieved 8 April 2016, from http://digitalfreedoms.idebate.org/digitalfreedoms/freedom-of-expression
The university is an institution of higher learning that offers great opportunities for students to broaden their knowledge and skill horizons that will act as a launch pad in their professional lives. During the late years of high school life, intensive thoughts of joining the university had occupied my mind. The university offered me first-hand experience in the school of life. The university moulded me into a mature adult. The university is full of freedom, and majority of the greatest people in the world, such as Presidents, entrepreneurs, actors and senior corporate executives, have seen the doors of the university. The university offered me the ground for laying a solid foundation in entrepreneurial ideas. Great entrepreneurs such as Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg, Sergey Brin, and Larry Page laid the foundation of their ideas that launched them into the world of entrepreneurship in the university. The university not only has had positive experiences but also negative experiences for me. Students are normally under peer pressure and may be influenced by friends who have bad habits such as substance abuse. Substance abuse has been common in the institution of higher learning, ranging from excessive drinking of alcohol, smoking marijuana and hard drugs such as cocaine and heroin. Such students fail to complete their studies due to disorientation and addiction. They are also commonly expelled from school or charged in a court of law which leads to life behind bars. Many students have also become sexually active during the early years of their life in the university. Students who do not practice safe sex may be infected with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) such as HIV, Gonorrhoea, and Syphilis or even become subjects of early pregnancies. In our contemporary world, many universities have equipped themselves with counselling departments that guide students and prevent them from going astray in their university life.
Violence and Hate Crimes
Violence comes in different forms such as domestic, societal and individual aggression. Thus, individual must be trained through education and other forums how to deal with these vices. Violence at its simplest form distresses family associates because they are part of the target audience of crime. To a greater measure, the society suffers the drawbacks and impacts of household and collective hostility. This brings in insecurity, inequality and injustice. Therefore the population ought to find ways of solving these issues before they get out of hand. An intercultural approach is needed to see the end of extreme actions that bring suffering to members of a community. Therefore, this paper provides an intervention to hate crime and violence through intercultural praxis, education and socially responsible actions. Social crimes or violence involves people from different cultures and their diversity lead to emergence of superiority and inferiority (In Sorrells & In Sekimoto, 2015). Abhorrence’s are carried out by individuals due to their dislike for other. The perception held by one community against the other accelerates this process hence widens rivalry. Cultural groups branded as inferior are looked down upon by superior cultures hence creates rivalry. In order to end this social education, intercultural praxis and social responsibilities will help unravel the stalemate. Thus, the essay will focus on the intervention mechanism to end detestation offenses and hostility.
In this section, we focus on the historical ideas, concepts and theories that explain the origin of social violence as well as hate crime. There are many factors that contribute to social hitches. Some of them emanate from historical injustices while other comes from social interaction. There are several theories that try to explain the method through which peace can be restored in warring or rivalry communities.
This theory concentrates on the influence of social groups we interact with on our daily lives. The behavior of an individual is shaped through these interactions. Groups are subjected to influence and development of ideologies. In situations where an ideology adopted by one group goes against the others then the community is deemed to experience strives. Some groups adopt extreme ideologies that threaten security of community members. To avoid extreme teachings and conformity to negative ideologies, government should ensure that its population accesses the necessary education (Morewitz, 2010). One thing that accelerates ignorance among group is illiteracy. Therefore, education is a tool that can assist people deal with the situation. At this point, the concept of ethnocentrism emerges. This brings in an element of superiority where the dominant group controls the behaviors and action of inferior groups (NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Political Violence, Organized Crimes, Terrorism and Youth, Ulusoy, & North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 2012).
This theory intends to evaluate and criticize the social set up at the same time advocating for change. It deals with the society and destines to change the narrative that groups within the community ascribe to. Social communication is an ingredient to the formation of a responsive society. This goes hand in hand with the social structures established and outlined in the society. This infers that the community should be more concerned about the structures formed by diverse groups (Perry, Levin, Iganski, Blazak, & Lawrence, 2009).
Some of the concepts that emanate from the discussion include Ethnocentrism and intercultural praxis. Ethnocentrism is a negative behavior that intends to demoralize the social set-up by treating communities differently. Numerous factors attributes to this situation. They include ethnicity, racism and discrimination. The fruit of these actions is hatred and increased insecurity in the country because members constantly engage in social stifles (Jackson, 2015). Intercultural praxis on the other hand talks about the steps undertaken by communities/individuals in promoting peace and cohesion among members.
Intervention Plan for Intercultural Social Justice
This document proposes a number of interventions and measures to be implemented to oversee the restoration of social justice. First, we focus on education. It is the most powerful tool that any society could implement to change the way people think and act towards other. Education changes the following. First, it opens up an individual mind and facilitates decision making. Individual will question and evaluate group decisions hence follow a certain direction. This means that an individual is not obliged to do what the group proposes rather adopt individual decisions (Bruce, 2009). Children brought up in a hostile environment tend to behave and act with hostility. This insinuates that the process applied in bringing up the sibling affects their perception and reaction towards others. To educate the society, a set of plans should be adopted to help members make formidable decisions and relate well with others. First, basic education should be free for everyone so that communities learn the basic social values (Moodian, 2009). There are numerous issues that need to be addressed through education (Williams, Roberts, & McIntosh, 2011). This is because education prepares individual for the future and facilitates interaction among members. Different communities will tolerate each other only if they understand the value of cohesion and peace. To input values to the communities or social groups, the government or authority has to find ways to lobby society to embrace education. For those members beyond the school age, enrolment into adult learning will help improve their understanding of social justice (Wood & University of Mississippi, 2011). Thus, community members will respect one another as they engage at various forums. No person will see or view the other as an inferior being based on racial or cultural affiliation.
The second value that education inculcates is social cohesion. This is where equality is created across communities by the fact that education brings people together (Collier, 2014). This means that education is incognizant of social and cultural ideologies that intend to divide people into religion, racial and cultural lines. It infers that the endeavor focuses on bringing up an all round community that is aware of social differences between cultures. Government should also strive to have mixed schools where student from diverse cultures study together. They will share a lot and be able to learn other cultures (In Simmons, 2013). Eventually, they will get familiar with diverse teachings hence able to tolerate and accommodate their peers. Lastly, education changes the perception that people holds against others. It therefore creates a leveled ground for cultures. I therefore propose that government introduces programs that teach the need and values of social cohesion to the population be it for the general curriculum or special education.
The second strategy is to have new laws and regulation that protect cultures in the world. Minor groups in the community often fall victims to the dominant or major groups that seems to marginalize them based on cultural features. The features that define one culture from the other should never be used to marginalize or discriminate against people. However, the perception and any other ideologies that people come up with is conceived in the minds through the system provided or intercultural praxis. To manage intercultural conflicts and violence, the following steps will be necessary (Darity, 2008). First, analyze the conflicting values of both groups before involving them in a brainstorming session to discusses and establish a leveled ground where they can settle their differences. Second, community programs such as competition and games need to be improvised to bring people together. These programs can be implemented at different levels in the social setup. Corporation and government departments should incorporate these programs into their busy schedule. The coming together of different cultures results to social cohesion and cooperation in matter of nation building. Therefore, the population will have little time left to think about their differences.
In conclusion, there is no single strategy that can be applied to solve social problems that involve violence and hate crime. The factors that forces community to act the way they conduct themselves; are profoundly entrenched in their culture. Thus, to change their perception and way of thinking; the nation has to come up with a comprehensive formula that includes all aspect of culture. This means that a multifaceted formula will be applied across regions. One of these formulas is to improve the state of education and introduce new programs. These programs offer knowledge that is socially oriented and covers all areas that may attribute or lead to conflict.
Bruce, J. (2009). Hate crimes. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press.
Collier, M. J. (2014). Community engagement and intercultural praxis: Dancing with difference in diverse contexts. New York: Peter Lang.
Darity, W. A. (2008). International encyclopedia of the social sciences. Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference USA.
In Simmons, E. (2013). Indigenous earth: Praxis and transformation. Penticton, BC: Theytus Books.
In Sorrells, K., & In Sekimoto, S. (2015). Globalizing intercultural communication: A reader. Chichester, West Sussex U.K: Wiley-Blackwell.
Jackson, J. (2015). “Unpacking” International Experience through Blended Intercultural Praxis. Internationalizing Higher Education, 13(5), 231-251. doi:10.1007/978-94-6209-980-7_15
Moodian, M. A. (2009). Contemporary leadership and intercultural competence: Exploring the cross-cultural dynamics within organizations. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Morewitz, S. J. (2010). Hate Crimes. Death Threats and Violence, 23(3), 102-118. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-76663-8_10
NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Political Violence, Organized Crimes, Terrorism and Youth, Ulusoy, M. D., & North Atlantic Treaty Organization. (2012). Political violence, organized crimes, terrorism, and youth. Amsterdam: IOS Press.
Perry, B., Levin, B., Iganski, P., Blazak, R., & Lawrence, F. M. (2009). Hate crimes. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Williams, L., Roberts, R. A., & McIntosh, A. (2011). Radical human ecolog
Interpersonal Communication Terms
People communicate on daily basis to pass information. Communication is the process in which people deliver a message to another person through pictures, words, gestures among others. This process of communication is only complete if the person targeted to get the information understands it entirely. Communication process involves several stages like encoding where the source of the message puts the message in an understandable form. The encoded message is then transmitted through a channel or a medium to the receiver (Lane, 2016). After the receiver receives the information, he then decodes the message to get its meaning. After decoding the message, the receiver sends a feedback to the point of origin of the message. The original receiver goes back to the same process as the original sender and the same factors influence the communication. The receiver of the message may use the same medium or channel when giving the feedback. The message received by the original sender is not the same as that sent by the original receiver. It is also important to understand that the process of communication may not always be successful. Several factors may prevent the message from reaching the receiver or have the anticipated effect. Barriers, which may affect the transmission of communication, may include, listening barriers like, interrupting a speaker, rushing the speaker, being distracted by someone or something, which is not part of the communication among others. Other barriers occur when speaking, like, unclear messages, failure to seek for clarification while communicating. Additionally, environmental barriers like the use of negative words, use of words with the same meaning, an emotional block may affect the communication process. Communication can be one to one communication, one to many communication, many to one communication.
In addition, communication can be of diverse types; written communication, non-verbal communication, or verbal communication (Lane, 2016). Verbal communication includes; face to face conversation, through telephone, presentation, public speech, interview, and meetings. On the hand, non-verbal communication involves the use of models, pictures, diagrams, charts, maps, sketches, and cutouts. Documents such as minutes, reports, letters, circulars, notices, memos are used in transmitting written messages. Conflict may also occur in the communication process when individuals have opposing viewpoints, have incompatible goals or when there is a scarcity of resources. Interpersonal conflict is expressed either verbally or non-verbally ranging such unnoticeable cold shoulder to evident disapproval. Interpersonal disagreement is different from intrapersonal; violence that involves abuse of certain individuals. Conflict is inevitable in close relationships and in most cases takes a negative emotional toll. In some instances when the conflict is handled well, it can result in positive rewards. This paper will focus on the film, “Love-struck the Musical.” This film was produced in the year 2013, focusing on the issues of love and how people communicate when solving the relationship conflicts that occur. This paper aims at explaining how interpersonal communication concepts have been applied in the film. The paper will illustrate how the actors in this exchange information either verbally or non-verbally. Concepts of interpersonal communication will help in explaining the complexity of relationships and the various stages that relationships go through. In addition, the concepts will help explain why people behave the way they behave and the reasons why they succeed or fail in those relationships. The paper aims at explaining how the following terms have been demonstrated in the film; strategies, self-disclosure, stages, reverse pattern, relational dialectics theory.
The film involves characters such as Mirabella Hutton and her mother Harper. It is based on love where Mirabella Hutton is in love with a French person and wants to go and live with him in Italy. It is against her mother Harper, who argues that Mirabella should remain in her homeland and continue practicing dancing. They confront each other since Mirabella refuses to go and dance in a show, which had been organized by her mother. Her mother had invited famous musicians to come and see her daughter present on that day. Harper falls when also practicing for a dance and breaks her leg. She found a drug called Aramid O’Malley’s as she was searching for drugs relieve her pain. She decided to take it. Immediately she took it, she became young and her wrinkles faded away. She could be able to dance as she did when she was young. She decides to follow Mirabella to Italy. Harper attends a party organized by Mirabella’s boyfriend and she intentionally kisses him to hurt Mirabella and make them break up. Mirabella’s boyfriend was weak and could not tell Mirabella that he loved her. After Mirabella realized that her boyfriend had kissed another girl, she decided to stop the marriage preparations that they had. They eventually get married as the film ends.
The strategy concept shows the various active, passive, and interactive strategies that people use when learning about others and how best to approach them. The passive strategy involves first observing an individual before deciding whether to approach them or not. One observes how an individual communicates with other people, how they respond to various issues, what they like to strangers, and how they are able to handle interpersonal conflict. On the other hand, the active strategy involves asking other people for information about an individual before approaching them. One may enquire from their either close friends or family members about how they carry out communication (Shockley, 2014). One also gets an idea on the best way to approach the person without making them angry. Furthermore, the interactive strategy involves approaching an individual directly and starting a conversation with them. This strategy does not require one to conduct a pilot study about the individual before approaching them. Different strategies have been used in the film “Love-struck Musical.” Harper did not have any information about where Mirabella’s boyfriend lived and did not even know what job he did. Before Harper left for Italy, she sought information about Mirabella’s boyfriend from her friend Amanda. This strategy is called active strategy. Amanda explained to Harper where Mirabella’s boyfriend lived, what he liked, and how he treated Mirabella. Additionally, Amanda explained to Harper that the best way to approach Mirabella’s boyfriend was by first saying hello to him with without shaking his hand. She was also advised not to approach him if he was drunk since he became high tempered when drank. It is evident that strategies should be used to understand other people well to develop a close relationship with them.
Self-disclosure involves an individual revealing their confidential, private, and confidential information to other people. Through this, one is able to build trust with other people. The concept brings people closer together and one is able to understand the other person better. It increases intimacy and makes people feel comfortable to disclose information that other people might see as negative (McLeod, Scheufele & Moy, 1999). Mirabella’s boyfriend was weak and could not tell Mirabella that he loved her. He could only express what he felt through music. In one of the songs he sang to Mirabella, he explained that his mother had died when he was six years and his grandmother raised that. He explained to Mirabella that his grandmother also died when he was at the age of fifteen and that he had to raise himself since there was nobody else to take care of him. He had worked as a houseboy where he was tortured. Despite the torture, he was able to save some amount of money, which he used to produce his first song. He also explained that someone had even planned to kill him if he did not give the song’s lyrics to him. Through this self-disclosure, Mirabella was able to understand her boyfriend and a feeling of trust build between them. Mirabella’s boyfriend was also able to explain to Mirabella that he had also attempted to steal food from his neighbor during his young age since he was starving.
The stage concept explains how the relationships evolve. The concept explains that relationships start with a first encounter, a relationship advances to the point where people are able to exchange a variety of information on different topics. The stages help people know if they have common grounds to enable them to establish a good relationship (Bochner & Krueger, 1979). If the people have common grounds, the two people irrespective of whether they are lovers, friends or business acquaintances develop a lasting bond. Mirabella first met her boyfriend in a dance training session. They were shy at each other and only talked less. One day after the training session, they were left together as their colleagues left. They talked a lot about each other and their experiences. They talked about their aspirations and lifelong dreams. They shared their contacts and left for their homes. They chatted all night. Unfortunately, Mirabella’s boyfriend got a sponsorship in Italy for musical training. He left the next week but they could always keep in touch. Mirabella’s boyfriend flew severally to visit Mirabella. This advanced to the stage that they got married to each other. It is evident that their intimate relationship took a while and stages before they got married.
Relational Dialectics Theory
Relational dialectics theory helps in exploring the tensions that arise in a relationship. It studies the connection and separateness between the people. In the case of self-disclosure, every individual is expected to keep the information confidential (O’sullivan, et al., 1994). If they share the information with other parties, conflict arises and the individuals may even part ways. In the film, Mirabella becomes angry when she realized that her boyfriend had kissed another woman. She felt that her boyfriend had betrayed her and that he only played with her feelings. Mirabella even composed a song claiming that her boyfriend is a liar and that she hoped that she was only dreaming. She closed herself in her room and did not want to talk to anyone about her boyfriend. She vowed never to talk to him and that he had shattered all her dreams. Her boyfriend apologized and claimed that he kissed another woman by mistake, but she did not want to listen to anything about it. They split ways and did not communicate to each other for few days. The relationship between Mirabella and Harper also deteriorated and Harper could not even look at Mirabella’s eyes. This theory aims at studying such tensions in relationships regardless of whether they are business, family or lover relationships.
Reverse pattern concept explains that once relationships have broken down, they follow a reverse pattern similar to the way they were initiated. Those in the relationship mainly focus on the differences rather than the similarities (Verderber, Beebe &Verberber, 2004). They begin to reduce the number of times that they communicated about the impersonal topics. The members in the relationship avoid each other and the relationship becomes unrewarding to both parties. Members exhibit mutual annoyance when they meet and could even catch the attention of other people because of this. After Mirabella realized her boyfriend kissed another woman, she developed a negative attitude towards him. She did not want to meet him and every time her boyfriend called or texted her, she could talk rudely or even not pick the calls. It is interesting to see how all this happened because they had even planned for a wedding and set the wedding date. This concept explains that the members in the relationship exhibit a proportional level of hatred to the love they shared. Despite Harper apologizing to Mirabella because of kissing her boyfriend, she did not want to listen to anything positive about him. Mirabella’s friends advised her to forgive her boyfriend since he did not kiss intentionally.
Bochner, A. P., & Krueger, D. L. (1979). Interpersonal communication theory and research: An overview of inscrutable epistemologies and muddled concepts. Communication Yearbook, 3, 197-211.
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Lane, S. D. (2016). Interpersonal communication: Competence and contexts. Routledge.
McLeod, J. M., Scheufele, D. A., & Moy, P. (1999). Community, communication, and participation: The role of mass media and interpersonal discussion in local political participation. Political Communication, 16(3), 315-336.
O’sullivan, T., Hartley, J., Saunders, D., Montgomery, M., & Fiske, J. (1994). Key concepts in communication and cultural studies (p. 267). London: Routledge.
Proctor, R. F., & Adler, R. B. (1991). Teaching interpersonal communication with feature films. Communication Education, 40(4), 393-400.
Shockley-Zalabak, P. (2014). Fundamentals of organizational communication. Pearson.
Verderber, K., Beebe, S. A., &Verberber, K. (2004). Inter act: Interpersonal Communication, concepts, skills and. Oxford.
Corporate Communication in Guatemala
Corporate communication is an essential ingredient of success in every organization. Corporate communication determines what and how people view the organization internally and externally. In essence, corporate communication helps unveil the company to its stakeholders in a way that persuades them to continue to support the goals of the organization. Poor corporate communication can derail the growth and the development of an organization. As such, organizational leaders invest a great deal of resources to ensure that the company maintains the right image to its stakeholders. On the other hand, corporate communication policies of an organization reflect the societal values of the community in which the company exists. The cultural values of the society have a great influence on the various aspects of corporate communication in an organization (Goodman and peter 79).
The differences in culture explain the various mechanisms and tools that companies employ in enhancing the knowledge of the firm to its stakeholders. As such, organizations operating international businesses employ different tools of corporate communication depending on the society that the company serves. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the corporate communication rules in Guatemala. Additionally, the paper will detail how the corporate communication rules operate in the country as well as the various cultural values that determine business operations in the nation.
The Cultural Values
An interview with Ray Rogers who is a former manager of one of the Coca-Cola battling plants in Guatemala revealed the following as the main Corporate Communication Rules and cultural values of the Guatemala. To start with, Ray Rogers claimed tha the culture of Guatemala is characterized by high levels of collectivism and a high power distance. People in Guatemala value unity within the society and every member of the community bear the responsibility of the other peoples well being. Family is a highly respected institution in this community and people mostly live in extended families. The nature of lifestyle in Guatemala is rather different from the life in the United States where people value individualism. Family in the United States constitutes of the nuclear family hence the difference in the view of family between the two nations.
Furthermore, he revealed that the collectivity nature of life extends to the workplace where people mostly work in teams and groups. The cohesiveness of members within an organization in Guatemala is of great value and it is a determinant factor to the success of the firm. Loyalty is highly valued in the Guatemala community. People pledge allegiance to the teams or groups in which they belong. The collectivism nature of life requires people to have strong ties with the rest of the world, hence necessitating loyalty in both social and economic situations (Hubner 126).
On the other hand, Ray Rogers acknowleged that the people of Guatemala allow inequality in terms of wealth and power to exist within the society. The society appreciates the fact that people exist in different capacities and the influence that one has on the society depends on their status or class. As such, the division of power within organizations is vital to the people of Guatemala. The responsibilities of people within the organization differ according to their power positions within the firm. Democracy is rarely practiced in the work place or in the society due to the division of power and wealth. Additionally, the society also believes in absolute truth that cannot be challenged.
Ray Rogers also realized that the Guatemala people do not accept change easily because they believe in one truth. Therefore, international organizations with offices in Guatemala must find ways to fit in the society in one way or another. Companies that try to change the way of operating in the business realm end up in bankruptcy in Guatemala because people are loyal to their values and the stipulated ways of operations (Jaksic and Sladana 47). The business community has set rules and regulations to govern business transactions throughout the land. The purpose of the rules and the regulations is to prevent the occurrence of uncertainties and the unexpected.
Corporate Communication Rules in Guatemala
From the interview, Ray Rogers revealed that the aspects of the corporate communication in Guatemala are different from those in the United States. Ray Rogers pointed out that there are two main corporate communication rules that stand out in Guatemala. He categorized them as division of responsibility and restriction and confidentiality. Corporate communication is the means through which the organization communicates with its stakeholders. As such, the division of responsibilities within the organization determines who and how the information about the company reaches the concerned parties. Ray Rogers highlighted that responsibilities for internal and external communication differ in Guatemala and so does the message that the company presents to the stakeholders. Moreover, companies follow specific rules and regulations in communicating to both internal and external stakeholders to avoid chances of unplanned occurrences.
Ray Rogers also stipulated that the people of Guatemala do not have tolerance for uncertainties, therefore, communication within and without the organization are well planned to avoid such incidences (Mumby 63). Consequently, employee communication is also different in Guatemala. According to the Ray Rogers, the culture of collectivism gives people the chance to raise their views concerning certain things, employees within the organization do respect the chain of command in raising their views.
Corporate communication rules govern the restrictions and confidentialities within the organizations. In Guatemala, Ray Rogers reveled that managers have the ultimate authority to give orders. Leaders give clear guidelines to any certain operation because the people of Guatemala believe in planning to avoid uncertainties. Restrictions and confidentialities differ according to the communication facet and the target audience. However, he pointed out that management communication, marketing communication, and organization communications employ different restrictions and confidentiality. However, the lack of individualism in the society reduces the burden of confidentiality in corporate communication at different levels.
In fact, Ray Rogers put it very clear that the laws governing operations in the Guatemala society and at the business place are clearly stipulated. Therefore, privacy is not a necessity in business operations. He further claimed that the vital information concerning any business transaction is communicated openly without any confidentiality aspects to enhance the collective responsibility of the stakeholders. The community plays an ideal role in business operations (Mumby 71). Therefore, most organizations maintain constant communication with the society to enhance connectivity. Ray Rogers singled out differences in power to be the factor that determine the level of stakeholder involvement in day-to-day business operations. The wealthy and the powerful control what the rest of the world hears concerning the company. However, the Guatemala people value working together without unnecessary restrictions as it is in many other western nations.
How the Corporate Communication Rule Operates In Guatemala
In accordance with the Ray Rogers, corporate communication in Guatemala affects the internal and the external communication in a great way. Internal communication within organizations in Guatemala are more controlled and organized than it is with communication in the United States. The CEO’s have the responsibility of communicating to employees with the purpose of improving the knowledge of the company among employees. In Guatemala, people do not believe in working for something they do not fully understand. As such, the leaders of certain groups must ensure efficient communication with the employees to ensure that people are on the same page concerning the goals of the organization. During internal communication, the hierarchy of leadership must be honored because the culture of the land allows unequal distribution of power. Organizations have certain rules, regulations, and standards that govern the kind of information that leaders pass to the employees (Harris and Mark 90). In fact, failure to communicate effectively can adversely affect the productivity of the company.
From the interview, it was revealed that the people of Guatemala believe in an absolute truth and the failure of the leaders to adhere to the known truths hinders coordination at the work place. On the other hand, change is not positively received in organizations within Guatemala. Leaders must groom employees in advance to accept certain changes in the business operations. Additionally, internal communication in such organizations seeks to motivate, strengthen, and enhance employee loyalty within the organization rather than just offering information about the organization. Issues of masculinity and feminist do not affect internal communication in Guatemala because the society believes in unity and cohesiveness.
Ray Rogers identified external communication to be another important aspect of corporate communication. The capital markets and the media are key recipients of the external communication in Guatemala because of the many rules and regulations that govern business transactions in the nation. Organizations must follow the set standards, laws, and regulations in presenting the company information to the external stakeholders. Laws and regulations are meant to ensure that organization do not encounter unexpected risks in business operations.
Consequently, Ray Rogers stressed that in Guatemala, communication with the outside stakeholders are conducted in an honest and trustworthy way. The community in Guatemala believes in relationships that are founded on the truth; therefore, lack of honest communication can be detrimental to the organization. In times where the truth is too much to bear for the society or external communication, a silent period is exercised (Harris and Mark 52).
However, Ray Rogers cautioned that the silent moments should not interfere with the laws of open disclosure as stipulated in the corporate communication rules of the land. Organizations maintain a transparent relationship with the investors. An investors’ relationship committee is established to keep the investors informed of the company’s position, operations, and developments (Hubner 64). Additionally, constant communication with investors eliminates chances of risk occurrences because of information deficit. Employees must always consult with their immediate superiors before releasing any company’s information to an external investor for the safety of the company.
Restrictions and confidentiality is the third aspect of corporate communication that is highly valued in Guatemala as revealed during the interview. As stated earlier, the people of Guatemala value consistency and the rule of law. As such, communication within and without the organization is governed by certain regulation to ensure effectiveness of business operations. First, before any information is released to the stakeholders, the rules, regulations and the standards of both the company and the society must be followed. Additionally, communication in the organization must be based on trust.
Open communication is highly valued in Guatemala because of the collective nature of the society. To avoid risks and uncertainties, organization have certain rules that govern which kind of information should be released to the outside world and by whom (Hubner 163). Unlike in other places where employees have the authority to speak on behalf of the organization, in Guatemala only people mandated with that responsibility can speak on behalf of the company. Additionally, organizations value the privacy of their workers and releasing the whereabouts of an employee to an unauthorized person is prohib
Goodman, Michael B., and Peter B. Hirsch. Corporate communication: strategic adaptation for global practice. New York: Peter Lang, 2010. Print.
Harris, Thomas E., and Mark D. Nelson. Applied organizational communication theory and practice in a global environment. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2008. Print.
Hubner, Hartmut. The Communicating Company Towards an Alternative Theory of Corporate Communication. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag Heidelberg, 2007. Print.
Jaksic, Maja, and Sladana Rakočević. Innovative management & business performance [symposium proceedings. Belgrade: University of Belgrade, Faculty of Organizational Sciences, 2012. Print.
Mumby, Dennis K. Organizational communication: a critical approach. Thousand Oaks: SAGE, 2013. Print.
Research News Article
In a study conducted by New England Journal of Medicine, it was established that marijuana has the potential of reducing the number of seizure episodes by up to a half in children suffering Dravet; a form of epilepsy. The research, whose findings were reported by ABC News Associated Press’s Marilynn Marchione, was conducted using liquefied cannabidiol known as Epidiolex manufactured by GW Pharmaceuticals. The non-hallucinogenic compound was administered to the experiment group while the control group was given a placebo drug in addition to their conventional anti-seizure medication. Up to 120 children drawn from the United States and Europe were involved as participants in the study. Aged between 12 and 18 years, the participants on Epidiolex and their usual anti-seizure medication saw a significant reduction in the number of seizure episodes in a month. Data, which was compared to the previous month’s record, showed that three participants using the marijuana compound were seizure while others had their seizure episodes halved to six in four weeks. However, the participants on the marijuana compounded suffered several side effects ranging from diarrhea to sleep complications (Marchione, 2017).
The news article does not clearly indicate the data collection methodology used during the research. However, I believe that the methodology used for data collection during the study was primarily observational. The 120 participants, barring the twelve who dropped out of the study, were observed in their environment after the administration of the placebo and the marijuana compound whose efficacy was being tested. This was a case study of 120 participants. Case studies usually combine both qualitative and quantitative approaches (Mahoney & Goertz, 2006; Creswell, 2013). The relative small sample size is an indication of the use of convenient sampling where participants are chosen randomly yet such a decision is guided by available resources, time and permission (Pyrczak, 2012). In this case, permission was primarily sought from parents of the epileptic children not only because of their vulnerability but also due to their young age.
The statistics of the study reinforces the long-held opinion that marijuana has important medicinal values that can be used to treat disorders and diseases that conventional medicines have had little progress. The data added a scientific edge to the growing call for increased research into these untapped medical capabilities of marijuana. Additionally, the study reinforces the growing push for legalization of marijuana for medicinal and recreational purposes by extension. This has become a thorny social and political issue over the years in the United States and Europe with several states in the U.S. legalizing its use. For a news company, relaying these findings act as a symbol of their stand on the debate of marijuana legalization especially for medicinal use. The findings give them the much-needed scientific backing in the polarized marijuana legalization debate.
This methodology was a perfect fit because it also allowed the researchers to take notes on various research outliers including abstract variables such as emotion of the parents, which cannot be effectively captured within the variables being measured. Case studies also allows for impersonal connections with the participants, which are critical in getting the understanding of the phenomenon under study (Pyrczak, 2012). This was effectively achieved in this research. Even though it was tasking and labor intensive considering the relatively large number of participants, the method used allowed the researchers to dig deeper into the topic and highlights issues beyond the scope of the variables. For example, they were able to observe the various side effects of the marijuana compound being administered to experimental group.
Creswell, J. (2013). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (4th ed). New York: Sage Publications, Inc.
Mahoney, J. & Goertz, G. (2006). A tale of two cultures: Contrasting quantitative and qualitative research. Political Analysis, 14, 227–249. doi:10.1093/pan/mpj017
Marchione, M. (2017 May). Marijuana extract helps some kids with epilepsy, study says. ABC News. Retrieved from: http://abcnews.go.com/Health/wireStory/marijuana-extract-helps-kids-epilepsy-study-47635791
Pyrczak, F. (2012). Evaluating Research in Academic Journals: A Practical Guide to Realistic Education (5th ed). Los Angeles, CA: Pyrczak Publishing.