Assignment Writing Help on Crime Prevention Programs

Crime Prevention Programs

Summary of the jurisdiction

Apparently, crime has become part and parcel of human life. Every country worldwide experiences criminal activities and this the reason criminal justice systems will not miss in any country. Countries have come up with strict policies and regulations in a bid to fight crime. For instance, in some of the major cities in the world, freedom of movement is limited to those with identification documents (Arrington, 2006). The point of focus here is how cities such as New York have strived to combat the ever increasing criminal incidences. In the past decades, crimes in the streets of New York City were attributed to the blacks. The misconception has been passed with time. Today, every race has the capability of committing a crime. There have been incidences where American citizens have been robbed at night or in broad daylight, or passengers in public vehicles have been kidnapped, and ransom demanded. In order to curb such criminal activities, New York City and other major cities across the globe need to come up with measures that will prevent criminals or suspected criminals from engaging in the irritant and illegal activities. The proposal will also address the adult and juvenile justice systems as crime in any city can be committed by adults and youths.

Analysis of current trends (SARA model)

The three similar jurisdictions in focus are New York, New London and Washington DC. The current trend of crime in NY City is as represented below:

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Trends for New London

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From the first figure, it the trends show that the level of crime rate has gone down, and this is also experienced in the other two cities. The country as a whole also reported a significant drop in criminal activities and incidences.

Through scanning, it has been found out that robbery with violence and murder are the two leading crimes committed in the cities of New York, New London and Washington DC.  The two problems have to a large extent led to the loss of several lives thus raising concern among city authorities. Analysis of the two problems done shows that the major contributing factor is poverty. Criminals wish to live well though the lack of funds forces them to rob and murder other people in order to possess their wealth and other materials. In response to the two problems, the state and city authorities have tightened security in the streets. Besides, lighting has been improved. The responses have been seen to work as the crime rates have decreased or dropped significantly in the three cities (assessment).

Appropriate crime prevention program

In a bid to curb or reduce the crimes experienced in the streets and in residential areas, city authorizes should adopt community policing program. The high number of crime incidences and activities ought to be dealt with effectively, and the most appropriate program remains community policing. It is a philosophy or program whereby community partnership and other honing techniques used in solving problems are brought forth to enhance the ties between the police and the community with an aim of curbing or preventing crimes (Miller et al., 2011). The program has succeeded in a number of countries, and it is likely to succeed in the three American cities. However, there are possible challenges that may be faced during the rolling out or implementation of the program. For example, motivation of police officers and the community members to embrace or adopt community policing may be difficult. Besides, implementation of the program requires proper preparation hence is costly. Assuring the members of the community of effective operations during the implementation of the program is important. The city authorities should ensure that police agencies and departments have well-trained officers and adequate levels of funding.  The perception among the members of the community that police agencies suppress and harass people especially the youth should be done away with. As a result, the members of the community will readily accept and embrace the program. American citizens should be educated on the roles of the police before community policing is rolled out. An implementation of this may help do away with the underlying dissension that exists in the community. Subsequently, citizens will be willing and free to give information to the police thus helping in crime protection. Community policing is all about the general public relating well to the police if they are to help reduce crime rates in cities.

Review of academic literature

Previous studies on crime prevention programs have been done. Most of the studies have been used presently to help curb the ever increasing rates.

Choosing an evaluation model for community crime prevention programs done by Brian J. English, Rick Cummings and Ralph G. Straton, describes community crime prevention programs as programs whose purpose is to reduce the incidences of crime in our communities. Besides, the study opines that communities need to participate in crime prevention. According to the study, crime prevention has become a major concern in the modern generation due to the rise of the cost of crime for both individuals and the community. Some of the crime prevention programs suggested by the study include preventing alcohol-related crime through community action and community policing of neighborhoods. Transferring crime prevention initiatives, creating safer cities, reducing the risk of leaving school early and developing offending or illegal behavior and reducing recidivism for illegal vehicle use are other vital programs (Schneider, 2006). The study goes ahead to mention that the implementation of the programs must be targeted towards the community and the members of the community need to be involved in the implementation.

The other previous study on crime prevention programs is Crime prevention in Aboriginal communities done by Rick Linden. According to Rick, the 21st century has seen the placement of the primary responsibility of prevention of crime in the hands of formal criminal justice systems such as the adult justice system or juvenile justice system. The limitations of the formal system of criminal justice approach have been recognized, and this has prompted people to embrace new approaches such as involving community members in crime prevention programs. A limitation that has been faced in the implementation of the formal system of criminal justice is the availability of limited patrol and investigative resources. Some of the programs that the study suggests that play an integral role in helping curb crime include early childhood education, parental skills training, and youth employment. The study categorizes the fore-mentioned programs under social development programs as they address the socio-economic factors that cause or result in crimes. Although other programs focus on curbing crime, they aim at reducing opportunity through the enhancement of how potential crime targets are guarded or made less vulnerable to criminal activities. For crime prevention programs to be implemented in our communities, planning is vital. Individuals who plan to implement crime prevention programs in the community must ensure the needs of the members of the community are addressed. Besides, the programs in store must be evaluated before implementation in order to enhance their effectiveness.

Approaches to community crime prevention, done by Kenneth Polk is the other study that addresses or elaborates on the possible ways of preventing crime in the global community. The study gives a definition of crime prevention as the practice of putting in place policies that through changing social condition of people, sustains or curbs crime in residential communities. It gives organization of community surveillance through neighborhood watch as one of the programs that promote crime prevention. It also includes community mobilization as a program that aims at reducing crime in our communities.

Analysis of various programs in comparable jurisdictions

Apart from community policing, there is a wide range of other programs that if implemented, would play a key role in the reduction of crime incidences in cities such as New York, New London and Washington DC. Social development programs are different from other programs that focus on the reduction of opportunity of crime commitment. It is because they have capitalized on reducing the number of individuals who commit crime. In achieving this, frequent criminals are positively motivated and this makes them stop engaging in criminal activities. One of the programs (social development program) that could be vital in reducing crime in our major cities is the improvement of parenting skills. Good family relationships have in the past played roles in driving youths and even other adults from engaging in criminal activities. Improvement of parenting skills involves parents having bonds of affection and caring for their children. In return, the child will feel loved and part of the family and will not be tempted to engage in activities that would tarnish the image of the family. Research shows that parents who have stepped up in their parenting roles have greatly contributed towards crime reduction and prevention. Therefore, cities faced with challenges of crime should roll out a program that parents improve their parenting skills (Miyazawa, 1995).

Provision of education for both adults and youths is the other program that if implemented, could aid the major American cities in curbing crime (Araim, 1963). Family and school play similar roles in socializing people and in extension, are important factors that predict delinquency. Notably, when children adolescents and young adults spend most of their time in educational institutions, they will not have the time and chance to engage in criminal activities. Instead, the schools provide them with alternatives such as sports and other social activities that keep them busy. The only disadvantage is that most adolescents who fail in school will be involved in delinquency. City authorities should aim at keeping youths and adolescents engaged in establishing more learning institutions. It is likely that this will help reduce the ever increasing crime rates witnessed in major cities in America and across the globe.

Recommendation for funding strategy

The proposal’s program of implementation is community policing. In rolling the program out, funds are necessary. The program will involve the recruitment of more police officers, and this will require more funds. Besides, since most community members do not understand and underestimate the roles of police officers, the implementation of community policing will be very difficult. Therefore, members of the community should be educated and advised that the role of police officers is not to intimidate, harass or suppress people (Palmiotto, 1999). The provision of education will require funds for the purchase of materials and the payment for the services of those who will be responsible for providing the education and training. The best funding strategy to enhance or boost the implementation of the program would be entering into agreements with financial bodies such as banks so as to lure for sponsorship of the program. Crime always affects all. In fact, financial institutions are seriously affected by crimes such as robberies and the implementation of programs aimed at reducing crime would be good news to them. There is an assurance that the program will gain financial support from financial institutions like banks.

Anticipated outcomes

Community policing being the program that aims at reducing crime in major world cities will be accompanied by both long-term and short-term outcomes. Among the short-term outcomes are good relationships between the community members and police officers.  The other outcomes are the members of the community understanding the roles and responsibilities of police officers and police officers halting harassment, intimidation and suppression where previously the youths were the major targets. One of the long-term outcomes of the program is that crime will be reduced significantly in major cities in the world. The other long-term outcome of the program is that the financial institutions will enter into agreements in order to enhance security and prevent crimes such as robbery that have greatly affected the banking industry.

It should also be noted that community policing will have a positive impact on social justice within the community. People will have the freedom and will interact with police agencies, and the agencies will also ensure that there is social justice culminated in the process (Palmiotto, 1999).

Conclusion

In recap, crime is one of the major challenges that countries, cities and state governments face in the modern world. Various economies have dwindled and failed because of exposure to recurrent criminal activities. Fighting crime is not an issue of concern to a few individuals, agencies or organizations. That is to say, police officers cannot fight crime without support from the community. The community can also not fight crime without support from police officers. People need to work together for crime to be eradicated completely across the globe (Arrington, 2006). The criminals in our streets are known youths and adults. It is important to identify the reasons that make criminals stick to their activities. In fighting crime, as elaborated in this proposal, various programs should be implemented. For instance, community policing is one of the most appropriate programs that will play an integral role in fighting crime. This program involves establishing good rapport between members of the community and police officers enabling the members of the community to report at will to police officers about potential criminal activities. The other plans that could also help curb crime include provision of education and guidance to the youths and improvement of parental guiding. Provision of education helps fight crime in that the youths will be tied to school and spend most of their time learning hence they will not have the time and chance of engaging in criminal activities. Conversely, improvement of parenting will ensure parents show affection and caring to their children, and this will prevent them from engaging in criminal activities.

References

Araim, A. J. (1963). Crime prevention: Evaluation of the ways (concepts, hypothesis, theories). Baghdad: al-Ma’aref Press.

Arrington, R. (2006). Crime prevention: The law enforcement officer’s practical guide. Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Miller, L. S., Hess, K. M., & Orthmann, C. M. H. (2011). Community policing: Partnerships for problem solving. Australia: Delmar Cengage Learning.

Miyazawa, K. (1995). Crime prevention in the urban community. Deventer u.a: Kluwer.

Palmiotto, M. (1999). Community policing: A policing strategy for the 21st century. Gaithersburg, Md: Aspen.

Schneider, S. (2006). Refocusing crime prevention: Collective action and the quest for community. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.