Arab Israeli War 1948
The Arab Israeli war 1948 was the first war in a series of numerous military conflicts between Israel and Arab forces. Israel got its independence in 1948 after the United Nations recognized it as a sovereign country in the Middle East. If the pre-war relations in Palestine were fraught with serious difficulties, then the difficulties paled into being insignificant after the independence of Israel. This is because the Arab nations started attacking Israel after it became an independent state. If Israel faltered at the time of this hurdle, it would have stopped existing as an independent state regardless of the decree of the United Nations.
What led to the Arab Israeli war 1948?
The war between Israel and Arab nations broke out in 1948 when five nations from the Arab world invaded the former Palestinian territory immediately after the United Nations announced the independence of Israel as a state on 14th May 1948. Conflict between Arab groups and Jewish was immediately sparked by the resolution of the United Nations. Fighting started with attacks by the irregular Palestinian Arabs bands which attacked the local Arab Liberation Army that was made of volunteers from Arab countries and Palestine. The groups began attacking Jewish cities, armed forces and settlements.
The Jewish forces were made of Haganah, which was an underground Jewish community militia in Palestine as well as the LEHI and Irgun groups. The aim of the Arabs was to block the Partition Resolution while preventing a Jewish state’s establishment. On the other hand, the Jews wanted to take control of the territories that they had been allotted as per the Partition Plan.
How the war was fought
During this war, the Arab forces from Transjordan, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon and Iraq occupied parts of eastern and southern Palestine that were not given to the Jews by the UN’s partitioning of Palestine. They captured east Jerusalem which included the small quarter of the Old City with an aim of forestalling a Jewish state’s creation in Palestine. Their aim was to capture the entire Jerusalem and shell it while cutting off the Jewish people living there from coastal plain.
Meanwhile, Israel got control of the road that leads to Jerusalem via Yehuda Mountains while repulsing repeated Arabs attacks successfully. In 1947 as well as 14th May 1948, the United States offered a de facto recognition of the Provisional Government of Israel. However, the US maintained arms embargo during this war against the belligerents.
Why and how the Arab Israeli war 1948 ended
It was after breaking the siege of the Old City that Israel took control of the Western parts of Jerusalem. Israel captured some villages and suburbs from their enemy, the Arabs. Nevertheless, the Israel forces were not successful in their efforts to protect the Jewish living in Eastern Jerusalem. Later on 28th May 1948, the Old City’s Jewish quarter fell under the Arab Legion. On November 1948, ceasefire lines were established between the Transjordan forces and Israel with several non-main land areas. The lines acted as the temporary boarder between what initially were mixed communities. Western Jerusalem was the capital city of Israel while the eastern Jerusalem, which included holy sites, was under the occupation of Transjordan that became Hashemite Kingdom in 1949. Essentially, the city was divided into two.
Who was affected by the war?
The 1948 war, which is called the “War of Independence” by the Israelis led to the deaths of 6,000 Israelis. This was about 1 percent of the population of the country. In Jerusalem, over 1,000 Jewish civilians were wounded. The Arab nations that attacked Israel lost over 7,000 men.
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