Research Paper Outline
A research paper outline provides the road map to the ideas that you intend to discuss in a paper. Therefore, it is critical that you know how to create a good outline that can reflect an outstanding research paper. Read on for great insights on how to go about writing a unique and impeccable research paper outline for an assignment or examination.
An outline represents the actual points that will be used in building your argument for the paper from introduction to conclusion. However, this does not mean that you have to write the paper in the outline. The outline should only briefly list and highlight the ideas to be discussed in the paper.
A research paper outline should also clearly indicate the format that you will pursue in the discussion. This is the best way through which you can provide a proper ‘blueprint’ for the research paper as required.
Guidelines on how to write a research paper outline
One of the main things to bear in mind when planning to write a research paper outline is that the page should contain the following basic sections:
- The title of the paper
- Thesis statement or main claim
- The main or key points of the study
- Supporting statements or evidence to back up the chief points
The above listed sections will then be framed to make up the introduction, body paragraphs and conclusion of the research paper. Follow the tips outlined below to easily master the art of creating good outlines for research papers.
Understand the assignment
There is a reason why it is always advised that students should carefully read the questions of an assignment or term paper. You should always take some time to read the assignment in order to effectively understand the requirements or what is expected of you. It is only then that you can begin brainstorming on how to create an outline for a research paper or any other.
Choose the topic
Picking a topic for a research paper can sometimes appear challenging, however, it only requires you to simply construct a few words that can summarize the entire study. The topic should be catchy, interesting and easier to describe in the paper.
The topic should be focused on a specific aspect that you are able to explain well in the rest of the paper as per the requirements. In case you do not understand the assignment, it is advisable that you ask your tutor in advance.
Avoid subjects that are too complicated and vague since those might give you problems in handling when it comes to writing the outline and final paper.
Study the subject
In order for you to generate information for the paper, you have to do some research about the topic. Try to find information that can help you in understanding the topic of the paper better. This should include general ideas as well as specifics about the research.
Do your research from previously written papers on the topic and notes by experts. However, the information that you find useful should have a reliable source in order to be included in the points for the paper.
You can do the research online and also from libraries and colleagues. Although, all these ideas will have to undergo proper analysis before use in writing the outline.
Create a thesis
The thesis statement always acts as the main claim of the paper and should be clearly indicated in the outline and final work. Besides, it will guide you on the points to include in the outline to ensure that a proper argument is tabled.
In developing a thesis, choose the main points that portray the ideas you intend to sell or describe in the paper. However, you must be keen to ensure that you have sufficient supporting facts or evidence to prove the claim.
Steps on how to write a research paper outline
In writing a research paper outline, you should have a mind picture of how the actual paper will look and feel with regards to content and tone. Practice the following procedures for help on how to create an outline for a research paper.
Write the title of the paper
This should appear at the top of the outline just as it will be used in the final paper. It should be short, precise and to the point.
This is where you are required to give a highlight on how the subject of research will be introduced to readers. In order to influence readers, the intro should be attractive and informative enough to generate a reaction.
You can simply write a short sentence (s) showing how the discussion will be ignited. On the other hand, you can also simply list the main points that will be used in crafting the opening statements.
The opening sentences of the paper should provide a general view on the topic or subject of study.
After framing the first statements, you should also write the thesis statement within the section of the introduction since that is where it will be inserted. It is always advisable that you write the entire thesis as it will appear in the final paper in the outline.
In some cases, you can choose to write the thesis statement right at the top of the outline page, just after the topic. However, you should always remember when writing the paper that a thesis statement comes at the end of the introduction.
You can also write down some of the linking phrases that will be used in connecting the introduction to the rest of the paper.
In the outline, you should clearly indicate the points that will be discussed in the body of the research. The main points should all be listed down but in the form of topic sentences. You can use numeric or bullets to highlight the main points.
Although the main points will depend on the subject of study, it is always advisable that you have at least three in order to deliver a compelling argument in the paper.
Under each topic sentence, write the supporting statement or evidence that will be used to explain it in the paper. It is also important that you list two or more supporting statements to prove the claim and help readers in understanding the context of the paper.
Since this is a research paper, you are required to list the results of the study in the final part of the paper. Besides, you should also touch on the thesis and close the discussion by giving a broader perspective of the study or telling readers how it can apply to them in real life. On the other hand, your conclusion can also point out to future studies on the subject.
After writing the outline, always take time to proofread and edit every part of it in order for you to create a good research paper.
Examples of research paper outline
For a more elaborate illustration of how a research paper outline should be written, you should also read a few samples. The following are some that will give you more inspiration in creating an outline for your research paper.
Sample outline for a Research paper
Topic: Cellphones in the hands of drivers; A Risk or a Benefit?
Thesis: Unless the risks of cell phones are shown to outweigh the benefits, we should not restrict their use in moving vehicles; instead, we should educate the public about the dangers of driving while on the phone and prosecute irresponsible phone users under laws on negligent and reckless driving.
- Scientific studies have not proved a link between use of cell phones and traffic accidents.
- A study by Redelmeier and Tibshirani was inconclusive, since the researcher themselves have admitted…’’- dianahacker.com.
Title: The Federalist Paper’s Influence on the Ratification of the Constitution
Thesis: The Federalist Papers influenced the ratification of the Constitution by making some of their most important arguments, including the importance of being in a Union by having a Constitution, answering to the objections made by the Anti-federalists about separation of powers, and defending opposing arguments made against the characteristics of the executive and judicial branch as provided in the Constitution.
- Describe what The Federalist Papers are and when they began…austincc.edu.
Title: Common Sense and its impact on American Political Thought
Thesis: Thomas Paine’s Common Sense articulated the anti-British sentiments of the Colonies in a way so unprecedented that it permanently changed the face of political thought in America.
- Thesis statement (already indicated above)
- What did Common Sense say that was so different?
- It denounced both the Monarchy and English Constitution, which had previously been viewed as a brilliant political document… austincc.edu.
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Research Paper Format
A good research paper format is one that is able to meet the requirements of a tutor or client in need of research papers. Many writers struggle when asked to format research papers. In fact, many spend a lot of time determine what is a good format and which format will perfectly fit their papers. Others spend money or resources to seek help understand how to format their work so as to get the best results out of their papers.
A well formatted paper is all about its appearance or presentation. The best format for a research paper may be hard to determine, but you will risk getting low grades or not being taken seriously in school, if you fail to take initiatives of finding out how to format your paper remarkably. In addition, you have to ascertain how to write a research paper so as to know what your tutor wants and the best format that will fit your assignment.
An Overview on Research Paper Format- What to Know
Research paper writing is a demanding procedure that you have to spare enough time to pursue. You have to be focused and disciplined enough to get every facet of the research paper right. It is more challenging if you are the one to determine which research paper format will fit your assignment. There are diverse research paper formats that you can make use of when writing a research paper at any level.
Most research paper will be written in either the American Psychological Association format (APA) or the Modern Language Association (MLA). Whenever assigned a research paper, it is wise to always look at the given instructions and ascertain whichever format the tutor wants the paper to be written in. You have to follow the basics of MLA and APA formatting styles guidelines while writing research papers regardless of any other requirements from the tutor. The modern language association (MLA) format is used in;
- And English Assignments
Whereas the American Psychological Association (APA) format style is used in;
- Psychology and
- Sociology classes
MLA format style is the mostly relied on and easy to follow. However, depending on the requirements of the tutor, you can go for any format style but keep the basics in mind. For instance, when applying the MLA format style, your research paper should be double-spaced and typed in a 12-point font that is easy to read and a good example is the Times New Roman font. The paper itself should display the name of the author, the tutor of who it is for or class number. The date the assignment is due should be included on separate lines in the top of the corner of the first page.
APA format style is similar to the MLA style, but there are a few noteworthy disparities. APA research papers should as well be double-spaced and typed in a 10 to 12 font size such as Times New Roman. On top of this, APA format style requires the first page of the paper to be a title page followed by a brief abstract of the intended paper ideas. The first page should start at the top of the page with the title. A header is crucial too on each page. The title has to be justified to the left and the page number justified to the right on each page. You have to provide citation at the end of the paper.
Guide to Writing a Research Paper
Writing research papers is a skill that every student should sharpen. You cannot simply get a pen and paper or stare at a cursor on your computer and expect to draft a great paper. Practice makes perfect whenever it comes to research paper writing. A series of steps can help you develop a high quality research paper format. They include;
- Choose an appealing topic- You have to go for a topic that interests and challenges you as your attitude towards the topic will determine your enthusiasm and effort you put into research. You have to focus on a narrowed aspect and select an issue that you can manage.
- Find information- The internet is the best place to gather helpful information for your research paper. Use search engines and other search tools that can make the researching process much easier. Visit your library too and gather enough material from books, magazines or journals concerning the topic of discussion. Read and evaluate each material that you come across and ascertain whether it fits your paper.
- State your research paper thesis- Do some critical thinking and write your thesis down in one clear and short sentence. The thesis is like a declaration of your belief. Make arguments that you can support with facts about this belief.
- Write an outline- Develop an introduction, body and conclusion paragraphs. All the details that you give ought to relate to the topic of discussion. If you write a good outline, it will make it easy to organize your paper on a logical manner.
- Write the first draft- State the first topic in your outline. Summarize from each idea that you plan to use in your research paper. Go on and put your ideas in the order of your outline.
- Revise your outline and draft and make sure that there are no grammar, spelling or punctuation flaws. Any writing flaws can make your research paper lose focus or make your research paper format fail to meet tutor’s or reader’s expectations.
How to Use the Best Research Paper Format
Early preparation is crucial when it comes to determining which format will fit your paper. Remember you will have to spend time to ascertain what to write about, research and know the best research paper format to use. Knowing what makes the formatting process smooth builds confidence in many writers. In addition, it is not a crime or punishable to inquire from your classmates, tutors or seek help from experts. However, you should never plagiarize any other writers work if you cannot ascertain what format to go for. There are adverse consequences that come with taking such actions. The following instructions will help you benefit from the best format while writing your research paper;
- Put the contents of the research paper in the following order; title page, abstract, outline or table of contents, list of illustrations, the text of the paper, footnotes of bibliography and index.
- The title page should be centered and about halfway down the page. It should carry the title of the study, author’s name and institution.
- Create a good abstract- It should appear on a separate page. Write in paragraph form and include a concise summary of the paper. Tell readers more on the problem, major hypothesis, sample, brief description of the measures and core conclusion among many other things.
- Write your paper outline- The first page of the body should have, centered an full title of the study. State the problem being discussed, statement of the cause-effect relationship been looked at and major results and conclusions.
- List illustrations on a separate page. Write down the name and page number of all illustrations included in your paper.
- Create an index- Draft your index section on a separate page and list all core topics, citations, references and names that appear in the paper together with the page number on which each reference occurs. It is wise to do this in an alphabetical order.
- Make sure you edit and proofread your paper for common writing errors. Check your paper for plagiarism and submit it on time.
With the above details and you still find it hard to come up with a great research paper format, find a few sample papers and learn more from them. Good samples papers will expound more on how you research paper should look like or entail. Below are a few samples research papers written in the common format styles;
The economy of the world is growing at a rapid pace and it is the aim of every public corporation to deliver products that are of high quality in regard to services and goods to international and domestic markets. There is urgent need to produce products that are highly competitive and which give consumers the highest satisfaction level…find this sample at and many others here.
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How to Write an Introduction for a Research Paper
Knowing how to write an introduction for a research paper is important if you want to master the art of writing good academic papers. In fact, it is the best way through which you can be able to deliver outstanding research papers, essays, dissertations among others. Herein, you will be able to get professional advice on how to write an introduction for a research paper with so much ease.
Mastering the art of how to write an introduction for a research paper requires you to first understand what an introduction is. A research paper introduction refers to the first statements or section of the paper. It is the part whereby you should give a short background information about the subject of the paper.
Apart from background information, you should also clearly state your thesis in the introduction of the paper. This implies the introduction should be written in a way that shows the audience what to expect in the other parts of the research paper. The opening statements of your paper should vividly tell the readers about its contents and also the format in which the ideas will be presented.
In simple terms, an introduction for a research paper should begin with statements supporting your topic and end with a hypothesis. In this way, your readers will be given a theoretical context of the paper, thereby understanding the way in which points are argued out in the body and conclusion.
Guidelines on how to write an introduction for a research paper
Writing a research paper introduction is not quite different from those of other academic papers. However, there are certain things that you have to put into consideration when planning how to write an introduction for a research paper in order to deliver the best piece.
The following tips will help you in writing a unique and outstanding research paper introduction.
Understand the question of the paper
In most occasions, students often rush into writing assignments and term papers without taking time to determine what is required and this only leads to mistakes that you can easily avoid.
Carefully read the question and make sure that you know what is required and how the topic should be handled. In case there is something that you do not understand properly, it is advisable that you inquire from your instructor or tutor. Doing this will make it much easier for you to plan how to go about crafting the introduction.
Conduct thorough research
Although some subjects may seem too easy and simple, it is recommended that you do a little research in order to get adequate information. While doing the research, ensure that you properly read and digest the materials for research.
Research can be done from friends, libraries and online. It is also important that you collect the sources from which you have gathered the information to use. Take notes as you research for quick reference during the writing process.
Formulate a thesis for the paper
A thesis statement or hypothesis is the basis of the research and should clearly show your readers the key idea that you intend to address in the paper. It has to be well thought out and analyzed in a sentence or two so readers can know what to anticipate in the paper.
Considering that the introduction should be brief, the thesis should also be short and clear, focusing on the main context of the research.
Steps on how to write an introduction for a research paper
There are procedures on how to write an introduction for a research paper that should always be followed. By writing your introduction based on the steps outlined below, you will be able to clearly present all the elements of a good one in the right format.
Draft an outline
An outline acts as the framework which outlines the contents of the introduction. You can decide to write one specifically for the introduction or include other parts of the paper in the same one. However, the outline must show the details or information that you want to present in the introduction, including the thesis statement.
Open the paper with a few statements highlighting the topic
In the first sentences of the introduction, you should give the readers some important information or key facts about the subject of research. Provide a general idea of the issue that will be discussed in the paper.
If the research paper is a scientific one, you can start by discussing the significance of the study. It is also important to give a rationale behind the model of the experiment and how it achieved your objectives.
Research papers that are based on humanities should be written according to the ‘inverted pyramid’ approach. This technique requires you to begin the introduction with a general background information on the topic, then narrowing down towards the thesis statement.
Consider other ‘starters’ for the paper
There are other approaches that you can also take in crafting the opening statements of a research paper. You can choose to use the ones outlined in the above step or consider anecdotes, quotes, and news stories among others.
You can also introduce the paper by comparing and contrasting two events, ideas or people. However, the best choice will be based on the subject of study and also your objectives.
Put the thesis in the final part of the introduction
The hypothesis should move away from the general information given in the first sentences and focus on the specific issue that your study is based on. Although you may use a couple of sentences to illustrate your thesis, it has to clearly show your objective in writing the research paper.
When writing the hypothesis, avoid using vague words or terms that your audience will have a difficulty in understanding. The main point is to make your readers know the particular angle that will be pursued in the research paper in brief.
Give a recap of the main points and how they will be handled
The purpose of the introduction is to act as a window through which your readers can easily see the discussion contained in the research paper. After stating the thesis, it is advisable that you continue to give a brief highlight on the main points that will be addressed in the paper, and also how each will be handled to conclusion.
However, do not give too much information that will end up disclosing all the details meant for the other sections of the paper. Also make sure that the introduction is smoothly linked to the body paragraphs in a way that readers can follow.
A good introduction should be just one paragraph, however, there are cases that you may need more than one depending on the topic of the research.
Go through the written work
It is advisable that you always take some time to re-evaluate your writing in order to be sure that the introduction meets the requirements of the paper. Carefully read through the introductory paragraph (s) and make the necessary corrections before proceeding to the other sections.
Examples of research paper introductions
Reading sample research paper introductions is also another way through which you can easily find out how to write an introduction for a research paper. The following are some examples to assist you in writing a good introduction.
Research Paper on Women Disadvantaged in Leadership
‘’Today, women have been increasingly hailed for excellent leadership skills. Women at times manifest better leadership skills than their male counterparts, especially those linked to cases of effective leadership performance. However, most people in the modern world prefer male bosses to female ones. His has made it difficult for women to acquire leadership roles…’’
Read the rest of this sample introduction for a research paper on this link.
Strategic Management and Strategic Competitiveness
‘’The world’s economy is rapidly growing and it is the objective of every public corporation to deliver products of the highest quality with regards to services and goods to international and domestic markets. There is urgent need for production of highly competitive products that can give consumers the best satisfaction. This has contributed to increased competition among private and public corporations for international and local markets…’’
Click here to read the entire introduction.
Sample Research Paper on Iraq-Iran War
‘’The attack unleashed on Iran by Iraq marked the start of the Iraq-Iran war. This assault introduced concurrent attacks through land and space into the kingdom of Iran on 22nd September 1980. Consequently, there was a history of long standing boundary disagreements as well as Shia revolution’s qualms among the Shia majority, which has suffered repression for a long time in Iraq.
The Iraq-Iran war lasted for almost three years, making it one of the most exorbitant battles fought in that century. More than a million people died during the war and another million injured in both countries…’’
Read the whole sample research paper introduction here.
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How to Write a Thesis for a Research Paper
Every student should know how to write a thesis for a research paper because writing research papers is a must for students pursuing most college and university programs. A thesis is a statement that captures the position that is taken on the main idea or topic of a research paper- cws.illinois.edu. It can also be defined as a statement that tells readers of a research paper the significance of a subject matter that is being discussed and how it will be interpreted. Simply put, it is a road map of a research paper since it tells readers what they should expect from the entire paper- writingcenter.unc.edu.
Anybody who knows how to write strong thesis statements for research papers know that writing a thesis is a process that entails a long thinking process. You do not formulate a thesis immediately after reading your research paper writing assignment. Before developing your argument, you need to analyze the assignment, gather and organize supporting evidence and then look for the existing relationships between the already known facts including similarities and contrasts.
You also need to think about the importance of the existing relationships. By the time you complete this thinking, you will have probably developed a working thesis, the main or basic idea on which to base your research paper. The thesis or basic idea should be an argument that can be supported with solid evidence though it can be adjusted in the process of writing.
A guide on how to write a thesis for a research paper
Identify your research paper topic
The topic of a research paper refers to the subject that you are to write a research paper on. Your research writing assignment can suggest different ways of evaluating your topic or it can highlight general concepts that you should analyze or explore in the paper.
To identify a topic for a research paper:
- Consider what you are required to do by the assignment
- Learn more about the topic
- Focus on a single aspect of the topic
- Ask yourself if the topic is worth your efforts
While identifying the topic of your research paper, always have the entire paper that you will write in mind. This is very important because your thesis may have to change when you generate new ideas, find more evidence, insights or even take a varying perspective or approach towards the topic.
Derive the main points from your topic
After identifying the topic of your research paper, you have to derive the main points that you will include in the paper. Summarize them into a single point or the controlling idea of your paper. This idea will be at the core of the main argument in the paper. It will also be the paper’s unifying idea that will link all sub-thesis. The controlling idea can be turned into the purpose statement that tells readers what you will tell them in the paper.
Topic: The role of Franco in the Axis and Allies diplomatic relationships
Purpose statement: The diplomacy of Franco during the World War II will be analyzed in this paper to find out how he contributed to the neutrality of Spain.
Note that while writing a research paper, you can clarify, restrict and refine the argument and then craft a thesis that reflects your writing or thinking.
Come up with a draft thesis
To compose a drat thesis, start with a purpose statement that was drafted from the identified topic. For instance;
Topic: The Reform Party and its influence on the Congressional and presidential elections of 1990
Purpose statement: In this research paper, the grassroots, Perot-led, conservative party’s history will be analyzed and how it influenced social and economic ideologies of the mainstream parties.
Thesis: The grassroots, Perot-led, conservative party influenced the social and economic ideologies of the mainstream parties during the congressional and presidential elections of 1990 as it will be illustrated in this paper.
Your thesis should be the main idea or a sentence that gives a summary of the main idea of your research paper. Therefore, before writing a thesis for your research paper, list down your main ideas and then summarize them into one or two sentences.
Refine your draft thesis
To get the final thesis, you have to refine the draft thesis to make it arguable and specific.
To do this, you need to:
- Ask whether the draft thesis that you have composed addresses your assignment
- Question every part of the draft thesis
- Clarify vague assertions and phrases
- Investigate the alternatives of the draft thesis
Assignment: Using an activity of your choice, define how it symbolizes the American culture. Your research paper should make readers think critically regarding the society that engages in and enjoys the chosen activity.
Draft thesis: Some drive-in facilities such as drive-in movies are a symbol of the culture of the Americans and they demonstrate the society’s characteristics and they have changed the movie going activity of American families.
Refined thesis: Although drive-in facilities that include movie theaters, fast-food restaurants, dry cleaners and pharmacies symbolize the business ingenuity of the Americans, they have led to an increase in culture homogenization; desire to depersonalize the existing relationships and the tendency of the Americans to sacrifice in order to enjoy convenience.
Note that the refined thesis is specific and it fulfills the requirements of the assignment which is what people who know how to write a thesis for a research paper focus on.
Complete your thesis
Remember that context is very important and therefore consider your lecture notes and course materials. Make sure that your thesis relates to the ideas that your instructor discusses. Always have the assignment or writing prompt in mind because your thesis will be more successful if it responds to your assignment than when it argues ideas that are semi-related. If your research paper evolves, change its thesis too because your thesis should not promise what the paper will not deliver.
More on how to write a thesis for a research paper
- Before writing a thesis, determine the kind of a research paper that you are required to write. Depending on the assignment or writing prompt, your research paper can be analytical, expository or argumentative- owl.english.purdue.edu.
- Make sure that your thesis answers the writing question or prompt and that it takes a position that can be opposed or challenged by other scholars. Avoid a statement that simply states mere facts that cannot be disagreed with.
- Come up with a specific and clear thesis. As you refine your thesis, revise arguments to ensure that your thesis evolves and becomes more defined on the basis of the sense of your argument. Limit your thesis to what you can accomplish in writing a research paper with specific pages- cws.illinois.edu.
- Be flexible as you write your thesis and do not use first person in writing a thesis. Start with a single sentence that captures the identified topic, answer the question, narrow down to the topic, and then verify your thesis.
- Ensure that you have adequate supporting evidence for your thesis and that it can pass the “why and how” test. After reading your thesis, readers should not respond by “why?” or “how?” questions. A thesis that raises such questions fails to provide guidance to the readers and it is too open-ended.
Sample theses for research papers
Anybody who knows how to write a thesis for a research paper must have used sample theses for research papers at some point. You can know how to write strong thesis with ease by using samples and following the steps highlighted above.
Here are links to examples of theses for research papers:
- Students should get adequate sleep at night in order to be successful at school.
- In Harry Potter and Sorcerer’s stone” chess game is the same as the struggle that was seen between Harry and Voldemort during the whole series.
Note that these samples of theses make claims or arguments. They are not fact statements and therefore they are not indisputable. Additionally, they are not merely stating opinions. They are making claims rather than passing opinions. Basically, a good thesis should have corroborating evidence. It should indicate to the reader why the claim or argument that is being made is reasonable and persuasive.
Get help with your thesis for a research paper
If you are encountering difficulties as you try to write a thesis for your research paper contact us any time for assistance. You can also visit the home page of our website for more details of our writing services. You may also keep reading for more guidelines on how to write a thesis for a research paper as well as sample thesis for research papers on our blog.
How to Write a Thesis for Research Paper Examples
Being a student, you should know how to write a thesis for research paper examples because a thesis will always be at the core of most academic papers that you will write throughout your academic life. A thesis is a statement that reflects the argument that you make in a research paper. It is a sentence that makes the claim of a research paper that can be disputed by others- writingcenter.unc.edu.
A thesis for a research paper is usually one or two sentences that appear in the first paragraph of a research paper and they present the argument of the paper. The other parts of the paper or the body presents evidence in an organized way in supporting the claim or persuading readers about the logic of the interpretation that is presented in the paper.
Guidelines on how to write a thesis for research paper examples
An effective thesis for research paper examples should be clear and specific in stating the purpose of a research paper. This is because it asserts, control and structure the argument of the entire paper. Since you are writing a thesis for researcher paper examples, you should come up with a sound thesis that can easily be understood by the reader. It should also be strong, interesting and providing direction to the reader.
Pick interesting topics for your research paper examples
This should always be the first step in writing theses for your research paper examples. This is because how you write every aspect of the sample paper will depend on the topic that you will be writing the paper on. However, there are cases when you may have somebody else decide the topic of your research paper.
Explore the topic
Exploring the topic of your research paper example will enable you to narrow down the subject that the topic requires you to address or argue about while writing the research paper example. For instance, there are many aspects that should be considered when writing a research paper example on computers. They include software, hardware and programming. However, these are vague topics and they cannot make strong theses for research paper examples. Nevertheless, a topic like the effect that Steve Jobs had on modern industry of computers is clearer and can therefore be used to formulate a thesis of a research paper example.
Know the kind of research paper examples that you are writing
This entails knowing the purpose of the paper and its intended audience. Usually, instructors assign research papers but you can choose the kind of papers to write when writing research paper examples. It is important to know the kind of a research paper example that you are writing because these will considerably impact on your thesis. For instance, when writing a thesis for a persuasive research paper example, your purpose is to present the argument followed by evidence for supporting the claim. For a descriptive research paper example, a thesis should provide a description of something to a given audience group.
Write down a thesis that describes the research project
A research paper is written after conducting a research. Therefore, a thesis for a research should describe the research project in a brief manner. It should tell readers why the paper or project is important and why readers should care.
List down opposing evidence if it exists
During your research, you may have come across opposing evidence. List it down and summarize it to include it in your thesis and then come up with a thesis that provides an overview of the research. Your thesis should be a concise summary of the information or argument that will be made in the research paper example- info-skills.lib.vt.edu.
Narrow down, clarify and refine your thesis
Anybody who knows how to write a thesis for research paper examples knows that a good thesis is narrow, clear and refined. It should include only what will be discussed in the paper. Therefore, narrow down your thesis to ensure that it tells readers only what will be covered in the paper. This enables readers to know whether the research paper example provides the information or data that they are looking for.
Revise your thesis accordingly
Always remember that you do not have to write an absolute thesis. Your thesis should be subjected to changes as you write your research paper example- owl.english.purdue.edu. If your opinion or direction changes as you write the paper, revise your thesis accordingly. Therefore, re-read thesis continuously and always compare it with the research paper example that you are writing to make appropriate changes when necessary. After completing your paper, re-visit your thesis to determine whether it needs revision.
These samples will help you know how to write a thesis for research paper examples
A good thesis is not easy to write because it requires you to explore your topic, think and analyze the available evidence to support it. However, with sample theses you can easily know how good theses for research paper examples should be written.
Here are examples of theses for different topics of research paper examples that should guide you in writing your thesis:
Example # 1
Topic: The One-Child Policy of China ought to be reversed
Thesis: The intention of the one-child policy of China was to help in controlling population growth. However, it has caused negative and unintended consequences that include a reduction in labor force, neglecting human rights, increase in aging population, and imbalance in gender population. Therefore, this policy ought to be reversed to improve the current situation in China.
Example # 2
Topic: Foreign Aid that goes to Africa is not effective
Thesis: Foreign aid that goes to African countries hurts them and it therefore ought to be discontinued since the practice has increased the vulnerability of most African countries to currency fluctuation, inflation, civil unrest and corruption.
Example # 3
Topic: Marijuana ought to be legalized
Thesis: There are several applications of marijuana that include treating glaucoma, cancer and epilepsy symptoms. Legalizing its use in the United States will have great benefits for the medical sector since it will allow physicians to access it with ease.
Determining whether your thesis for research paper example is strong
Anybody who reads your thesis will tell whether you know how to write a thesis for research paper examples depending on its strength and effectiveness. Basically, there are questions that you need to ask to determine if you have a strong thesis for your research paper example- Read more here.
- Does your thesis answer the question or writing prompt?
You should re-read your thesis and the question to determine if it answers the question prompt fully. If it does not, rewrite it.
- Is the thesis specific?
Usually, a vague thesis cannot make a strong argument. Avoid a thesis that includes words likes good or successful and instead include more specific words.
- Is your thesis disputable?
The position that a thesis takes should be challengeable or one that others can oppose. A statement that cannot be disagreed with is not a thesis. It is simply a summary of an argument or a statement of facts.
- Does your thesis pass the “so what” question?
A thesis that leads to the “so what?” question after reading it is not strong and effective. Therefore, make it clearer or connect it with a larger issue.
- Does your thesis pass the “how and why” question?
If after reading your thesis the first question that one asks is “how… or why…”, then it does not provide guidance to the reader and it could be open ended. Therefore, make it clearer or add something to make it clearer to the audience.
- Is your thesis supported by your research paper example?
Your thesis should be supported by the rest of the research paper example without wandering. If you have a thesis that does not work properly with the body, change it. Remember that a thesis should not be absolute and it should be revised accordingly so that it can work according to your topic and argument. Make sure that your thesis reflects the things that you identified as you start writing the research paper example.
Additional guidelines on how to write a thesis for research paper examples
- Your thesis should enable you to keep the argument of a research paper example focused. Therefore, do not use vague words in writing your thesis
- Avoid technical language unless when writing a technical research paper example
- Make sure that your thesis does more than announcing the topic of your research paper example or simply stating a fact.
- Avoid universal judgments that will oversimplify a complex issue.
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If you need help with your theses for research paper examples, talk to us today. You may also visit the home page of our website for more information regarding our writing services. Alternatively, keep reading for more guidelines on how to write a thesis for research paper examples and sample thesis on our blog.
How to Write a Science Research Paper
You can always know how to write a science research paper quite easily with professional advice. As you will discover in this section, writing a science research paper is almost similar to other assignments that you often do at school. However, the importance of better paper writing skills goes beyond just enhancing academic performance. Read on to discover how to craft unique and impeccable research papers for science assignments.
A science research paper is an academic paper or article that details the processes and results of a study. Such a paper will require you to conduct a research and give the results as obtained from the activity. This means that you will be required to give information about the tools of the study, procedures and also the outcomes. Besides, you will also be required to detail the relevance of the study to your readers.
Knowing how to write a science research paper entails proper attention to details, accuracy and paper writing skills. Besides, the study should be presented in an orderly and logical format that readers can easily read and relate to.
Tips on how to write a science research paper
Many students have the perception that mastering the art of how to write a science research paper is a task that consumes a lot of time. However, you will find out that it is quite easy with the following guidelines.
Conduct proper background study on the subject
In order to have a compelling paper with adequate information, it is always advisable that you first take time to get more information about the research. This will help you to have a better understanding of the requirements of the study and assignment.
In order to get a better direction on how to go about writing the paper, it is important that you look at samples of recently done science research papers. It would be good if you obtained those written on the same subject or experiment as yours.
Avoid obtaining or even using information from sources that are unreliable since that would discredit the credibility of the paper.
In the process of obtaining information from other sources about the study, it is critical that you take notes so as to easily remember what to include in the paper. However, this does not mean that you have to note every detail acquired from those sources.
Only put down the outstanding details that are related to the experiment and can support your argument in the paper.
Some of the most important points to note include:
- History of the same kind of experiments or inventions
- Definitions of all the key phrases and concepts that describe your research
- Answers to the questions of your background experiment plan
- Any mathematical formulas that will be used in the illustration of the research’s outcomes.
Create a draft
Before you start writing the research paper, it is always advisable that you come up with an outline showing how the points will be presented.
In the draft, you should indicate all the key arguments or information that is to be addressed in the paper. However, they should be presented in point form since they are only meant to guide you on how to table an argument in the proper order.
It is also important that you carefully read the instructions of the assignment in order to know what is required, including the format for writing.
Step-by-step procedures on how to write a science research paper
As pointed out above, there is a particular avenue that you have to pursue in order to effectively know how to write a science research paper. Below are the basic steps that should guide you on how to write a good research paper.
Your research paper should always have a title describing the discussion. A good title should always be short, simple and specific to the subject of the research or experiment. Do not include a title that is too ambiguous or technical since that would give a bad perception on the content of the paper to readers.
The abstract too should be short. An abstract is a paragraph at the start of the paper meant to give the readers a preview of what to expect. In some papers, an abstract can be written in a different page while in others it may be in the same page as the introduction.
The abstract should be written in simple language that readers can read and grasp easily without being dissuaded. However, it should summarize the aim, methods, results and conclusions of the experiment.
The introduction of the scientific research paper should answer the question that you asked in the experiment. Besides, it needs to present concepts that are relevant to your study.
You should also give the background of your experiment while focussing on the key issues.
The body is also another very important section of the paper that you should be keen on in the event of writing. On this part, you need to clearly explain the processes of the experiment.
In order to present your work in proper format, it would be ideal to create subheadings to illustrate the various requirements and stages of the study. For instance, you can have subtitles like materials, methods, results, table and graphs, acknowledgement among others.
The body of the paper should be comprehensive such that other people can easily refer to it when conducting similar experiments in the future.
Avoid very long paragraphs and sentences since those may be difficult for readers to understand. You should also consider using bullets, italics and boldface in order to give your paper a better appeal.
In case you have used tables and graphs to present data, they have to be well labelled. Even if you have included pictures, it is important to ensure that each is well captioned for clarity.
In discussing the experiment, highlight on the most important aspects without simply repeating what is contained in the results section. If the results were unexpected, give an explanation to support the outcomes.
If your results still pose certain questions that need further research, you should point that out in the discussion.
At the end of the discussion, it is necessary to also give the readers a bigger picture of the experiment or how it relates to them.
The way your discussion of the experiment is presented can easily tell whether you know how to write a science research paper or not. Therefore, you have to be keen on ensuring that the aspects of accuracy and clarity are enhanced.
This should come last in the research paper and show all the sources that you obtained information for the experiment from.
Clearly indicate the references, giving direct links to all the sources of information.
The best format for a science research paper should follow the sequence below;
- Discussion/ conclusion
After writing the paper, take time to proofread and edit it in order to remove any mistakes that might have been made during the writing process.
Examples of Science Research Papers
It is also recommended that you look at excerpts of science papers to enable you understand properly how to write a science research paper. The following paper samples have been done by professionals and can vividly show you how to deliver a good paper.
Behavioural Study of Obedience
‘’There are little facts regarding the role of obedience when doing evil acts up until now (1961). Most of the theories argue that only people who are very disturbed engage in horrible actions if they get an order to do so. Our experiment tested the obedience of people to authority. The results indicated that a large number obey all orders given by those in authority. We concluded that when it comes to people causing harm to others, the situation where an individual is takes precedence to other previous thoughts. Unlike earlier belief, individual characteristics are of less importance…’’
You can read the entire sample here.
A Role for Parasites in Stabilising the Fig-Pollinator Mutualism
‘’Mutualisms are inter-specific interactions whereby both players benefit. Explaining their maintenance is not very easy since cheaters should outcompete cooperative conspecifics, resulting into mutualism instability. Monoecious figs (Ficus) are pollinated by host specific wasps (Agaonidae), whose larvae gall ovules in the ‘fruits’ (syconia)…’’
Read the whole paper here.
Sample Scientific Research paper
‘’Just as animals around the globe have evolved to be able to survive in their environments, botanical life has also been pushed to grow and adapt to their habitats. Every plant- ranging from the smallest strain of seaweed to the largest redwood has managed to become what it is today as a result of several years for optimal growth…’’
Click this wikihow.com page to read the rest of this sample science research paper.
We hope the above guidelines will help you know how to write a science research paper without difficulties. However if you need additional assistance on simply talk to us for the best. Alternatively, you can also refer to our homepage to find out more on the online academic research paper writing services that we offer.
How to Write a Research Paper
Every student should know how to write a research paper because preparing research papers is a must for students pursuing most college and university programs. A research paper is an academic paper or a publication that is published in an academic journal with original outcomes of a research or reviews of existing study results. It can also contain new invention- wikipedia.org.
A good research paper has the following attributes:
- It synthesizes the discoveries that have been made about a specific topic and the judgment, evaluation and interpretation of the discoveries by the author.
- It depicts originality
- It acknowledges the used sources
- It depicts the author as belonging to a scholars’ community.
A guide on how to write a research paper in 10 steps
- Select a topic
If you have not been given a topic to write the research paper on by your instructor, start by selecting a topic that challenges and interests you. The attitude that you have towards the topic that you choose will determine your enthusiasm about the paper and the effort that you put in your research. It is important that you avoid sensational and controversial subjects that might not be scholarly- american.edu. Your topic should be narrow. For instance, a topic like “Sports are good” is too broad. It can be narrowed down to “Swimming is good because it keeps humans physically fit and healthy”.
- Gather information
For background or general information, check out different sources including URLs, almanacs, online encyclopedias and search engines among other tools. While doing that, pay close attention to the extensions of the domain names.
Examples of such extensions include:
- .edu- for educational institutions
- .gov- for government
- .org- for non-profit organizations.
Such websites are more reliable because they represent reliable institutions. However, be careful about political bias in some of the government websites. For .com websites, be selective because these are commercial websites. Also use print materials that are available in your college or university library such as vertical files, reports, atlases, journals and magazines. You can also use online libraries to gather information for your research paper. While gathering information, list down their bibliographical information. Such information includes the name of the author, publication date and place, page number, title of the publication, URLs, the date of creation and modification of web pages and the date when you access the source. Everybody who knows how to write a research paper lists down such information about sources while gathering data because this makes referencing a research paper easier.
- Create a thesis statement
Before writing a thesis statement for your research paper, engage in critical thinking. A thesis statement serves as a belief declaration. It should be supported or defended by the other part of the research paper. Your thesis statement should describe the main argument or viewpoint that will be expressed and supported in the paper.
Examples of research papers and their thesis statements:
Thesis statement: This study aims at answering the question about the contribution of the mining industry in the economy of Ghana.
Topic: Legislative process
Thesis statement: This research paper aims at advising the sponsors as well as co-sponsors of the Veteran Employment Transition Act on the best way of getting support for this bill from Congress and Senate as well as the entire American population.
Topic: Schools bullying
Thesis statement: Bullying level in the U.S learning institutions, causes and effects will be look at in the first part of this paper. The second part will endorse the methods that education experts and schools should use in dealing with bullying.
A thesis statement should be disputable and an opinion that you can prove in the paper. It should not be written using a figurative, incoherent or muddled language. It should be clear and concise.
- Create a tentative outline
Outlining is an important part of the process of writing a research paper- owl.english.purdue.edu. It helps in organizing and reviewing the made notes before writing the paper because it acts as the plan that will guide you in writing a research paper. When you have an outline, you will avoid repeating information or including conflicting information in the research paper.
- Introduction- (Comment that will lead to the subject matter and a thesis statement)
- Body- Where mining is done in Ghana, mined minerals and where they are sold, what is being done to ensure that the economy benefits fully from the mining industry.
- Where mining occurs
- Places where mining is done
- Who does the mining
- What methods are used in mining
- Places that have unexploited minerals
- Why the minerals have not been exploited
- How can the unexploited minerals be mined
- Minerals mined in Ghana
- How are the minerals discovered
- Who is involved in mineral exploration
- Where are the minerals sold
- How are the minerals sold
- Who sell the minerals
- Where does the money goes after selling the minerals
- How does the money from the mining industry impact on the GDP growth and employment status in Ghana
- What is being done to ensure that the economy benefits from the mining industry fully
- Ensuring full control of the mining industry by the government
- Enacting more effective legislations, policies and reforms to control the mining industry
- Increasing trade relations with foreign investors
- An analytical summary
- Thesis reword
- Concluding statement
Writing an outline before you start writing your research paper shows that you know how to write a research paper because it enables you to always think through the topic and maintain logical organization and flow of information and ideas.
- Organize notes
In this step, you organize the information that you gathered on the basis of the outline. Use the available sources to verify the information and to ensure that it is accurate, up-to-date and factual. If you have opposing views that support the thesis, note them down. Analyze, sort, synthesize and digest all information so that you can present it in writing in a way that will communicate thoughts, insights, ideas and findings of the research in the most effective manner- wikihow.com. Ensure that only relevant information goes into your research paper. Also make sure that you understand all the information that you have about the topic to make writing your research paper easier.
- Write the first draft
There is no standard formula for writing the first draft. Simply use the technique that you find appropriate for you. For instance, you can start by writing summaries, using quotations or paraphrases, or using different sheets of papers. Whichever formula you use, make sure that the information flows logically and that you annotate the research to make referencing the paper easier. You can also use symbols that will make finding where any information that you include in the paper came from. You can delete the symbols while editing your paper.
- Revise your paper
Revising your research paper before writing the final draft shows that you clearly know how to write a research paper. Some people edit the final draft only but this leads to content errors. However, when you revise the first draft you ensure that figures and facts are presented correctly in the research paper. While revising the first draft, rearrange your ideas so that they can follow the outline. If necessary, reorganize the outline as well. Nevertheless, have the purpose for writing the paper as well as the audience in mind while revising the paper.
- Write the final paper
Before you write the final paper, read the assignment prompt to ensure that you fully understand what you were expected to do while writing the paper. As you write the final draft, make sure that it meets the assignment’s requirements in every aspect. If there were additional tasks required of you by the instructor, add them while writing the final draft- riosalado.edu. For instance, ensure that the paper is formatted properly as per the requirements of the assignment.
- Include references
Your paper should include a reference list. This is a list of all sources of information that you use in writing the paper documented properly depending on the style that was specified in the assignment- owl.english.purdue.edu.
- Edit the final draft
A research paper that has glaring mistakes shows that you do not know how to write a research paper and this can impact on your grades. Therefore, proofread and edit your paper or seek professional editing help before submitting it for marking or publication.
Get help with research paper
Have you been assigned a research paper to write and you now want to know how to write a research paper? Simply follow this guide in writing your research paper or seek our help with research paper writing by contacting us. We offer professional research paper writing and editing services at pocket-friendly prices. Visit our homepage for more information about us.
How to Write a Research Paper Outline
If you don’t have the slightest clue on how to write a research paper outline, it is time you got some ideas. The research paper is an important part of your academic year. You are supposed to demonstrate you have clearly understood the material covered through the course. Therefore, having an outline will help determine whether or not you deliver impressive work.
Decide on a topic
The first thing you need to do is decide what topic to write about. Once you have done this, start paying attention to the scope of the paper or what you intend to include in the discussion. A broader topic means you will have a difficult time discussing the topic in details.
Therefore, it is important beforehand to determine the limitations and scope of the paper as this will set the foundation for your paper outline.
Tips on how to write a research paper outline
- The structure and type of outline
Make a choice between a sentence and topic outline. In the case of topic outline, sub-points and headings should be given short phrases or single words. With an outline, all the sub-points and headings should be in completed sentences.
- Often, topic outlines are used when the research is on different issues that need to be arranged in varying ways
- Sentence outlines on the other hand are used when the research is focused on issues that are complex
- You can either combine these outlines or use one depending on the guidelines provided by your instructor.
Most of the outlines tend to use alpha-numerical structure. This kind of structure relies on a series of numbers and letters that arrange and identify different section levels.
- Roman numerals are used to represent the first level (I, II,III etc.), capital letters are used for the second level (A, B, C etc.), numbers are used for the third level (1, 2, 3 etc.) while lowercase letters are used for the fourth level (a,b,c etc.).
Before you write a research paper outline there is one important aspect you need to remember which is the issue of capitalization. In headings, sentence outlines and points, it is important to follow the appropriate capitalization rules. However, this is not the case when it comes to topic outlines.
- There is a school of thought indicating first level headings are supposed to be written in capital letters while the other headings use standard sentence capitalization rules.
- Another school of thought says first level headings are supposed to have the first letter of every word capitalized and not the whole word. The headings that remain are supposed to use standard capitalization sentence rules.
While at it, it is also important to keep length matters in mind. The outline you come up with should not be long than one-quarter to one-fifth of the total estimated size of your research paper.
- For a 4 to 5 page research paper, a single page outline is enough
- For a fifteen to twenty page research paper, the outline should not be more than 4 pages
Find samples on how to write a research paper outline here.
What constitutes the outline?
When writing a research paper outline, you should note it has 3 main parts which include; introduction, the body and conclusion.
The introduction is supposed to carry your thesis statement or research topic and the purpose of the study. You might also include the reason you selected that specific topic or significance of the research paper topic.
You might also want to indicate the kind of approach you intend to use in the paper for the discussion of the topic. This means your introduction is supposed to briefly state all major points regarding your topic to the readers.
- Do not write the introduction fully yet. It is advisable to wait until you begin the actual writing process to write the full introduction
- For now, you can write just a placeholder outline. Often, introductions start with broad statement and they narrow down to the thesis statement. You should have a couple of bullet points on where to start and at the same time, include the thesis statement.
In the body of your research paper you are supposed to present arguments that support the thesis statement. Therefore, it is imperative that you find at least 3 supporting arguments for every position you decide to take. Begin with a solid argument, follow it up with a stronger one and end with the strongest argument as the final point.
Every main heading in the body of the outline should be labeled by a short sentence or phrase that states the major category of the research paper. This is one important part that should not miss when writing a research paper outline.
- This section of the outline is supposed to contain significant content
- Main headings are supposed to correspond with main categories briefly listed under subheading of the “Introduction” section
- You should consider including main ideas and some supporting details of such ideas. Alternatively, you can include information regarding specific paragraphs and some supporting details in the paragraphs.
This is where you are supposed to present a summary for your arguments as well as state your final stand. You have to explain your reasons for ending with your preferred conclusion. In the conclusion you are supposed to:
- Rephrase and restate the thesis
- If you had any additional conclusions based on research, you are supposed to list them here as well. Bear in mind you should not have any “new” information in the conclusion since such is addressed in other parts of the paper.
- If your research paper demands “call to action” make sure that you include it in this section. Note that this is the final point of your research paper outline.
Click here, for a sample to help you know more on how to write a research paper outline. It is always advisable to review these samples before you commence with the writing as it gives you an idea of what is expected from you.
Steps to follow as you write your outline
Lay the groundwork
You should start by reviewing the assignment in order to be clear on the format and requirements. If you have queries about the paper, ask your instructor. You should not wait till the last minute to email a question regarding the paper.
Choose a topic
You might have been assignment a topic or given the freedom to choose one. Though you might have been assigned a general topic, you have to decide on the kind of “angle” to approach it. Identify the purpose of the paper as well before you get started.
Do proper research
Most of the research papers require a lot of research. Therefore, it is important that you begin gathering materials before you begin the outline. As you work on the outline, you might come across likely gaps that need deeper research. However, you can never be sure of what to say unless you have carried out preliminary research. Always pick reliable sources and make sure that you keep track of the same as well.
Develop the topic
Before you begin organizing the paper, take time to generate some ideas regarding your topic. You might find that exercises of prewriting help you in getting started. For instance, you can try free writing where you spend five to ten minutes writing anything that come to your mind regarding the topic. Also, you can try clustering which is some sort of mind-mapping that helps you connect ideas.
Write your working thesis
The thesis statement is supposed to revolve around the topic of your research paper. Therefore, it is imperative to have a working thesis which will serve as the central point or goal of your paper. Knowing how to write a research paper outline is easy so long as you follow these simple guidelines listed below:
Usually, research papers tend to be long compared to other assignment. Additionally, this kind of paper demands a lot of research and work. You should never till the last minute to begin working on your research paper outline.
- It is advisable to work in stages. Give yourself time in between every stage in order to come up with fresh ideas.
Find additional samples to help you know how to write a research paper outline that is impressive at explorable.com.
Do you need help to complete your academic papers such as essays, term papers, research papers, dissertations among others. We offer the best academic writing services online. You have a lot on your plate and we understand that which is why we also offer dissertation editing and writing services at affordable rates.
To enjoy any of our services, you need to get in touch with us here or visit our homepage to see in what other manner we can be of assistance to you. You might also be interested in reading more of our academic paper samples. To accomplish this, visit this blog where you will also find academic sample papers available in diverse disciplines.
How to Write a Scientific Research Paper
This article is a guide to help you know how to write a scientific research paper that is impressive with ease. The aim of a research paper is to tell others about specific data you have gathered and what it means in the context of research.
The guidelines for writing scientific research papers are rigid and very different from those used in library research or English theme paper. Obviously the paper must adhere to proper use of English language. Additionally, it has to be written in a concise and clear manner in order to ensure readers understand what you have carried out and how you have carried it out.
It is important as you write a scientific research paper, to understand the general format used. This can be highlighted as follows:
- Cited works
Tips on how to write a scientific research paper
Section headings (introduction, abstract etc.) must be centered. The body of every section needs to follow immediately below the heading. Each section should not be started on a new page. If there is a section that ends way down a page, it should immediately be followed by the next heading section on that same page.
A general, important rule you need to bear in mind is that the paper should report something done in the past. Therefore, you must writ the paper in past tense (were, was) while the present tense should only be used for stating conclusion or generalizations.
Often, the present tense is used in the Conclusion, Introduction and Discussion sessions. The paper is supposed to read as narrative where the author described results obtained from the work and what was done.
One good sample paper to help you know how to write a scientific research paper can be viewed at wikihow.com.
Every scientific research paper should have a title that is self-explanatory. The reader, through the title should be able to say what the paper is about without reading the content. For instance, the title “A Biological Laboratory Report” does not tell the reader anything while “Effects of Temperature and Light on Growth of Bacterium, Escherichia coli” reports what has been done by the researcher by highlighting 3 things:
- Environmental factors manipulated (temperature, light).
- Parameter measured (growth).
- Specific organism studied (bacterium, Escherichia coli).
In this section, you are supposed to present a brief digest of the research paper content. Ideally, it should be more than the average summary and must be self-explanatory without any references to the paper though it should not be a substitute.
Note that your abstract should be about 250 words and should be a presentation of the paper’s purpose, the general methods and materials, summarized results as well as major conclusions. You should not add any information that cannot be found in the body of your paper.
Detailed descriptions such as those of methods, organisms and materials should not be included in your abstract. Also, references, figures or tables and literature cited should not be added to this section. Usually, you should write the abstract last by extracting important points from every section of the paper and using the points to write a short description of the study.
As you write your scientific research paper, it is important to explore strategies of writing an introduction. The introduction should be a statement of the issue you have investigated. It is supposed to give your reads information so they can appreciate your objectives within a large theoretical framework.
In this section you are supposed to include some background information regarding the problem, for instance summary of research carried out in the past. Any background information you provide from other sources must be cited appropriately. Keep in mind that the introduction should be brief and not too broad.
Therefore, present ideas that are most relevant and move to the central point of your paper immediately.
Another sample to help you get more insight on how to write a scientific research paper can be found here.
Methods and Materials
In this section, you are supposed to explain where and how the experiment was carried out. Make sure you describe the experiment design, techniques used to gather data, the kind of control you had and apparatus used. As a general rule, remember this section should be clear and detailed such that it leaves the reader with in-depth knowledge of the scientific techniques used.
However, be careful not to write the section as you would directions for an exercise book. At the same time, never list equipment used in the course of the experiment. Materials used can only be mentioned in narrative as part of the experimental procedure.
If there are some methods that are well known and used without making any changes, name these methods (for instance standard spectrophotometry and standard microscopic methods). If you made any modifications to the methods, describe them.
In this section, you are supposed to summarize data for purposes of inspection by use of narrative text. Where possible, use figures and tables for the purpose of explaining the data you have. You are supposed to present the results only.
There should not be any conclusions or interpretation of data made in this section. If you present data in figures/tables, it should supplement text and this should be done in a form that is easy to understand.
Under no circumstances are you supposed to present data that is raw. Figures/tables must at all times, be accompanied by narrative text.
Interpret your data in terms of patterns you observed in the course of the experiment as well as relationship between experimental variables. You are supposed to include explanations of how your results differ from those that are hypothesized or the manner in which they are either similar or different to those related to experiments done by other researchers in the past.
Bear in mind it is not necessary for experiments to show major trends or differences. An ideal strategy in discussion of the experiment is relating specific results to the broader theoretical context that is presented in your introduction.
In this section, you are supposed to state what you think the data means and it should relate to the question/problem you stated in your introduction. Also, in this section, do not offer reasons for your conclusions since these should be presented in the section of discussions.
This is where you are supposed to give credit to those who helped with writing your scientific paper or with the research.
Anyone who knows how to write a scientific research paper knows that they must cite the works used. While doing this, you should use alphabetical order for purposes of listing the names of authors’ whose work you have used. Any published information in your paper should be included in this section.
Also, it should provide your readers with the information that is needed in the event they want to use the original literature as a reference. This section should include only references that were mentioned in your text. If there is information you read but failed to mention in your paper, do not include it in the section. It is because of this that it is referred to as ‘works cited’ and not ‘Bibliography’ or ‘references’.
Often, most references tend to be primary literature (journal articles) and to a lower degree, books. The Internet and popular literature should be used with caution and sparingly. Other sources like book chapters or pamphlets have their own citation format.
It is advisable to find the kind of citation format you are supposed to use according to the source material used. This is crucial as it is the only way to ensure you cite sources appropriately.
Here is another sample of a scientific research paper you can look at.
Additionally, reviewing samples written by experts makes it easy for you to understand the concept and format that needs to be followed to deliver a high quality paper.
The guidelines above are meant to help you understand how to write a scientific research paper without challenges.
Do you need assistance to write academic papers such as research papers, term papers and essays among others? We provide reputable academic writing services as well as scientific research and editing services.
Despite all the research you might do at times it might be a challenge to write a good research paper. For this reason we came up with a solution of offering research paper writing services.
You may also want to continue reading more guidelines on writing different academic papers or other non-related material. To do so, continue looking in this blog where you will also find academic sample papers under different disciplines.
How to Write a Science Conclusion
If you are like most students, you probably want to know how to write a science conclusion that is impressive. Performing an experiment and data collection is just part of any science project. The data must be presented in a report. The report tells readers what your hypothesis is, the results and method used.
However, such a report is inconclusive if it does not have a conclusion. A conclusion is the most important aspect of your paper as it shows your readers what you have learned from the experiment as well as why it is important.
Guidelines on how to write a science conclusion
You can start by reviewing a science conclusion written by an expert in order to understand what writing one entails. At sciencebuddies.org, you will find a good sample that you can use as reference. Do this and you will note that everything falls into place as you write your conclusion. The following are some of the guidelines that will help you understand how to write a science conclusion.
Outline the conclusion
- Review the assignment-You need to verify what you have accomplished in the assignment so far in order to effectively address it in your conclusion. Take a couple of moments and list what you are supposed to learn or demonstrate in the science project.
- Revisit the introduction-To ensure consistency between your conclusion and the project, revisit your introduction. This is an ideal way to brainstorm and identify what you intend to say in the conclusion. Remember at the start of the project you asked a question that led to your hypothesis. The question must be answered in the conclusion. Therefore, start the conclusion by restating the hypothesis and question.
- Use RERUN technique-Begin mapping different elements of the conclusion through use of RERUN technique. This is useful for short reports and helps ensure you list the important components of the report. Simply put, RERUN means:
- Restate-Restate what the experiment was and describe your assignment
- Explain-Offer an explanation for the report and what you aim to discover. You can as well briefly speak of the procedure followed in order to complete the project.
- Results-Explain results and confirm whether your hypothesis has been supported by results.
- Uncertainties– If there are errors and uncertainties, account for them. For instance, you should explain the circumstances beyond your control impacted by the science experiment.
- New-Always, make sure you discuss some new discoveries or questions that might have emerged in the course of the experiment.
4. Come up with other sections to add-While the RERUN technique is great, there are other components you need to include in your paper. It is a smart move to talk of what you have learnt in the course of the experiment. Also, you might consider situating your research and relating your findings to concepts learnt in class. There are instances when a science project has specific questions that must be answered therefore, make sure you coherently and fully do so in the conclusion.
Discuss the experiment and hypothesis
The experiment should be introduced in the conclusion-Begin the conclusion through provision of experiment overview. You are supposed to describe it in one to two sentences and at the same time discuss the major objective of doing the experiment.
Restate procedures-Provide a summary of the process you followed in the course of the experiment. Providing an overview helps the reader visualize better what you did.
- If you attempted the experiment more than just once, describe reasons for doing it. Also discuss changes made in the procedures.
- In order to explain your results well, you should brainstorm in-depth. Take time to review your report and pay close attention to results observed.
Describe briefly what you have discovered-Use a couple of sentences to summarize how you achieved your results. Note that you are supposed to offer a summary and not include results.
- In this section, you can begin with wordings such as, “The results indicated that…”
- There is no need to provide raw data in this case. Rather simply summarize main points, calculate averages and provide a range of data in order to ensure the reader is well informed.
Comment on whether or not the hypothesis is reinforced-The hypothesis is best described as a statement describing an expected outcome. It forms the basis of the experiment and at the same time, drives the process. Knowing how to restate the thesis in a clear and concise manner is an indication you know how to write a science conclusion.
Link the results to the hypothesis-The credibility of your hypothesis is determined by results of the experiment. Therefore, you must indicate the results and link them in order to clarify whether or not the hypothesis is supported.
Demonstrate what you have gleaned
Make a description of what you have learned-If the science project required that you demonstrate a specific theory or principle, your conclusion should be a reflection of the same.
- If it is not clear in the conclusion what you learned, start by saying “From this project, I learned…” this is important as it gives readers the heads up you are about to describe what you learned.
- Provide details of what you have learned and how. You can add dimension to the process in order to convince the reader. Provide specifics of what you have learned for instance, regarding how molecules behave in a given environment.
If there were specific questions in the assignment, answer them as well.
Write the question on a new line in italics and provide the answer in the next line using regular text.
Explain if you were able to achieve the objectives of the project-While writing the introduction of your report, you stated objectives you aimed to achieve by doing the project. It is important to revisit the objectives in your conclusion and ensure you sufficiently address them. If you failed to achieve the objectives in the course of the experiment, you can speculate or explain why that is the case.
How to write a science conclusion-Wrapping it up
Now, that everything is in place, it is time to wrap up the conclusion. Whatever else you do, make sure that you have a compelling conclusion that leaves the reader satisfied.
- Describe any possible errors that might have arisen-To provide an accurate depiction of your project, it is important to describe any errors that might have arisen in the course of the project. This is important as it increases the credibility of your results and the project as a whole.
- Discuss uncertainties-There could be circumstances that are uncontrollable yet they impact on your project for instance, weather changes or unavailability of supplies. It is important to discuss such uncertainties and the impact they have on the experiment. If you get results that raise questions that cannot be answered by the data you have collected, ensure you discuss that in this section.
- Propose experiments for the future-Taking into consideration what you have learned so far, provide recommendations on future design experiments. Discuss possible changes that can lead to more valid and reliable results.
- Propose new questions-There are instances when a science project leads to more questions been raised than answers. In such instances, it is ideal to discuss the same in the conclusion of your paper.
- Relate the work to other research work-When dealing with a more advanced science project, it is important to relate it to work done by others. Discuss how your research work is going to contribute to the field of research. Look at your research as a brick wall and consider how it fits into the scheme of the project.
Describe what is innovative or new in view of your research
Finalize the report
- Use third person while writing-You should avoid use of “1”, “me” or “we” while writing your report. Rather, use academic language such as “The hypothesis was supported…”
- Read through your report-Once done writing the conclusion, it is important to read through it and ensure it is logical. Be on the lookout for sections where you contradict yourself and make necessary corrections. The conclusion is supposed to restate what you have learned and how you understood the outcomes.
You can as well review another sample of a science conclusion at hookhamscience.weebly.com which will help you learn more on how to write a science conclusion.
At least now you have an idea on how to write a science conclusion from the above guidelines. However if you feel you need assistance kindly let us know. Get in touch with us here today for assistance in writing science papers or visit our homepage for more information about our custom writing services. Alternatively you can continue reading more essay writing guidelines and samples on our blog.