How to Write a Good Conclusion
Knowing how to write a good conclusion is very important because this section of an essay or paper gives you an opportunity to impress your reader. Although the body of an essay or paper can be easy to write, a frame that surrounds it is needed. That frame is formed by a conclusion and an introduction. Basically, the conclusion can be defined as the section of any writing that wraps up a writing work. It is what a writer leaves with the reader. A conclusion demonstrates that you have accomplished what you wanted to do. Additionally, it shows that you have proved a thesis that you stated while starting the paper or essay. A good conclusion creates a feeling of closure of a topic for the reader.
How to write a good conclusion in a simple way
Writing a good conclusion should not be difficult. You simply need to know what to include in a conclusion and the purpose that it should serve.
A good conclusion should serve four major roles:
- Remind readers the stated thesis statement while answering the “so what?” question
- Create a closure and completion sense
- Create a lasting, final impression for the reader
- Ensure that the reader is happy for reading the essay or paper
By ensuring that your conclusion performs these roles, you can write a good conclusion in a simple way. However, you should have a strategy for writing the conclusion depending on the topic of you paper or essay as well as your writing style.
Strategies for writing a conclusion
To learn how to write a good conclusion, you should know the strategies that you can use to craft one.
The circle or frame strategy
Using this strategy, the writer circles or frames the beginning by returning to an image, metaphor quotation, anecdote or the example given in the introduction. Echoing an introduction creates a sense of completion and unity in an essay or paper.
For instance, in an argumentative essay on the reasons why the housing market has not been in a bubble in Canada, the writer restates that there are several issues that affect the real estate sector- Why the Canadian housing market is not in a bubble. Apart from creating a sense of unity, the conclusion shows that the writer has proven what he/she stated in the introduction. Another example can be an essay on an infectious disease’s epidemiology where a writer can say, “Tuberculosis is a disease that affects many people across the world each year.” This statement can have also been stated in the introduction. Another example is an essay on Italian Renaissance where the writer can conclude by saying, “Italian Renaissance entailed the explosion of ideas and arts around writers, thinkers and artists in Florence.” The same statement can also fit in the introduction.
A thesis refers to the narrowed and focused perception of the topic of a paper or essay. It can be restated in the conclusion while ensuring that it is different from the statement that was stated in the introduction in terms of wording. Rephrasing the thesis statement in the conclusion complements the conclusion of a topic. For instance, in the case of the essay on the reasons why the housing market has not been in a bubble in Canada, the thesis can, “This essay presents an assessment of the recent real estate trends in Canada while explaining the factors that affect it.” In the conclusion, the writer can write, “In conclusion, there are many factors that have been affecting the real estate industry in Canada causing the recent trends” In the tuberculosis essay, the thesis could have been, “this essay assesses the impact of tuberculosis especially in the developing countries and measures that are being taken to curb it.” In this case, the writer can conclude by saying, “New strategies for diagnosing, treating and containing this disease are being implemented by medical professionals especially in the poor countries as it has been demonstrated in this essay.”
- Planning to a horizon strategy
In this strategy, the writer moves readers from specifics of an essay or paper to larger or universal points. This strategy redirects readers while leaving them with something bigger or meaty. For instance, a writer can demonstrate the essence of a topic by reintroducing statistics that were mentioned or stated in the body or introduction. An example is the essay on reasons why the housing market has not been in a bubble in Canada- Why the Canadian housing market is not in a bubble. In this essay, the reader restates the statistics that were mentioned in the body.
- Summarizing the main point
This is the starting point for most people when learning how to write a good conclusion. With this strategy, you briefly remind readers what you told them or stated in the essay body. To do this, you should:
- Re-read the major sections or paragraphs and the topic.
- Come up with a way of restating every point in a brief manner.
- Avoid repeating the supporting details of the essay or paper
- Avoid including new information especially the important information of the argument
An example of such a conclusion can be, “Being a widespread disease, tuberculosis affects many people globally. It is spreading at an alarming rate especially in the poor countries. As such, medical experts are implementing more and new strategies in diagnosing, treating and containing it. Consequently, TB infection rates are declining. Poor sanitation, crowded conditions and inadequate medical care access are among the factors that are increasing tuberculosis’ spread in the poor countries. However, medical experts especially the WHO’s experts are launching sensitization campaigns in these countries while providing testing, diagnosis and treatment services. Nevertheless, TB has very many treatments and they have side effects. Consequently, cases of patient non-compliance as well as strains that have multi-drugs resistance have been reported in these countries.”
- Call to action
If you are learning how to write a good conclusion for an argumentative essay, you should try this strategy. With this strategy, the writer asks the target readers to take an action. This is very common in political speeches and sermons. An example can be the case of the tuberculosis essay. A call to action conclusion can be, “Although efforts are being made to combat tuberculosis, there is a need for further research in order to facilitate the development of new drugs that will offer better treatment especially for people with resistant tuberculosis strains. This will also help in easing the adverse effects that the current treatments have.”
Making the conclusion more effective
Learning how to write a good conclusion alone is not enough. You should know how to make it effective. After reading the conclusion, readers should be compelled to do something.
To achieve this, do the following:
Answer the “so what” question
Answering the “so what?’ question will help you make your conclusion more effective. After reading any statement in your conclusion, ask yourself why somebody should care. In the above example of a call to action conclusion, the writer notes that somebody should care and conduct further research because tuberculosis has developed new resistant strains and it is therefore important to come up with more effective treatments.
Go back to the theme
This is an effective way of concluding a paper or essay because it proves to the reader that you have proven what you wanted to prove. It also shows that the essay or paper was helpful because it has introduced a new perspective or understanding of the topic.
Summarizing the main points of the essay or paper without repeating the same things that you stated in the body creates unity or coherence in a paper or essay. Simply pull the paper or essay together while showing the reader how examples and points support each other and fit together.
Make a call to action
You can propose something to the target reader. This can be something that should be done such as further study or something that can help in solving an issue. You can also point to a broader implication of the issue. For instance, an essay on TB can point out that if the disease is not controlled in the poor countries it has the potential of spreading to developed countries. Therefore, quick actions should be taken to curb it.
Your conclusion should summarize the purpose and content of the essay or paper without appearing or sounding too dry. Even if it is a basic conclusion, it should share the key elements highlighted above. Use the discussed strategies to make every conclusion that you write a masterpiece.
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Ways through Which Domestic Violence Can Be Exhibited in the Family
Domestic violence can be described as a pattern of ill behaviors that consist of attacks both physically, mentally, sexually and verbally. Besides, it can also entail economic intimidation which is mainly applied by people in intimate relationships. It is expressed in the form of threats, intimidation, manipulation, physical violence among others, by an individual who is seeking to exercise control over an intimate partner. The strategies that are applied by the perpetrators are a depiction of a pattern of desired behaviors from their subjects, which the perpetrators think are the reason for the abusive acts (McCue, 2008).
This paper examines ways through which domestic violence can be exhibited in the family.
Impacts on Children Who Experience Domestic Violence
Domestic violence can impact a variety of mental, behavioral and emotional conditions on children. The exposure of children to acts of domestic violence is exhibited in different forms like hearing about events of violence, direct involvement in terms of eye witnessing, intervention and experience of the aftermath of violence (Wolfe et al, 2003). It may also entail the use of children as spies for interrogating older victims, coerced to take part in the violence or abuse of a victim or being bribed by the perpetrators to convince the victim to getting back into a violent relationship (McCue, 2008).
Many children suffer physical injuries in the course of violence. However, some culprits intentionally abuse the children physically, sexually and emotionally with the aim of showing intimidation so as to take control over their partners. In some cases, children are often harmed by accident in the course of violence, for instance, when the perpetrator throws an object to the victim who may at that time be holding a child. The injury may also occur to the child in the process of trying to intervene during violence. Besides, such children may fall victims and be coerced to keep their mouths shut regarding the violence so that it stays a secret (Wolfe et al, 2003).
As a result of domestic violence, children are exposed to distressing events, the threat of facing neglect or abuse, ands losing guardians or caregivers. All these can have negative impacts that may expose children to lots of problems at tender ages (Wolfe et al, 2003).
Cognitive and Attitudinal Problems
These can be determined when the child shows poor cognitive performance, partial problem solving skills, poor performance at school, gender stereotyping and approval of violence.
Behavioral, Social and Emotional Problems
These may be shown in terms of higher levels of aggression, oppositional conducts, rudeness, anger, anxiety, poor relationships (peer, sibling and social), withdrawal, hostility, low self esteem and depression.
This can be showcased through the increased forbearance for violence and its application in associations, high levels of adult depression, and symptoms of distress. Based on the latest data on the co-occurrence between domestic violence and child maltreatment, child welfare organizations and programs aimed at addressing domestic violence have been compelled to undertake a re-assessment of the existing approaches in policies, philosophies and practices for families that are going through both forms of violence.
Partner or spouse rape happens when a partner or a person involved in an intimate relationship with another forces him or her to have sex without their consent. This occurs in the event that a partner feels that they are threatened or forced into taking part in any sexual activity against their wishes, when they feel pressured to engage in sex or when they are forced into it. This is an act of violence because it goes against the consent of the partner and can occur to partners of any gender, sexual orientation or ethnicity (McCue, 2008).
This form of violence can be between a man and a woman or partners of the same sexual orientation. Most people do not understand how possible it is for someone that an individual has known for a long time to turn against and rape them. Most countries, like New Zealand have passed laws aimed at protecting partners and spouses from partner rape, encouraging victims to report any form of non-consensual sex. The reports can be made irrespective of the kind of relationships that these people are involved in and can be reported as rape (McCue, 2008). However, several victims find it uncomfortable terming these offenses as rape and their partners as rapists. The key impact of partner rape is the pain of accepting that they have been raped by a partner.
Forced Pregnancy of a Partner
A forced pregnancy of a partner is a form of domestic violence whereby a male partner forces or tricks their female partners into getting pregnant. Research has reveled that men who engage in this act do it with the aim of satisfying their urge of being in control of the relationship and ultimately the body of the woman, thereby giving them a feeling of superiority (McCue, 2008). Several women from different age groups have been victims of this form of violence which leaves them in distress. There are even men who have punctured the condoms or hidden birth control pills to get their women pregnant. Partners may also issue threats to their women to get pregnant against their wishes. Some of the offenders force their women into having unprotected sex, removing the condom during intercourse and or disposing birth control pills. This form of violence is referred to as ‘reproductive coercion’ which happens to people in abusive relationships.
How the Concepts of Women’s Role, Latch Key Children, and Division of Labor at Home Contribute to Domestic Violence
The Role of Women
In many societies, economic and social programs are run in a way that is supportive of patriarchy, which is linked to subordination and oppression of women. This form of violence is often formalized in traditional laws and customs, whereby husbands are given the go ahead to punish their wives physically. The lower economic status of many women across the world has also impacted them negatively. Their dependence on the men as the bread winners makes them more susceptible to becoming entangled in an abusive relationship.
Latch Key Children
Latch Key children are those who are often left on their own at home with minimal or complete lack of supervision from supervision from parents or guardians. They may return from school to find the homes empty because their parents are still busy at work. These children are exposed to loneliness, boredom, fear, peer pressure that may result into sexual promiscuity and drug abuse at advanced ages. These behaviors might be impacted by peer pressure forcing the children to be naughty or hostile due to lack of attention from parents (McCue, 2008).
Despite the advantage of adaptation to difficult situations, independence and self-reliance, latch key children suffer high levels of depression, behavioral problems and low self esteem unlike other children. Besides, they may also turn out to be hyperactive, conduct disorders and academic problems, which may make them to alienate themselves from other children. These behaviors may follow the children into adulthood where they may experience difficulties in keeping intimate relationships and becoming violent to people who try to act concerned about their lives. This may be elevated by the toll of drug abuse and addiction (McCue, 2008).
Division of Labor at Home
In most family set ups, women undertake voluntary domestic chores like the preparation of food, cleaning and general maintenance of the family. They also take care of children, the aged and even sick members of the family. On the other hand, the man is viewed as the head of the family who handles financial responsibility. In the modern society, the value that is attached to financial control is quite high, thereby giving the men more power over their female counterparts. This is further enhanced by male control over other resources in the family. The unpaid labor that is offered by women portrays them as the weaker sex, and a function that leads to violence against them (McCue, 2008).
From the above discussion about ways through which domestic violence can be exhibited in the family, some few things are clear; Behaviors that are abusive and violent are learned, thus, can be dropped through appropriate teaching or training just like others that are also acquired in the same way. Families should seek family and individual therapy or a combination of the two. This can enable them to acquire professional help through learning new and healthier skills on how to relate with other people, and more productive ways of offering support to intimate relationships when handling problems in life.
Wolfe, D. A., Crooks, C. V., Lee, V., McIntyre-Smith, A., & Jaffe, P. G. (2003). The effects of children’s exposure to domestic violence: A meta-analysis and critique. Clinical child and family psychology review, 6(3), 171-187.
McCue, M. L. (2008). Domestic violence: A reference handbook. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO.
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How to Excel in Research Paper Writing
Research papers are the type that requires knowing the right theories to use when writing. In fact, the real task is applying those theories to the situation at hand, or even solving a problem with a theoretical foundation. Let us discuss some of the techniques that may help you excel in research paper writing.
1. Know and master instructions: Whether you win or fail many times also depends on whether you played by the rules. Especially in research paper writing, the trick is not to complete a paper, but to deliver necessary information according to a given set of rules. So, know those rules first before you can start playing.
Do not waste your time to write research paper assignments if you do not understand instructions fully, because you might require repeating the whole assignment. Worse still, you face penalties by delivering irrelevant content, and this increases chances of failing in the course or subject in question.
2. Read widely: Research paper writing requires use of other people’s point of view and theories to discuss topics assigned. Thus, make sure you read widely. Lecturers and teachers will gauge whether your statements and positions are widely informed, or are just made from an ignorant point of view. The more you read, the more you expose topics.
3. Plan your writing: Planning writing requires knowing what is required, when, source and how to do it. Know when the paper is required, how many pages, and formats or citation styles. Secondly, gather all materials needed for reading, and make notes or outline while reading them for the first time. Read them again and do your first draft. This helps you avoid unnecessary penalties because of deviance.
4. Review your work: It provides the opportunity to eliminate errors and mistakes in the content.
Excelling in Writing High School Assignments
Writing assignments in high school is very rampant, because teachers use assignments to assess student’s competence and success. In fact, almost every teacher will give students some assignments to work on. Let us discuss some of the things you might need to know if you have an assignment to complete at your school.
1. Know the type of assignment: You understand that students in high school pursue various subjects and courses, all of which are examinable. Different assignments require different techniques to complete. For instance, while essay assignments might require a lot of writing, mathematics assignments might require a lot of reasoning and logic.
2. Understand instructions: By far, failure to understand instructions is the major cause for failure among students in high schools. Many do not spend adequate time reading instructions, which makes it difficult to fulfill the obligations.
Spending adequate time reading through the instructions helps you learn what the teacher want. It also helps you strategize how to write a paper, since you can figure out what it entails.
3. Plan your time: Many still fail in writing because of poor planning of their time. When you do not plan your time well, you might assume that you have much time, only to realize that you need to rush so you can beat the deadline. Rushing means that you might compromise the level of quality of the paper content.
4. Revise your work: In most cases, whether you are writing an essay, mathematics paper or assignments involving creative work, revising and proofing your work ensure you get rid of errors and mistakes that would cost you some marks.
Many students receive penalties because of presence of numerous errors and mistakes in papers presented, yet such marks would be saved by going through the work after writing.
How to Succeed in Writing Essay Assignments
Essays are papers written from an author’s perspective and point of view. They are of various types, for instance persuasive, cause and effect essays, argumentative essays, research essays, creative essays, informal and formal essays among others.
Here are things you can do to increase chances of succeeding in writing any type of essay, regardless of the level of study you are in;
How to Excel in Writing Dissertation Assignments
Dissertation papers are written by students mostly pursuing postgraduate courses such as masters and phd. To excel in writing dissertations, you require a few tips here and there. There are things you must undertake to ensure your phd paper scores top grades. Otherwise, you may have to struggle with numerous revisions and having your paper accepted by the lecturer or professor.
Here is some advice that may help you write a high quality dissertation assignments. (more…)
How to Excel in Writing Research Proposal Assignments
Research proposals are written to suggest need to do research on particular matters and a given topic. Students in any level of study, including university and college, write them. Students seek to score top grades for written research proposals and papers. In preparing to write research proposals, you must understand a number of issues necessary in order to scope top grades.
Let us discuss some of the techniques you might employ to write top quality papers.
Understand the topic in question: A topic always raises matters of concern in the research field. (more…)
How to Excel in Writing Research Essay Assignments
Research essays are papers discussing a particular topic in light of some theories. They are assigned to students in all levels of study, including university, high school and college. Lecturers use research essay assignments to test a variety of things, including student’s knowledge of the various issues in question, student’s ability to write in fluent English language and student’s ability to complete assignments in time.
Let us now discuss some of the skills you might need to excel in writing research essay assignments.
Understanding of instructions: In many cases, students fail because they took little time to understand instructions. They rushed to complete assignments before reading in between the lines. They latter on realize that they missed a number of things and might even need to redo the papers. This takes time and means they risk missing on the deadlines, if the realization happens a bit late. In addition, revisions might be numerous if the lecturer realizes that the student did not meet the obligations.
Planning: Careful planning of writing exercise ensures that you gather all the required information sources and research materials long before you start the process. It helps you to also set your mind to focus on the task, which increases chances of success. On overall, proper planning helps you write a high quality paper. In addition, proper planning helps you to deliver assignments within deadline.
Reading: Anywhere research information is needful, it is necessary to read widely. Reading widely helps gather enough information to discuss your thesis statement. Reading widely also helps gather enough opinions on the subject matter. Remember, you are likely to score low grades if the lecturer feels that your opinions and statements are not based on theories, or that you did not consult other works from different authors when writing.
How to Excel in Writing Psychology Assignments
Effective communication is very important in writing any type of paper. Achieving effective communication requires perfection in as far as many issues are concerned. Let us focus on use of grammar language.
First, you must eliminate grammatical errors in writing psychology papers or assignments. This is achieved by you revising work after writing. Remember, readers are likely to be confused if the content comprise of so many errors and mistakes. They are likely not to be able to understand what is being discussed.
The other issue in as far as effective communication in writing is concerned, is ensuring all statements are logical. Do not offer statements that explain an argument in different places so that readers will find them much latter after leaving the argument.
Your statements are supposed to be reasonable and believable if it is a psychology research paper. You are allowed to make imaginations in writing creative psychology papers, and it is not a must you offer true statements.
The other issue in excelling in writing psychology papers or assignments is ability to carry out extensive research. Doing research on matters involved is very important towards supporting your thesis statements.
In addition, you might have to read widely, and not just widely, but read variety of books by different authors. Spend your time to collect adequate information that helps to satisfactorily discuss your thesis statement.
Careful planning of writing and research exercise ensures you complete and hand in your work within deadline. Do not fail to revise your work before handing in. In fact, that minimizes chances for doing a revision, because lecturers demand for revisions if they note presence of errors.
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How to Excel in Writing Grant Proposal Assignments
You need to know a few things in order to excel in writing grant proposals, among them discussed in this paper. What you need to know also is that some things are imperative, whether you write grant proposals in academics or write them to request finances. Let us discuss what these are.
Identify the grantor: A grantor is a person from who funds are sourced. He is a person to who you explain the need for funding and use of the funds. However, there might be a panel that would be reviewing the grant proposal before the funds are granted.
Establish a problem: A problem must be discussed in order to warrant grants. Remember, you must be out to use funds to solve a particular problem. You must provide in depth details about the problem. Provide evidence that the problem needs solution.
Explain why funds are needed: You ought to explain why you need funds and what funds are for. In fact, this is usually a very important thing committees use to decide whether you need grant or not. The reasons must be very convincing and reasonable.
Provide details: Details are very important when writing grant proposal assignments. Explain how much you need, whether there are funds from other sources, what projects will be undertaken to solve the said problem, among other things. Make sure to mention the project in details. You also require providing details of budget as much as possible. Make sure you have done research about what exactly the problem is and how it could be solved.
Provide logical statements: Logical statements are likely to convince the committee to award funds. Do not make any exaggerations, such that your statements are hard to believe in. Make sure you also go through your application to eliminate any possible errors, inconsistencies and mistakes.